Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important
roles in behavior and cognition, motor
activity, motivation and
reward, regulation of milk production, sleep, mood, attention, and
responses of dopamine neurons are observed when an unexpected reward is
responses transfer to the onset of a conditioned stimulus after repeated
pairings with the reward.
Further, dopamine neurons are depressed
when the expected reward is omitted.
Thus, dopamine neurons seem to
encode the prediction error of rewarding outcomes.
In nature, we learn
to repeat behaviors that maximize rewards.
Dopamine may provide a
teaching signal to parts of the brain responsible for acquiring new
Serotonin is primarily
found in the enteric nervous system located in the gastrointestinal
Approximately 90% of total serotonin in the human body is
located in the enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal system, where it
regulates intestinal movements.
central nervous system
serotonin plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the regulation of
anger, aggression, body temperature, mood, sleep, vomiting,
also produced in the Raphe nuclei located in
Additionally - serotonin stored in blood platelets -
is released during agitation and vasoconstriction where it then acts as an
agonist to other platelets.
As with all neurotransmitters, the effects
of serotonin on the human mood and state of mind, and its role in
consciousness, are very difficult to fully ascertain.
endogenous opioid peptidesThere are three well-characterized families of opioid peptides
produced by the body: enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins. An enkephalin is
a pentapeptide involved in regulating pain and nociception in the body.
The enkephalins are termed endogenous ligands, or specifically
endorphins, as they are internally derived and bind to the body's opioid
Endorphins resemble the opiates in their abilities to
produce analgesia and a sense of
Endorphins are "natural pain killers."
drugs may increase the effects of the endorphins.
The term "endorphin"
implies a pharmacological activity as opposed to a specific chemical
It consists of two parts: endo- and -orphin; these are
short forms of the words endogenous and opium, intended to mean "a
morphine-like substance originating from within the body."
endorphin rush has been adopted in popular speech to refer to feelings of
exhilaration brought on by pain,
danger, or other forms
of stress due to the influence of endorphins.
Dynorphin is a class of
peptides which has some opiate-like activity.
The dynorphins, which
include dynorphin A, dynorphin B, alpha- and beta-neoendorphin, and big
dynorphin, are all the products of a single gene, 'preprodynorphin'.
Dynorphin functions primarily as a kappa opioid receptor agonist,
meaning that it acts mainly at kappa opioid receptors.
peptides include beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin and
One of the most
important features of neuron synapses is that
they are the site of action for the majority of psychoactive drugs.
Neuron synapses are affected by drugs such as curare, strychnine,
LSD, and countless others.
drugs have different effects on synaptic function, and often are restricted to
neuron synapses that use a specific
Curare is a poison which stops acetylcholine from
depolarising the post-synaptic membrane, causing
Strychnine blocks the inhibitory effects of the
neurotransmitter glycine, which causes the body to pick up and react to weaker
and previously ignored stimuli, resulting in uncontrollable muscle contractions.
Ethanol increases the inhibitory
effects of the neurotransmitter GABA.
Morphine hydrochloride acts on
synapses that use endorphin neurotransmitters.
Cocaine hydrochloride blocks
reuptake of dopamine and therefore increases its effects.
Lysergic acid diethylamide
interferes with synapses that use the neurotransmitter serotonin to cause
Entheogens modulate the serotonin
system in such a way to produce
in perception, emotional response, and
These include psilocin,
lysergic acid diethylamide,
and 3,4-methylenedioxy-n-ethylamphetamine .
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational
religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no
tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every
individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and
Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing
the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of
individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the
capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully.
Opinion and thoughts have
been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and
re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has
been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his
or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, human rights, political,
economic, democratic, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe
this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for
in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.
Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those
who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for
research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved