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Resources of Afghanistan

Afghanistan's Vast Reserves of Minerals and Natural Gas

history of conflict in Afghanistan

A Military Mission That Never Fails to Fail

Afghanistan, an ancient focal point of trade and migration populated with a mosaic of ethnic groups, exists at the junction of the crossroads between the East and West in the center of the "world island" - Asia.

Afghanistan has suffered almost continuous conflict being repeatedly invaded throughout history.

6th century BC The Median invasion comes from the region south of the Caspian Sea.

516 BC The Zoroastrian Darius I creates the Achaemenid Persian empire which reaches to the Indus river. Zoroastrianism appered along with a Mithraic Median prototype and its Zurvanist Sassanid successor served as the state religion of pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BC to 650 AC.

4th century BC The Scythian empire reached its greatest extent in the during the reign of Ateas and included Bactria (present-day Balkh).

328 BC Alexander III of Macedonia enters the territory of present-day Afghanistan to capture Bactria and finally conquers a region reaching to the Indus river. Alexander III of Macedonia brings leprosy to Europe from India.

273 BC to 232 BC The Indian Hindu warrior and general Ashoka Maurya reigns as the emperor of the Mauryan empire. The brutality of the conquests led Ashoka Maurya later in life to adopt Buddhism under the guidance of the Brahma Buddhist sages Radhaswami and Manjushris.

2nd century BC The Bactrian Hellenistic Greek king Euthydemus and his son Demetrius cross the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of Northern Afghanistan and the Indus valley creating the Indo-Greek empire.

1st century AD The Kushan empire wrestled control of the area from the Bactrian's including the Kabul valley, part of Qandahar and established the twin capitals near present-day Kabul and Peshawar then known as Kapisa and Pushklavati respectively. The Kushans adopted elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria including a writing system that used the Greek alphabet. During the Kushana empire rule, Afghanistan and Gandhara became major centers of culture.

425 White Huns of the Hephthalite empire, an agricultural people with a developed set of laws, displace the Kushan and conquer Sogdiana and Khorasan before 425. They cross the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) River and invaded Persia in 425. Held off at first by Bahram Gur, they later succeed in making Persia a tributary in 485. After a series of wars they were driven out of Persia, permanently lost the offensive, and were finally defeated by Khosru I in 557 . The White Huns also invaded India and succeeded in extending the empire to include the Ganges river valley.

552 The Göktürks or Kök-Türks - a Turkic people of ancient North and Central Asia, Eastern Europe and northwestern China - under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan and his sons, establish the first known Turkic empire around in the general area of territory that had earlier been occupied by the White Huns, and expand rapidly to rule wide territories in Central Asia.

The Göktürks originate from the Ashina tribe, an Altaic people who lived in the northern corner of the area presently called the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomus Region of China. Known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue. They were the first Turkic tribe to use the name "Türk" as a political name.

552 - 642 The Sassanid empire, Sassanian empire, second Persian empire, the fourth Iranian dynasty, and other powers ruled the rest of Afghanistan.

The Sassanid empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia.

642 Arab Muslims invade the entire region and introduce Islam. Arab Muslims used local rulers including the empire of Tang China which had extended its influence all the way to Kabul.
875-999 The Samanids reign over a reemerging Persian empire in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. It was among the first native Iranian dynasties in Iran and Central Asia after the Arab conquest and the collapse of the Sassanid Persian empire.
999 Mahmud of Ghazni and Bughra Khan invade.

Bughra Khan occupies Bukhara, the capital of the Persian Samanids empire. The Samanid domains were split up between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorasan and Afghanistan, and the Karakhanids, who received Transoxania; the Oxus River thus became the boundary between the two rival empires. During this period the Karakhanid, Kara-Khanid Khanate, are converted to Islam.

962 to 1187 Mahmud of Ghazni, founder of the Ghaznavid empire , a Sunni Muslim state in Khorasan in modern day Afghanistan, consolidates the conquests of his predecessors and turns Ghazna, Ghazni, into a great cultural center as well as a base for frequent forays into India.

992 to 1041 Khwarezm is a province of the Ghaznavid empire.

1041 Seljuk Turks gain control of Khwarezm.

1092 The Seljuk Turks, a Muslim dynasty originally of Oghuz Turkic descent, is at its zenith under Malik Shah. The Seljuk empire stretched from Anatolia to Pakistan.

Malik Shah I dies and the Seljuk empire is split as his brother and four sons quarrel over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. They become the target of the First Crusade.

1124 The Khitan empire, Kara-Khitan Khanate, is founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in Manchuria.

Muhammad 'Ayn ad-Dawlah takes over administration of the western branch of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, centred at Bukhara. The unity of the Karakhanid empire is fractured by constant internal warfare and later serves the dual suzerainty of both the Kara-Khitan empire to the north and the Seljuk empire to the south.

1141 The Khwarezms expanded their territories south. Seljuk Sultan Ahmed Sanjar is defeated by the Kara-Khitan Khanate and the Great Seljuk empire falls into chaos. Anu-sh Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Aziz is forced to submit as a vassal to the Khitan empire as is the the Kara-Khanid Khanate.

1146 The Ghaznavid empire is defeated by Muhammad of Ghor, who founds the Ghori empire. The Ghaznavid Khans continue to live in Ghazni as the 'Nasher' until the early 20th century. They regain power in 1709 when the Ghilzai Pashtuns's defeated the Safavid Persians in Kandahar.

1175 The Ghurid empire under the leadership of Muhammad of Ghor, stretches over a vast area including parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Turkistan, Iraq and parts of other Arab countries. Muhammad of Ghor occupies Uch, Multan, Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi.

1194 Last Sultan of Great Seljuk empire is defeated by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish.

1200 Ala ad-Din Tekish dies and is succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who in 1205 declares himself Shah, Persian for King. He becomes known as the Kwarezmshah, the ruler of the empire of Khwarezm.

1204 Uthman briefly reestablishes the independence of the Karakhanids empire.
1206 Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Ghurid general, conquers Delhi and founds the Delhi Sultanate which lasted from 1206-1526.

1211 Karakhanids are defeated by the Khwarezm-Shah 'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad and the dynasty is extinguished.

1212 Ala ad-Din Muhammad defeats the Ghurid empire and conquers the lands of the Kutluk, the Gur-Khan of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, expanding the empire of Khwarezm, ruling a territory from the Syr Darya nearly to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea.

The empire of Khwarezm has now conquered both Khitan and Ghurid.Continuous warfare between these empires has drained the life from them making them vulnerable to hostilities.



Mongol Empire

1219 Genghis Khan invades Afghanistan slaughtering resisters, salting fertile agricultural areas and destroying cities including Herat, Ghazni, and Balkh. To enhance the heinous legends of his conquests Genghis Khan leaves mountains of the skulls of the defenders of those cities that would not submit throughout Central Asia.

"The Mongols took no prisoners and allowed no torture. They executed swiftly and efficiently, including all the soldiers of the defeated army who, they believed, would be a constant source of future problems if allowed to live. The first several months of a Mongol invasion were bloody, but once the takeover ended, the bloodshed ended." - Jack Weatherford

How Climate Change Drove the Rise of Genghis Khan

1227 After Genghis Khan died a succession of petty chiefs and princes struggle for supremacy until Timur Lang, Tamerlane or Tamburlaine, incorporate what is today Afghanistan into the Timurid empire.

There are two factions within the ruling class; the Tajik, men of the pen, Wazirs in Persian, of Persian descent, chancellors, merchants, artists and scholars and the warriors, men of the sword, a combination of Turk and Mongol descent.

1526 Prince Babur, a descendant of Tamburlaine, establishes the Mughal Empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans, in the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughal Empire's capital is based in Kabul.

At its greatest territorial extent the Mughal Empire includes most of the Indian subcontinent, then known as Hindustan, and parts of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.

The Persian word for Mongol is Mughal, generally used to refer to Central Asian nomads who claimed descent from the Mongol warriors of Genghis Khan. The Mughal rulers were adherents of Islam.

On the whole the indigenous Pashtun tribes, Afghans living in the Kandahar area pitted foreigner against foreigner, Persian against Arab against Turk against Mongol, siding sometimes with the Persians, sometimes with the Turks, sometimes with the Mughals.

Afghanistan was divided in many parts in the 16th, 17th and early 18th century. North were the Turkisk Uzbeks, west was Persian Safavid's rule and east was the Mongol's or Mughals rule and local Pashtun rule.

1501 to 1736 The Persian Safavid's were the Azeri -speaking Iranian dynasty which established Shi'a Islam as Iran 's official religion.

15th century Pashtun Sher Shah Suri, Sher Khan, the Lion King, conquers much of Central Asia and founds the Sur empire of northern Indian during the time of Moghul Humayun.

Mughal empire grows considerably Akbar the Great and now includes all of Hindustan. Mughal empire expands until its defeat under Aurangzeb's rule.

1605–1627 Jahangir, the son of Moghul Akbar and Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, rules the Mughal empire.

1627 Shah Jahan, the son of Jahangir and Mariam-uz-Zamani, succeeds to the throne and inherits the greatest empire on Earth.

Between 1630–1653 Shah Jahan commissiones the Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died giving birth to their 14th child.

1709 Pashtuns rise against the Persian Safavids in Kandahar. The Persians are defeated. The Afghans conquer and hold Isfahan, Iran, from 1719-1729.

1729 Nadir Shah pushes back the Afghans in the Battle of Damghan.

1738 Nadir Shah conquers Kandahar and occupies Ghazni, Kabul and Lahore.

1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani, a Pashtun, is elected King in a loya jirga after the assassination of Nadir Shah.

With the death of Nadir Shah the Durrani Pashtuns became the principal rulers of Afghanistan. Pashtun martial prowess has been renowned since Alexander III of Macedonia fought them. The Pashtuns were one of the few groups that managed to impede British imperialism during the 19th century.

The Pashtuns are the world's largest patriarchal segmentary lineage tribal group. The total population of the group is estimated to be at least 45 million, but an accurate count remains elusive because there has not been an official census in Afghanistan since the 1970s, and because of the migratory nature of many Pashtun tribes and the practice of secluding women in Pakistan.
Ahmad Shah Durrani consolidates chieftains, petty principalities, and fragmented provinces into one country. Ahmad Shah Durrani's rule extended from Mashad in the west to Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxus) River in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south.

From 1747 until the 1978 Marxist coup, all of Afghanistan's rulers, with the exception of a 9-month period in 1929, were from Durrani's Pashtun tribal confederation, and all were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan.

19th century Afghanistan becomes a battleground in the rivalry between imperial Britain and czarist Russia for control of Central Asia.
1809 "Imperial planners saw themselves playing "the Great Game." They sacrificed an entire British army of twelve thousand men in the wilderness of Afghanistan." - Peter Dale Scott

1893 Britain establishes an unofficial border, the Durand Line, separating Afghanistan from British India.

1919 Three Anglo-Afghan wars (1839-1842, 1878-1880, 1919) end with London granting full independence.

Emir Amanullah foundes an Afghan monarchy in 1926. King Amanullah moves to end Afghanistan's traditional isolation in the years following the Third Anglo-Afghan war. King Amanullah established diplomatic relations with most major countries and introduces reforms intended to modernize Afghanistan. Some of these reforms, such as the abolition of the traditional Muslim veil for women and the opening of a number of co-educational schools, quickly alienated many tribal and religious leaders. Faced with overwhelming armed opposition, King Amanullah is forced to abdicate in January 1929 after Kabul falls to forces led by Bacha-i-Saqao, a Tajik.

1929 Prince Mohammed Nadir Khan, a cousin of Amanullah's, kills Bacha-i-Saqao and with considerable Pashtun tribal support he is declared King Nadir Shah. King Nadir Shah began consolidating power and regenerating Afghanistan.

1933 King Nadir Shah is assassinated in a revenge killing.

Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeds to the throne and reigns from 1933 to 1973.

At this time a handful of families including the Karzais and the Kalilzidads own nearly all arable land, while most Afghans languished amidst some of the planet's worst poverty.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was instrumental in pushing the US covert action and later the US invasion of Afghanistan in hopes of regaining lost power.

1946 Zahir Shah rules with the assistance of his uncle Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan, who holds the post of Prime Minister and continues the policies of Nadir Shah. Zahir Shah's uncle, Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan, becomes Prime Minister.

1953 Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan is replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and brother-in-law.

1963 Mohammed Daoud Khan, after seeking a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more hostile one towards Pakistan, creates a dispute with Pakistan which leads to an economic crisis and Mohammed Daoud Khan is forced to resign.

1964 King Zahir Shah promulgates a liberal constitution providing for a bicameral legislature to which the king appointes one-third of the deputies. The people elected another third, and the remainder are selected indirectly by provincial tribal assemblies.

King Zahir Shah's "experiment in democracy" produces few lasting reforms and it permits the growth of extremist parties on both the left and the right. These included the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan which had close ideological ties to the Soviet Union.

Zahir Shah takes a more active role.

1967 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan splits into two major rival factions: the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham (Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. The split reflected ethnic, class, and ideological divisions within Afghan society.

Most of the following heads of state are Ghilzai (Taraki, Amin, Najib, Mullah Omar).

1973 Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan seizes power in a military coup. King Zahir Shah flees.

Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan attempts to carry out economic and social reforms.

1978 Iranian intelligence agency (SAVAK) and CIA-supported Islamist agents arrived from Iran with bulging bankrolls in an attempt to create a clamp-down on the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan by purging left-wing officers from the Afghan army. On April 27, 1978, the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan initiates a bloody coup, which resulted in the overthrow and murder of Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan and most of his family.

Nur Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, becomes President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, strongly supported by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan implementes a socialist agenda which included decrees abolishing usury, banning forced marriages, state recognition of women's rights to vote, replacing religious and traditional laws with secular and Marxist ones, banning tribal courts, and land reform.

Men are obliged to cut their beards, women couldn't wear a burka, and mosque visiting was forbidden. Taraki embarked upon an ambitious land reform program to help poor Afghan sharecroppers; built schools for women; opened Afghan universities to the poor and introduced free health care.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics sent contractors to build roads, hospitals, schools and dig water wells; they also trained and equipped the Afghan army.

Pro-Taraki militants, convinced of a CIA destabilization plot, assassinated CIA Kabul Chief of Station Spike Dubbs.

Taraki appoints Tabizullah Amin in charge of land reform. Amin launched a brutal campaign of terror against political opponents

KGB Chief Yuri Andropov claimed that Amin was an agent provocateur working with the CIA to infiltrate the Kabul government, intent on discrediting its progressive agenda.

Many groups are formed in an attempt to reverse the dependence on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, some resorting to violent means and sabotage of Afghanistan's industry and infrastructure. The government respondes with heavy handed military intervention and arrests, exiles and executes many mujahideen.

Pashtuns play a pivotal role in the Soviet war in Afghanistan as many join the ranks of the mujahideen.

1979 Operation Cyclone the largest covert operation in history is launched in Afghanistan shortly after James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. signs the first executive directive for secret aid.

Saudi-born Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden, is recruited to organize and train the mujahideen.

Under this secret presidential directive James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. gives the CIA the authority to arm the mujahideen under Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden. This secret aid lays the foundations of al-Qa`ida.

"With the active encouragement of the CIA and Pakistan's ISI, who wanted to turn the Afghan Jihad into a global war waged by all Muslim states against the Soviet Union, some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 40 Islamic countries joined Afghanistan's fight between 1982 and 1992. Tens of thousands more came to study in Pakistani madrasahs. Eventually, more than 100,000 foreign Muslim radicals were directly influenced by the Afghan jihad." - Ahmed Rashid

"It was the government of the US who supported Pakistani dictator General Zia-ul Haq in creating thousands of religious schools, from which the germs of the Taliban emerged." - Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan

BCCI, a Pakistani-operated institution with connections to the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, is used by US intelligence agents to funnel money to Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan.

"BCCI loaned George Herbert Walker Bush the funds to form Arbusto Energy which later merged with Harken Energy. Harken Energy had first been incorporated as an unprofitable collection of Texas oil wells for investors seeking tax write-offs. George Walker Bush's investment in Harken Energy was enhanced by Sheik Abdullah Bakhsh, a Saudi billionaire, and by the Emirate of Bahrain, who granted Harken Energy an extraordinary off-shore oil concession, choosing it over Amoco Oil. George Walker Bush sold two-thirds of his stock in Harken Energy two months before Saddam Hussein sent Iraqi troops into Kuwait netting $1 million in profit before Harken Energy stock crashed." - Jackson Thoreau



Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski


"According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahideen began on 24 December 1979. On July 3, 1979, President Carter signed the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul. And that very day, I wrote a note to the President in which I explained to him that in my opinion, this aid was going to induce a Soviet military intervention." - Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski

"Regret what? The secret operation was an excellent idea. It drew the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it? On the day that the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote to President Carter, saying, in essence: 'We now have the opportunity of giving to the USSR its Vietnam War.'" - Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski 1998



NATO

Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski, co-founded the Trilateral Commission with David Rockefeller, conceptualizes modern geopolitics as a New Great Game of competition in Central Eurasia between the US, the United Kingdom and other NATO countries against Russia, the People's Republic of China and other Shanghai Cooperation Organisation countries for "influence, power, hegemony and profits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus".
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden, a member of one of Saudi Arabia's richest oil/construction families, build bases. During the 1980s and early 1990s, an estimated $500 million is split between Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden training bases and the Hezb-e Islami faction of the mujahideen led by Gulbeddin Hekmatyar who received American weapons including Stinger anti-aircraft missiles. American officials estimated that from 1985 to 1992, some 12,500 people were trained in bomb-making, sabotage, and urban guerrilla warfare.

Afghan army is overwhelmed by the number of mujahideen incidents. The Soviet Union sends troops which entered Kabul on December 25, five months after the CIA had hired Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden and al-Qa`ida, to crush the insurrection and install another pro-Moscow government.

SOVIET AFGHAN WAR DOCUMENTARY

"Relations between the CIA (US - CIA) and the Inter-Services Intelligence (Pakistan - ISI) had grown increasingly warm following Zia's ouster of Bhutto and the advent of the military regime. During most of the Afghan war, Pakistan was more aggressively anti-Soviet than even the US. Soon after the Soviet military invaded Afghanistan in 1980, Zia sent his ISI chief to destabilize the Soviet Central Asian states." - Diego Cordovez and Selig Harrison

1980Prior to the Soviet-Afghan war, opium production in Afghanistan and Pakistan was directed to small regional markets. There was no local production of heroin. Researcher Alfred McCoy's study confirms that within two years of the beginning of the CIA operation in Afghanistan, "the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands became the world's top heroin producer, supplying 60 per cent of US demand."

Gulbeddin Hekmatyar, a preferred client of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence, built a sophisticated heroin supply network in Afghanistan's Kunar and Nuristan provinces with CIA funds. Heroin from the Golden Crescent, negligible before 1979, amounted in 1980 to 60 percent of the American market.

1986 Golden Crescent is suppling 70 percent of the high-grade heroin in the world. Eight tons of Afghan-Pakistani morphine base from a single Pakistani source supplied the Sicilian mafia "Pizza Connection" in New York - 80% of the heroin reaching the US between 1978 and 1984.

Witnesses confirmed that opium was shipped out of the area on the same Pakistan Army trucks which shipped in "covert" US military aid. At the same time the the CIA and ISI together encouraged the mujahedin to get Soviet troops addicted to heroin, hashish, and cocaine from Latin America in Operation Mosquito.

"Half of Taliban manpower and equipment originate in Pakistan under the ISI." - Jane's Defence Weekly

The CIA, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia assisted in the financing of the resistance. In the case of Saudi Arabia the House of Saud made a deal with the Wahabbi to share the oil revenues - revenues that would be spent on the support of Wahabbi theology madrasahs. For over nine years the Soviet Army occupied Afghanistan while conducting military operations against the Afghan mujahideen rebels.

"At first, everyone thought, there's no way to beat the Soviets. So what we have to do is throw the worst crazies at them that we can find, and there was a lot of collateral damage. We knew exactly who these people were, and what their organizations were like, and we didn't care. Then, we allowed them to get rid of, just kill all the moderate leaders. The reason we don't have moderate leaders in Afghanistan today is because we let the nuts kill them all. They killed the leftists, the moderates, the middle-of-the-roaders. They were just eliminated, during the 1980s and afterward." - Cheryl Benard, a RAND Corporation expert on Islam and the wife of future US ambassador to Afghanistan Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad (formerly a Unocal lobbyist)

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad, an ethnic Pashtun, was mentored by Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski, the Carter Administration's architect of the policy supporting the mujahideen resistance to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was given Council on Foreign Relations fellowship were he was mentored by Paul Dundes Wolfowitz Director of Policy Planning at the State Department.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served Ronald Reagan as a senior State Department official advising on the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the Iran–Iraq War. During this time he was the State Department's Special Advisor on Afghanistan to Undersecretary of State Michael H. Armacost. In this role he developed and guided the international program to promote the merits of a Mujahideen-led Afghanistan to oust the Soviet occupation.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served under President George H. W. Bush in the Defense Department as Deputy Undersecretary for Policy Planning. Between 1993 and 2000, Khalilzad was the Director of the Strategy, Doctrine, and Force Structure at the RAND Corporation. During this time, he helped found RAND's Center for Middle Eastern Studies as well as "Strategic Appraisal," a periodic RAND publication.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad consulted for Cambridge Energy Research Associates, which at the time was conducting a risk analysis for Unocal, now part of Chevron, for a proposed 1,400 km (890 mile), $2-billion, 622 m³/s (22,000 ft³/s) Trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline project which would have extended from Turkmenistan to Afghanistan and further proceeding to Pakistan.

Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad acted as a special liaison between UNOCAL and the Taliban regime. As one of the original members of Project for the New American Century, Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was a signatory of the letter to William Jefferson Clinton sent on January 26, 1998, which called for him to accept the aim of "removing Saddam Hussein and his regime from power" using "a full complement of diplomatic, political and military efforts.

1989 Soviet Union withdraw troops but continues to aid Mohammed Najibullah.

1992 Najibullah government is overthrown when Abdul Rashid Dostum mutinies, and allies himself with Ahmed Shah Massoud, to take control of Kabul and declare the Islamic State of Afghanistan.

mid 1990s Caspian oil reserves are of top strategic importance in the quest to control the earth's remaining oil supply. The US developed a policy called "The Strategy of the Silk Route." The strategy was designed to lock out Russia, China, and Iran from the oil in this region. This called for US corporations to construct an oil pipeline running through Afghanistan.

James Baker, a key Bank of Credit and Commerce International player, former Treasury Secretary, Secretary of State and Chief of Staff during Bank of Credit and Commerce International's reign, is a leading player in developing the "Strategy of the Silk Route."

Consortium of US oil companies led by Unocal, later bought by Chevron, pursue this goal. The plan is to build a Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline from Turkmenistan's natural gas fields to Pakistan. Unocal partnered with Saudi Delta Oil, which was owned by al Qeada funders Khalid bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein al-Amoudi form Central Asia Gas Pipeline, Ltd. (CentGas).

A feasibility study for the Central Asian pipeline project is performed by Enron. This study concludes that as long as the country is split among fighting warlords the pipeline could not be built. Stability was necessary for the $4.5 billion project and the US believed that the Taliban would impose the necessary order. US intelligence and Pakistan's ISI then continued the close relationship that they established through Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) and agreed to funnel arms and funding to the Taliban in their war for control of Afghanistan.

Until 1999, US taxpayers pay the entire annual salary of every single Taliban government official.

"We would show up in someone's office, offer our thanks, and we would leave behind a briefcase full of $100 bills, sometimes totaling more than a million in a single transaction." - CIA Director George J. Tenet

2000 The Taliban control Afghanistan except a small corner in the northeast.

In reaction to the anarchy and warlordism prevalent in Afghanistan, and the lack of Pashtun representation in the Kabul government, the Taliban, a movement of religious scholars and former mujahideen, emerged from the southern province of Kandahar.

"The Taliban conducted simultaneous negotiations with two potential oil companies: Argentinean Bridas and Unocal/CentGas. Once George Walker Bush was elected president, Unocal and BP-Amoco, which had in the meantime bought Bridas, the Argentinean rival resumed consortium negotiations with the Taliban. Under Secretary of State Richard Armitage, previously a lobbyist for Unocal, represented the administration's interests. The Taliban, for their part, employed as their PR officer in the US Laila Helms, niece of Richard Helms, former director of the CIA and former US ambassador to Iran. In March 2001, Helms brought Rahmatullah Hashami, Mullah Omar's adviser, to Washington. Throughout the 1990's Hamid Karzai, a top adviser and lobbyist for Unocal, was involved in negotiations with the Taliban regime for the construction of a Central Asian gas pipeline from Turkmenistan through western Afghanistan to Pakistan. At the same time, Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad, who was also working for Unocal, lobbied the Clinton administration to 'engage' with the Taliban." - Loretta Napoleoni


2001 American oil interests take control of the White House by selecting George Walker Bush. Enron CEO Kenneth Lee Lay, an old Bush family friend and Bush's biggest campaign contributor, is eager. Donald Henry Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defense, is a large stockholder in Enron. Thomas White, former vice-chairman of Enron, is appointed Secretary of the Army.

Condoleezza Rice, a former Chevron board member, becomes National Security Advisor and then Secretary of State.

A major benefactor of the CentGas deal is going to be Halliburton. Vice President Richard Bruce Cheney is Halliburton's CEO. Richard Armitage, a key lobbyist for Unocal, is appointed Under Secretary of State. Hamid Karzai, who would later become Afghanistan's Prime Minister, is a top Unocal adviser.

James Baker and the Council on Foreign Relations demand immediate action and publicly release a Task Force Report labeled, "Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century," by the James A. Baker III Institute. They claimed urgency of the pipeline project and openly called for the Bush Administration to "quickly facilitate higher exports of oil from the Caspian Basin region…" and they reiterated the basic premise of the "Strategy of the Silk Route," stating, "the exports from oil discoveries in the Caspian Basin could be hastened if a secure, economical export route could be identified swiftly." That "export route," as previously planned, would need to run through Afghanistan and into Pakistan.

"The Chairman of the 911 Commission investigation was Thomas Kean, director of Hess Corp., which was in a joint venture called Delta Oil, with Khalid Bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein al Amoudi. It is also important to mention that James Baker, who had a lead role in developing the "Strategy of the Silk Route" and Bank of Credit and Commerce International operations, was hired by these same BCCI/Saudi/al Qaeda oil interests to defend them against lawsuits brought by families of 911 victims." - David DeGraw

Afghan Northern Alliance, led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, has receive diplomatic recognition in the United Nations as the government of Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud leads the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud, an ethnic Tajik, is assassinated in late September.

Under the auspices of a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, the US and its coalition allies launched an invasion of Afghanistan to oust the Taliban government. Sponsored by the United Nations, Afghan factions met in Bonn, Germany and choose a 30 member interim authority led by Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun from Kandahar.

"The CIA has funneled hundreds of millions of dollars to Pakistan's intelligence service since the Sept. 11 attacks, accounting for as much as one-third of the foreign spy agency's annual budget. The Inter-Services Intelligence agency also has collected tens of millions of dollars through a classified CIA program that pays for the capture or killing of wanted militants. The ISI has used the covert CIA money for a variety of purposes, including the construction of a new headquarters in Islamabad, the capital. The CIA has routinely brought ISI operatives to a secret training facility in North Carolina. The CIA also directs millions of dollars to other foreign spy services. But the magnitude of the payments to the ISI reflect Pakistan's central role. The CIA depends on Pakistan's cooperation to carry out missile strikes by Predator drones that have killed dozens of suspected extremists in Pakistani border areas. CIA payments to the ISI can be traced to the 1980s, when the Pakistani agency managed the flow of money and weapons to the Afghan mujahedin. In addition to bankrolling the ISI's budget, the CIA created a clandestine reward program that paid bounties for suspected terrorists. The first check, for $10 million, was for the capture of Abu Zubaydah, a top Al Qaeda figure. The ISI got $25 million more for the capture of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. " - Greg Miller November 15, 2009

2004 Hamid Karzai is selected as president of Afghanistan.

2007 DoD contracts for up to $300 million with AEY Incorporated to became the main supplier of munitions to Afghanistan's army and police forces. AEY Incorporated provided ammunition that was more than 40 years old in decomposing packaging manufactured in China. The US government contributed $2 million to destroy excess small-caliber weapons and 2,000 tons of ammunition in Albania, according to the State Department through 2007 which included 104 million 7.62 millimeter cartridges. AEY bought more than 100 million cartridges manufactured in China from Albania for the Pentagon contract.

AEY also provided ammunition or equipment in 2004 to the Department of Energy, the EPA, the Transportation Security Administration and the State Department. AEY was operated by Efraim E. Diveroli, president, and David M. Packouz, vice president, (son of Rabbi Kalman Packouz) both in their early 20's. Yoav Botach, an Israeli citizen and "entrepreneur" who "co-owns" 144 commercial and other properties in Los Angeles through Botach Tactical, incorporated AEY and is the father of Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and grandfather of Efraim E. Diveroli. AEY won the contract primarily because the US government declared Hasidic Jews to be a disadvantaged minority for purposes of minority business encouragement in 1984.

2008 "The chief effect of military operations in Afghanistan so far has been to push radical Islamists across the Pakistani border. As a result, efforts to stabilize Afghanistan are contributing to the destabilization of Pakistan, with potentially devastating implications." - Andrew Bacevich



Hell's Angels of the Taliban engineered a revolt in the Swat valley of Pakistan	exploiting profound fissures between a small group of wealthy landlords and their landless tenants.

"This is a warrior culture. If you walk around looking scared, they are not going to respect you." - Army Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal

2009 "Hell's Angels" of the Taliban engineer a revolt in the Swat valley of Pakistan by exploiting profound fissures between a small group of wealthy landlords and their landless tenant sharecroppers.

Taliban close a major supply route ferrying some 80 percent of NATO supplies into Afghanistan by blowing up a 30-yard-long iron highway bridge in the Khyber Pass.

Barack Obama ordered 17,000 American troops to Afghanistan "to stabilize a deteriorating situation."

4000 newly arrived Marines and 650 Afghan troops poured into Taliban-infested villages of southern Afghanistan with armor and helicopters in the first major operation under a new Pentagon strategy to clear insurgents from the hotly contested region before the nation's August 20 presidential election. Southern Afghanistan is a Taliban stronghold but also a region where Afghan president Hamid Karzai is seeking votes from fellow Pashtun tribesmen.

Hamid Karzai is reelected August 20 in a "landslide victory".

August 27 a suicide bomber hits a Pakistani border security checkpoint killing at least 18 border guards (dozens reported wounded) at the Torkham checkpoint, the main border crossing from the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan.

August 30 the Chaman border crossing had been closed for two days due to a dispute between Afghan and Pakistani customs officers. 1,000 trucks were backed up along the road waiting to cross the border. An explosion set several NATO vehicles on fire: three oil tankers, two container trucks and two dump trucks.

NATO troops fighting the Taliban in Afghanistan get about 75 percent of their supplies from Pakistan through the Chaman and Torkham border crossings.

140 Afghan peasants are killed in rural Farah province by American airstrikes according to the Red Cross. Relatives received about $2,000 for family members killed and $1,000 for those injured.

"As of March 2009, there were 68,197 DOD contractors in Afghanistan, compared to 52,300 uniformed personnel. Contractors made up 57% of DOD's workforce in Afghanistan. This apparently represented the highest recorded percentage of contractors used by DOD in any conflict in the history of the US. Poor contract management has also played a role in abuses and crimes committed by certain contractors against local nationals, which likely has undermined US counterinsurgency efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan." - Congressional Research Service, 08/13/2009

American troops set up bases along a dirt track that a Chinese firm is paving as part of a $3 billion project to gain access to the Aynak copper reserves. American troops are providing security to enable China to exploit one of the world's largest unexploited deposits of copper, earn tens of billions of dollars and feed its voracious appetite for raw materials.

"Contrary to the official portrayal of the Afghan National Army (ANA) as ethnically balanced, the latest data from US sources reveal that the Tajik minority now accounts for far more of its troops than the Pashtuns, the country's largest ethnic group. Tajik domination of the ANA feeds Pashtun resentment over the control of the country's security institutions by their ethnic rivals, while Tajiks increasingly regard the Pashtun population as aligned with the Taliban." - Gareth Porter

The Campaign for a US-Afghanistan Partnership is a nonprofit pro-war front group established by Washington's most monied lobbying firm Patton Boggs LLP. One of Patton Boggs LLP clients is NCL Holdings, a US firm headed by Hamed Wardak, the Afghan-American son of Afghanistan's defense minister, General Abdul Rahim Wardak. NCL Holdings runs supply lines in Afghanistan for the DoD. NCL Holdings is believed to be paying protection money to the Taliban to leave supply lines alone.

"The Afghan war is the center of a Western military operation that is broadening into wider and wider circles throughout Eurasia and in varying degrees taking in dozens of nations from the Chinese border to the Indian Ocean to the Black Sea to the Adriatic Sea. Nations being absorbed into this military transit, overflight, troop recruitment, training network include all those in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia), the Black Sea region (Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine) and the Southern Balkans (Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia) in addition to Afghanistan and Pakistan. With the exception of the Central Asian states (so far), all of those nations mentioned above have sent troops to the war theater or soon will, Serbia alone possibly excepted." - Rick Rozoff 09/09

Kill Team: US Soldiers in Afghanistan Murder Innocent Civilians

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This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

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