Afghanistan, an ancient focal point of
trade and migration populated with a mosaic of ethnic groups, exists at the
junction of the crossroads between the East and West in the center of the
"world island" - Asia.
Afghanistan has suffered almost continuous
conflict being repeatedly
invaded throughout history.
6th century BC The Median invasion comes from the region south of the
516 BC The Zoroastrian Darius I creates the
Achaemenid Persian empire which
reaches to the Indus river. Zoroastrianism appered along with a
Mithraic Median prototype and its Zurvanist Sassanid successor served as the
state religion of pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BC to 650
4th century BC The Scythian empire reached
its greatest extent in the during the reign of Ateas and included Bactria
Alexander III of
Macedonia enters the territory of present-day Afghanistan to
capture Bactria and finally conquers a
region reaching to the Indus river.
Alexander III of
Macedonia brings leprosy to Europe from India.
BC to 232 BC The Indian
Hindu warrior and general
Ashoka Maurya reigns as the
emperor of the Mauryan empire. The
brutality of the conquests led Ashoka Maurya later in life to
adopt Buddhism under the guidance of
the Brahma Buddhist sages Radhaswami and Manjushris.
2nd century BC The Bactrian Hellenistic Greek king Euthydemus
and his son Demetrius cross the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of Northern
Afghanistan and the Indus valley creating the Indo-Greek
century AD The Kushan empire wrestled control of the area from the
Bactrian's including the Kabul valley, part of Qandahar and established the
twin capitals near present-day Kabul and Peshawar then known as Kapisa and
Pushklavati respectively. The Kushans adopted elements of
the Hellenistic culture of
Bactria including a writing system that used the Greek alphabet. During the
Kushana empire rule, Afghanistan and Gandhara became major centers of culture.
425 White Huns of the
Hephthalite empire, an agricultural
people with a developed set of laws, displace the Kushan and conquer
Sogdiana and Khorasan before 425. They cross the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) River and
invaded Persia in 425.
Held off at first by Bahram Gur, they later succeed in making
Persia a tributary in 485. After a series
of wars they were driven out of Persia, permanently lost the offensive, and
were finally defeated by Khosru I in 557 . The White Huns also
invaded India and succeeded in extending
the empire to include the Ganges river valley.
552 The Göktürks or Kök-Türks - a Turkic
people of ancient North and Central Asia, Eastern Europe and northwestern China
- under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan and his sons, establish the
first known Turkic empire around in the general area of territory that had
earlier been occupied by the White Huns, and expand rapidly to rule wide
territories in Central Asia.
The Göktürks originate from the
Ashina tribe, an Altaic people who lived in the northern corner of the area
presently called the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomus Region of China. Known in
medieval Chinese sources as Tujue. They were the first Turkic tribe to use the
name "Türk" as a political name.
552 - 642
The Sassanid empire, Sassanian empire, second Persian empire, the fourth
Iranian dynasty, and other powers ruled the rest of Afghanistan.
Sassanid empire's territory encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia,
Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of
Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia.
Muslims invade the entire region and
introduce Islam. Arab
Muslims used local
rulers including the empire of Tang
China which had extended its influence all the way to Kabul.
875-999 The Samanids reign over a reemerging Persian
empire in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda.
It was among the first native Iranian dynasties in Iran and Central Asia after
the Arab conquest and the collapse of the Sassanid Persian empire.
999 Mahmud of Ghazni and Bughra Khan invade.
Khan occupies Bukhara, the capital of the Persian Samanids empire. The Samanid
domains were split up between the Ghaznavids, who gained Khorasan and
Afghanistan, and the Karakhanids, who received Transoxania; the Oxus River thus
became the boundary between the two rival empires. During this period the
Karakhanid, Kara-Khanid Khanate, are converted to
1187 Mahmud of Ghazni, founder of the
Ghaznavid empire , a Sunni Muslim state in
Khorasan in modern day Afghanistan, consolidates the conquests of his
predecessors and turns Ghazna, Ghazni, into a great cultural center as well as
a base for frequent forays into India.
992 to 1041
Khwarezm is a
province of the Ghaznavid
Turks gain control of Khwarezm.
Seljuk Turks, a Muslim dynasty originally of Oghuz Turkic descent, is at its
zenith under Malik Shah. The Seljuk empire stretched from Anatolia to
Malik Shah I dies and the Seljuk empire is split as his brother and
four sons quarrel over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. They
become the target of the First
1124 The Khitan empire, Kara-Khitan
Khanate, is founded by Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao
dynasty to Central Asia after fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their
homeland in Manchuria.
Muhammad 'Ayn ad-Dawlah takes over administration
of the western branch of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, centred at Bukhara. The unity
of the Karakhanid empire is fractured by constant internal warfare and later
serves the dual suzerainty of both the Kara-Khitan empire to the north and the
Seljuk empire to the south.
1141 The Khwarezms
expanded their territories south. Seljuk Sultan Ahmed Sanjar is defeated by the
Kara-Khitan Khanate and the Great Seljuk empire falls into
chaos. Anu-sh Tigin's grandson Ala
ad-Din Aziz is forced to submit
as a vassal to the Khitan empire as is the the Kara-Khanid Khanate.
Ghaznavid empire is defeated by Muhammad
of Ghor, who founds the Ghori empire. The
Ghaznavid Khans continue to live in Ghazni as the 'Nasher' until the early 20th
century. They regain power in 1709 when the Ghilzai Pashtuns's defeated the
Safavid Persians in Kandahar.
1175 The Ghurid
empire under the leadership of Muhammad of Ghor, stretches over a vast area
including parts of Iran, Afghanistan,
India, Turkistan, Iraq and parts of other Arab countries. Muhammad of Ghor
occupies Uch, Multan, Peshawar, Lahore, and Delhi.
1194 Last Sultan of Great Seljuk empire is defeated by the
Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish.
ad-Din Tekish dies and is succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who in
1205 declares himself Shah, Persian for King. He becomes known as the
Kwarezmshah, the ruler of the
empire of Khwarezm.
1204 Uthman briefly reestablishes the independence of the
1206 Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Ghurid
general, conquers Delhi and founds the Delhi Sultanate which lasted from
1211 Karakhanids are defeated by the
Khwarezm-Shah 'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad and the dynasty is extinguished.
1212 Ala ad-Din Muhammad defeats the Ghurid empire
and conquers the lands of the Kutluk, the Gur-Khan of the Kara-Khitan Khanate,
expanding the empire of Khwarezm, ruling a territory from the Syr Darya nearly
to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea.
The empire of
Khwarezm has now conquered both Khitan and Ghurid.Continuous warfare between
these empires has drained the life from them making them vulnerable to
1219 Genghis Khan invades
Afghanistan slaughtering resisters, salting fertile agricultural areas and
destroying cities including Herat, Ghazni, and Balkh. To enhance the heinous
legends of his conquests
Genghis Khan leaves
mountains of the skulls of the defenders of those cities that would not
submit throughout Central
"The Mongols took no prisoners and allowed no torture. They
executed swiftly and efficiently, including all the soldiers of the defeated
army who, they believed, would be a constant source of future problems if
allowed to live. The first several months of a Mongol
invasion were bloody, but once the
takeover ended, the bloodshed ended." - Jack Weatherford
How Climate Change Drove the Rise of Genghis
1227 After Genghis Khan died a
succession of petty chiefs and princes struggle for supremacy until Timur Lang,
Tamerlane or Tamburlaine, incorporate what is today Afghanistan into the
There are two factions within the ruling class; the
Tajik, men of the pen, Wazirs in
Persian, of Persian descent, chancellors, merchants, artists and scholars and
the warriors, men of the sword, a combination of Turk and Mongol
1526 Prince Babur, a
descendant of Tamburlaine, establishes the Mughal Empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodi, the
last of the Delhi Sultans, in the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughal Empire's
capital is based in Kabul.
At its greatest territorial extent the
Mughal Empire includes most of the Indian subcontinent, then known as
Hindustan, and parts of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Persian word for Mongol is Mughal,
generally used to refer to Central Asian nomads who claimed descent from the
Mongol warriors of Genghis
Khan. The Mughal
rulers were adherents of
On the whole the
indigenous Pashtun tribes, Afghans living in the Kandahar area pitted foreigner
against foreigner, Persian against Arab against Turk against Mongol, siding
sometimes with the Persians, sometimes with the Turks, sometimes with the
Afghanistan was divided
in many parts in the 16th, 17th and early 18th century. North were the Turkisk
Uzbeks, west was Persian Safavid's rule and east was the Mongol's or Mughals
rule and local Pashtun rule.
1501 to 1736 The
Persian Safavid's were the Azeri -speaking Iranian dynasty which established
Shi'a Islam as Iran 's official religion.
century Pashtun Sher Shah Suri, Sher Khan, the Lion King, conquers much
of Central Asia and founds the Sur empire of northern Indian during the time of
Mughal empire grows considerably Akbar the Great and now
includes all of Hindustan. Mughal empire expands until its defeat under
16051627 Jahangir, the
son of Moghul Akbar and Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, rules the Mughal
1627 Shah Jahan, the son of Jahangir and
Mariam-uz-Zamani, succeeds to the throne and inherits the greatest
empire on Earth.
16301653 Shah Jahan commissiones the Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his
wife Mumtaz Mahal who died giving birth to their 14th child.
Pashtuns rise against the Persian Safavids in Kandahar. The Persians are
defeated. The Afghans conquer and hold Isfahan, Iran, from 1719-1729.
1729 Nadir Shah pushes back the Afghans in the
Battle of Damghan.
1738 Nadir Shah conquers
Kandahar and occupies Ghazni, Kabul and Lahore.
1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani, a Pashtun, is elected King in a loya
jirga after the assassination of Nadir Shah.
With the death of Nadir
Shah the Durrani Pashtuns became the principal rulers of Afghanistan. Pashtun
martial prowess has been renowned since
Alexander III of
Macedonia fought them. The Pashtuns were one of the few groups that managed
to impede British imperialism during the 19th century.
The Pashtuns are
the world's largest patriarchal segmentary lineage
tribal group. The total
population of the group is estimated to be at least 45 million, but an accurate
count remains elusive because there has not been an official census in
Afghanistan since the 1970s, and because of the migratory nature of many
Pashtun tribes and the practice of secluding women in Pakistan.
Durrani consolidates chieftains, petty principalities, and fragmented provinces
into one country. Ahmad Shah Durrani's rule extended from Mashad in the west to
Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxus) River in the north
to the Arabian Sea in the south.
From 1747 until the 1978 Marxist coup,
all of Afghanistan's rulers, with the
exception of a 9-month period in 1929, were from Durrani's Pashtun
tribal confederation, and all
were members of that tribe's Mohammadzai clan.
century Afghanistan becomes a battleground in the rivalry between
imperial Britain and czarist Russia for control of Central
1809 "Imperial planners saw themselves playing
"the Great Game." They sacrificed an entire British army of twelve thousand men
in the wilderness of Afghanistan." - Peter Dale Scott
1893 Britain establishes an unofficial border, the Durand
Line, separating Afghanistan from British India.
Anglo-Afghan wars (1839-1842, 1878-1880, 1919) end with London granting full
Emir Amanullah foundes an Afghan monarchy in 1926. King
Amanullah moves to end Afghanistan's
traditional isolation in
the years following the Third Anglo-Afghan war. King Amanullah established
diplomatic relations with most major countries and introduces reforms intended
to modernize Afghanistan. Some of these reforms, such as the abolition of the
traditional Muslim veil for women and
the opening of a number of co-educational schools, quickly alienated many
tribal and religious leaders.
Faced with overwhelming armed opposition, King Amanullah is forced to abdicate
in January 1929 after Kabul falls to forces led by Bacha-i-Saqao, a Tajik.
1929 Prince Mohammed
Nadir Khan, a cousin of Amanullah's, kills Bacha-i-Saqao and with considerable
Pashtun tribal support he is
declared King Nadir Shah. King Nadir Shah began consolidating power and
1933 King Nadir Shah is
assassinated in a revenge killing.
Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeds to the
throne and reigns from 1933 to 1973.
At this time
a handful of families including the Karzais and the Kalilzidads own nearly all
arable land, while most Afghans languished
amidst some of the planet's worst poverty.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was
instrumental in pushing the US covert action and later the US invasion of
Afghanistan in hopes of regaining lost power.
1946 Zahir Shah rules with the assistance of his uncle Sardar
Mohammad Hashim Khan, who holds the post of Prime Minister and continues the
policies of Nadir Shah. Zahir Shah's uncle, Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan, becomes
1953 Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan is
replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and
Daoud Khan, after seeking a closer relationship with
the Soviet Union and a more hostile one
towards Pakistan, creates a dispute with Pakistan which leads to an economic
crisis and Mohammed Daoud Khan is forced to resign.
1964 King Zahir Shah promulgates a
liberal constitution providing for a
bicameral legislature to which the king appointes one-third of the deputies.
The people elected another third, and the remainder are selected indirectly by
provincial tribal assemblies.
King Zahir Shah's "experiment in democracy" produces few lasting
reforms and it permits the growth of extremist parties on both the left and the
right. These included the communist People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan which had close ideological ties to
the Soviet Union.
takes a more active role.
Democratic Party of Afghanistan splits into two major rival factions: the
Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin
supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham (Banner) faction led
by Babrak Karmal. The split reflected ethnic, class, and ideological
divisions within Afghan society.
Most of the following heads of state are Ghilzai (Taraki, Amin, Najib,
1973 Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan
seizes power in a military coup. King Zahir Shah flees.
Daoud Khan attempts to carry out economic and social reforms.
Iranian intelligence agency (SAVAK) and CIA-supported Islamist agents arrived
from Iran with bulging bankrolls in an attempt to create a clamp-down on the
People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan by purging left-wing officers
from the Afghan army. On April 27, 1978, the People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan initiates a bloody coup, which resulted in the overthrow and
murder of Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan and most of his family.
Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan, becomes President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime
Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan,
strongly supported by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan implementes a
socialist agenda which included decrees abolishing usury, banning forced
marriages, state recognition of women's rights to vote, replacing religious and
traditional laws with secular and Marxist ones, banning
tribal courts, and
Men are obliged to cut
their beards, women couldn't wear a burka, and mosque visiting was forbidden.
Taraki embarked upon an ambitious land
reform program to help poor Afghan sharecroppers; built schools for women;
opened Afghan universities to the poor and introduced free health
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics sent contractors to
build roads, hospitals, schools and dig water wells; they also trained and
equipped the Afghan army.
Pro-Taraki militants, convinced of a
CIA destabilization plot, assassinated CIA Kabul Chief of Station Adolph
Taraki appoints Tabizullah Amin in charge of
land reform. Amin launched a brutal
campaign of terror against political opponents
KGB Chief Yuri Andropov
claimed that Amin was an agent provocateur working with the CIA to infiltrate
the Kabul government, intent on discrediting its progressive agenda.
Many groups are formed in an attempt to reverse the
dependence on the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, some resorting to
violent means and sabotage of Afghanistan's industry and
infrastructure. The government respondes
with heavy handed military intervention and arrests, exiles and executes many
play a pivotal role in the Soviet war in Afghanistan as many join the ranks of
Operation Cyclone the largest covert operation in history is launched in
Afghanistan shortly after James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. signs the first
executive directive for secret aid.
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden, is
recruited to organize and train the mujahideen.
secret presidential directive James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. gives the CIA the
authority to arm the mujahideen
under Usamah bin
Mohammad bin Laden. This secret aid lays the foundations of
the active encouragement of the CIA and
Pakistan's ISI, who wanted to turn the Afghan Jihad into a global war waged
by all Muslim states against the Soviet
Union, some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 40 Islamic countries joined
Afghanistan's fight between 1982 and 1992.
Tens of thousands more came to
study in Pakistani madrasahs. Eventually, more than 100,000 foreign Muslim
radicals were directly influenced by the Afghan jihad." - Ahmed Rashid
"It was the government of the US who supported Pakistani dictator
General Zia-ul Haq in creating thousands of religious schools, from which the
germs of the Taliban emerged." - Revolutionary Association of the Women of
BCCI, a Pakistani-operated institution with connections to
the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, is used by US
intelligence agents to funnel money to
Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan.
loaned George Herbert Walker Bush the funds to form Arbusto Energy which later
merged with Harken Energy. Harken Energy had first been incorporated as an
unprofitable collection of Texas oil wells for investors seeking tax
write-offs. George Walker Bush's investment in Harken Energy was enhanced by
Sheik Abdullah Bakhsh, a Saudi billionaire, and by the Emirate of Bahrain, who
granted Harken Energy an extraordinary off-shore oil concession, choosing it
over Amoco Oil. George Walker Bush sold two-thirds of his stock in Harken
Energy two months before Saddam Hussein sent
Iraqi troops into Kuwait netting $1 million in profit before Harken Energy
stock crashed." - Jackson Thoreau
"According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahideen began
on 24 December 1979. On July 3, 1979, President Carter signed the first
directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
And that very day, I wrote a note to the President in which I explained to him
that in my opinion, this aid was going to induce a Soviet military
intervention." - Zbigniew
"Regret what? The secret operation was an
excellent idea. It drew the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to
regret it? On the day that the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote
to President Carter, saying, in essence: 'We now have the opportunity of giving
to the USSR its Vietnam War.'" -
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski,
co-founded the Trilateral
Commission with David
Rockefeller, conceptualizes modern geopolitics as a New Great Game of
competition in Central Eurasia between the US, the United Kingdom and other
NATO countries against
Russia, the People's
Republic of China and other Shanghai Cooperation Organisation countries for
"influence, power, hegemony and profits in Central Asia and the
Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden, a member of one of Saudi Arabia's richest oil/construction families,
build bases. During the 1980s and early 1990s, an estimated $500 million is
split between Usamah
bin Mohammad bin Laden training bases and the Hezb-e Islami faction of the
mujahideen led by Gulbeddin Hekmatyar who received American weapons including
Stinger anti-aircraft missiles. American officials estimated that from 1985 to
1992, some 12,500 people were trained in bomb-making, sabotage, and urban
Afghan army is overwhelmed by the number of
mujahideen incidents. The
Soviet Union sends troops which entered Kabul on December 25, five months after
the CIA had hired Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden and al-Qa`ida,
to crush the insurrection and install another pro-Moscow government.
"Relations between the CIA (US - CIA) and the
Inter-Services Intelligence (Pakistan - ISI) had grown increasingly warm
following Zia's ouster of Bhutto and the advent of the military regime. During
most of the Afghan war, Pakistan was more aggressively anti-Soviet than even
the US. Soon after the Soviet military invaded Afghanistan in 1980, Zia sent
his ISI chief to destabilize the Soviet Central Asian states." - Diego
Cordovez and Selig Harrison
1980 Prior to
the Soviet-Afghan war, opium production in
Afghanistan and Pakistan was directed
to small regional markets. There was no local production of heroin. Researcher
Alfred McCoy's study confirms that within two years of the beginning of the CIA
operation in Afghanistan, "the
Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands became the world's top heroin producer,
supplying 60 per cent of US demand."
Gulbeddin Hekmatyar, a preferred
client of Pakistan's
Inter-Services Intelligence, built a sophisticated
heroin supply network in Afghanistan's
Kunar and Nuristan provinces with CIA funds. Heroin from the Golden Crescent,
negligible before 1979, amounted in 1980 to 60 percent of the American
1986 Golden Crescent is suppling 70
percent of the high-grade heroin in the
world. Eight tons of Afghan-Pakistani morphine base from a single Pakistani
source supplied the Sicilian mafia
"Pizza Connection" in New York - 80% of the heroin reaching the US between 1978
confirmed that opium was shipped out of the area on the same Pakistan Army
trucks which shipped in "covert" US military aid. At the same time the the CIA
and ISI together encouraged the mujahedin to get Soviet troops addicted to
heroin, hashish, and
cocaine from Latin America in Operation
"Half of Taliban
manpower and equipment originate in
Pakistan under the
ISI." - Jane's Defence Weekly
and Saudi Arabia assisted in the financing of the resistance. In the case of
Saudi Arabia the House of Saud made a deal with the Wahabbi to share the oil
revenues - revenues that would be spent on the support of Wahabbi theology
madrasahs. For over nine years the Soviet Army occupied Afghanistan while
conducting military operations against the Afghan
first, everyone thought, there's no way to beat the Soviets. So what we have to
do is throw the worst crazies at them that we can find, and there was a lot of
collateral damage. We knew exactly who these people were, and what their
organizations were like, and we didn't care. Then, we allowed them to get rid
of, just kill all the moderate leaders. The reason we don't have moderate
leaders in Afghanistan today is because we let the nuts kill them all. They
killed the leftists, the moderates, the middle-of-the-roaders. They were just
eliminated, during the 1980s and afterward." - Cheryl Benard, a RAND
Corporation expert on Islam and the wife of future US ambassador to Afghanistan
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad
(formerly a Unocal lobbyist)
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad, an ethnic
Pashtun, was mentored by
Kazimierz Brzezinski, the Carter Administration's architect of the policy
supporting the mujahideen resistance to the Soviet Union's invasion of
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was given
Foreign Relations fellowship were he was mentored by
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz Director of
Policy Planning at the State Department.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served
Ronald Reagan as a senior State
Department official advising on the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the
IranIraq War. During this time he was the State Department's Special
Advisor on Afghanistan to Undersecretary of State Michael H. Armacost. In
this role he developed and guided the international program to promote the
merits of a Mujahideen-led Afghanistan to oust the Soviet occupation.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served under President George H. W. Bush in the
Defense Department as Deputy Undersecretary for Policy Planning. Between
1993 and 2000, Khalilzad was the Director of the Strategy, Doctrine, and Force
Structure at the RAND Corporation. During this time, he helped found RAND's
Center for Middle Eastern Studies as well as "Strategic Appraisal," a
periodic RAND publication.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad consulted for
Cambridge Energy Research Associates, which at the time was conducting a
risk analysis for Unocal, now part of Chevron, for a proposed 1,400 km (890 mile),
$2-billion, 622 m³/s (22,000 ft³/s) Trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline
project which would have extended from Turkmenistan to Afghanistan and further
proceeding to Pakistan.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad acted as a special liaison between UNOCAL and
the Taliban regime. As one
of the original members of Project for the New American Century,
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was a
signatory of the letter to William Jefferson Clinton sent on January 26, 1998,
which called for him to accept the aim of "removing Saddam Hussein and his
regime from power" using "a full complement of diplomatic, political and
1989 Soviet Union withdraw
troops but continues to aid Mohammed Najibullah.
Unit of CIA Sent Ton of Cocaine to US
Najibullah government is overthrown when Abdul Rashid Dostum mutinies, and
allies himself with Ahmed Shah Massoud, to take control of Kabul and declare
the Islamic State of
mid 1990s Caspian oil reserves are of top
strategic importance in the quest to control the earth's remaining oil supply.
The US developed a policy called "The Strategy of the Silk Route." The strategy
was designed to lock out Russia, China, and Iran from
the oil in this region. This called for US corporations to construct an oil
pipeline running through Afghanistan.
James Baker, a key Bank
of Credit and Commerce International player, former Treasury Secretary,
Secretary of State and Chief of Staff during Bank of Credit and Commerce
International's reign, is a leading player in developing the "Strategy of the
Consortium of US oil companies led by Unocal, later bought
by Chevron, pursue this goal. The plan is to build a Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline
from Turkmenistan's natural gas fields to
Unocal partnered with Saudi Delta Oil, which was owned by al Qeada funders
Khalid bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein al-Amoudi form Central Asia Gas
Pipeline, Ltd. (CentGas).
A feasibility study for the Central Asian
pipeline project is performed by Enron.
This study concludes that as long as the country is split among fighting
warlords the pipeline could not be built. Stability was necessary for the $4.5
billion project and the US believed that the Taliban would impose the necessary
order. US intelligence and
Pakistan's ISI then
continued the close relationship that they established through Bank of Credit
and Commerce International (BCCI) and agreed to funnel arms and funding to the
their war for control of Afghanistan.
Until 1999, US taxpayers pay the
entire annual salary of every single
"We would show up in someone's office, offer our
thanks, and we would leave behind a briefcase full of $100 bills, sometimes
totaling more than a million in a single transaction." -
CIA Director George J.
Taliban control Afghanistan except a small
corner in the northeast.
reaction to the anarchy and warlordism prevalent in Afghanistan, and the lack
of Pashtun representation in the Kabul government, the
Taliban, a movement of religious scholars and
former mujahideen, emerged from
the southern province of Kandahar.
conducted simultaneous negotiations with two potential oil companies:
Argentinean Bridas and Unocal/CentGas. Once George Walker Bush was elected
president, Unocal and BP-Amoco, which had in the meantime bought Bridas, the
Argentinean rival resumed consortium negotiations with the Taliban. Under
Secretary of State Richard Armitage, previously a lobbyist for Unocal,
represented the administration's interests. The Taliban, for their part,
employed as their PR officer in the US Laila Helms, niece of
Richard Helms, former director of the
CIA and former US ambassador to Iran. In March 2001,
Richard Helms brought
Rahmatullah Hashami, Mullah Omar's adviser, to Washington. Throughout the
1990's Hamid Karzai, a top adviser and lobbyist for Unocal, was involved in
negotiations with the Taliban regime for the construction of a Central Asian
gas pipeline from Turkmenistan through western Afghanistan to
Pakistan. At the same time, Zalmay
Mamozy Khalilzad, who was also working for Unocal, lobbied the Clinton administration to
'engage' with the Taliban." - Loretta Napoleoni
Taliban's Ban On Poppy A Success, U.S. Aides
oil interests take control of the
White House by selecting
George Walker Bush. Enron
Kenneth Lee Lay, an
old Bush family friend and Bush's biggest campaign contributor, is eager.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld, the Secretary of Defense, is a large stockholder in
Enron. Thomas White, former vice-chairman
of Enron, is appointed Secretary of the
Rice, a former Chevron board member,
becomes National Security Advisor and then Secretary of State.
benefactor of the CentGas deal is going to be
Vice President Richard Bruce
Cheney is Halliburton's CEO.
Richard Armitage, a key
lobbyist for Unocal, is appointed Under
Secretary of State. Hamid Karzai, who
would later become Afghanistan's Prime Minister, is a top Unocal adviser.
James Baker and the
Foreign Relations demand immediate action and publicly release a Task Force
Report labeled, "Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century," by
the James A. Baker III Institute. They claimed urgency of the pipeline project
and openly called for the Bush Administration to "quickly facilitate higher
exports of oil from the Caspian Basin region
" and they reiterated the
basic premise of the "Strategy of the Silk Route," stating, "the exports from
oil discoveries in the Caspian Basin could be hastened if a secure, economical
export route could be identified swiftly." That "export route," as previously
planned, would need to run through Afghanistan and into
"The Chairman of the
911 Commission investigation was Thomas
Kean, director of Hess Corp., which was in a joint venture called Delta Oil,
with Khalid Bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein al Amoudi. It is also important to
mention that James Baker, who had a lead role in developing the "Strategy of
the Silk Route" and Bank of Credit and Commerce International operations, was
hired by these same BCCI/Saudi/al-Qa`ida oil
interests to defend them against lawsuits brought by families of
911 victims." - David
Afghan Northern Alliance, led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, has receive
diplomatic recognition in the United Nations as the government of Afghanistan.
Ahmed Shah Massoud leads the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of
Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud, an ethnic Tajik, is assassinated in late
Under the auspices of a response to the September 11, 2001
attacks, the US and its coalition allies launched an
invasion of Afghanistan to
oust the Taliban
government. Sponsored by the United Nations, Afghan factions met in Bonn,
Germany and choose a 30 member interim authority led by
Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun from
"The CIA has funneled hundreds of millions of dollars to
service since the Sept. 11
attacks, accounting for as much as one-third of the foreign spy agency's
annual budget. The Inter-Services Intelligence agency also has collected tens
of millions of dollars through a classified CIA program that pays for the
capture or killing of wanted militants. The ISI has used the covert CIA money
for a variety of purposes, including the construction of a new headquarters in
Islamabad, the capital. The CIA has routinely brought ISI operatives to a
secret training facility in North Carolina. The CIA also directs millions of
dollars to other foreign spy services. But the magnitude of the payments to the
ISI reflect Pakistan's central role. The CIA depends on Pakistan's cooperation
to carry out missile strikes by Predator drones that have killed dozens of
suspected extremists in
border areas. CIA payments to the ISI can be traced to the 1980s, when the
Pakistani agency managed the flow of money and weapons to the Afghan mujahedin.
In addition to bankrolling the ISI's budget, the CIA created a clandestine
reward program that paid bounties for suspected terrorists. The first check,
for $10 million, was for the capture of Abu Zubaydah, a top Al Qaeda figure.
The ISI got $25 million more for the capture of
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. " -
Greg Miller November 15, 2009
Massacre: the Convoy of Death
Hamid Karzai is selected as
president of Afghanistan.
2007 DoD contracts for
up to $300 million with AEY Incorporated to became the main supplier of
munitions to Afghanistan's army and police forces. AEY Incorporated provided
ammunition that was more than 40 years old in decomposing packaging
manufactured in China. The US government contributed $2 million to destroy
excess small-caliber weapons and 2,000 tons of ammunition in Albania, according
to the State Department through 2007 which included 104 million 7.62 millimeter
cartridges. AEY bought more than 100 million cartridges manufactured in China
from Albania for the Pentagon contract.
AEY also provided ammunition or
equipment in 2004 to the Department of Energy, the EPA, the Transportation
Security Administration and the State Department. AEY was operated by Efraim E.
Diveroli, president, and David M. Packouz, vice president, (son of Rabbi Kalman
Packouz) both in their early 20's. Yoav Botach, an Israeli citizen and
"entrepreneur" who "co-owns" 144 commercial and other properties in Los Angeles
through Botach Tactical, incorporated AEY and is the father of Rabbi Shmuley
Boteach and grandfather of Efraim E. Diveroli. AEY won the contract primarily
because the US government
declared Hasidic Jews to be a disadvantaged minority for purposes of
minority business encouragement in 1984.
"The chief effect of military operations in Afghanistan so far has been to push
radical Islamists across the
border. As a result, efforts to stabilize Afghanistan are contributing to
the destabilization of Pakistan, with
potentially devastating implications." - Andrew Bacevich
"This is a warrior culture. If you walk around
looking scared, they are not going to respect you." - Army Gen. Stanley A.
Afghanistan and the New Great Game
The oil connection: Give
me a pipeline
"Hell's Angels" of the Taliban engineer a revolt in
the Swat valley of Pakistan by
exploiting profound fissures between a small group of wealthy landlords and
their landless tenant sharecroppers.
Taliban close a major supply route
ferrying some 80 percent of NATO supplies into
Afghanistan by blowing up a 30-yard-long iron highway bridge in the Khyber
ordered 17,000 American troops to Afghanistan "to stabilize a deteriorating
4000 newly arrived Marines and 650 Afghan troops poured into
Taliban-infested villages of southern Afghanistan with armor and helicopters in
the first major operation under a new Pentagon strategy to clear insurgents
from the hotly contested region before the nation's August 20 presidential
election. Southern Afghanistan is a Taliban stronghold but also a region where
Afghan president Hamid Karzai is
seeking votes from fellow Pashtun tribesmen.
Hamid Karzai is
reelected August 20 in a "landslide victory".
August 27 a
suicide bomber hits a Pakistani
border security checkpoint killing at least 18 border guards (dozens reported
wounded) at the Torkham checkpoint, the main border crossing from the Khyber
Pass into Afghanistan.
August 30 the Chaman border crossing had been
closed for two days due to a dispute between Afghan and Pakistani customs
officers. 1,000 trucks were backed up along the road waiting to cross the
border. An explosion set several
NATO vehicles on fire:
three oil tankers, two container trucks and two dump trucks.
NATO troops fighting the
Taliban in Afghanistan get about 75 percent of their supplies from
Pakistan through the Chaman and
Torkham border crossings.
140 Afghan peasants are killed in rural Farah
province by American airstrikes
according to the Red Cross. Relatives received about $2,000 for family members
killed and $1,000 for those injured.
March 2009, there were 68,197 DOD contractors in Afghanistan, compared to
52,300 uniformed personnel. Contractors made up 57% of DOD's workforce in
Afghanistan. This apparently represented the highest recorded percentage of
contractors used by DOD in any conflict in the history of the US. Poor contract
management has also played a role in abuses and crimes committed by certain
contractors against local nationals, which likely has undermined US
counterinsurgency efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan." - Congressional Research
American troops set up bases
along a dirt track that a Chinese firm is paving as part of a $3 billion
project to gain access to the Aynak copper reserves. American troops are
providing security to enable China to exploit one of the world's largest
unexploited deposits of copper, earn tens of billions of dollars and feed its
voracious appetite for raw materials.
U.S. troops set up bases last
month along a dirt track a Chinese firm is paving as part of a $3 billion
project to gain access to the Aynak copper reserves. Some troops made camp
outside a compound built for the Chinese road crews, who are about to return
from winter break. American forces also have expanded their presence in
neighboring Logar province, where the Aynak deposit is.
Chinese company and Taliban battle over Afghanistans
China gets an all-clear from the Taliban to mine for copper in
"Contrary to the official portrayal of the Afghan
National Army (ANA) as ethnically balanced, the latest data from US sources
reveal that the Tajik minority now accounts for far more of its troops than the
Pashtuns, the country's largest ethnic group. Tajik domination of the ANA feeds
Pashtun resentment over the control of the country's security institutions by
their ethnic rivals, while Tajiks increasingly regard the Pashtun population as
aligned with the Taliban." - Gareth Porter
The Campaign for a US-Afghanistan
Partnership is a nonprofit pro-war front group established by Washington's
most monied lobbying firm Patton Boggs LLP. One of Patton Boggs
LLP clients is NCL Holdings, a US firm headed by Hamed Wardak, the
Afghan-American son of Afghanistan's defense minister, General Abdul Rahim
Wardak. NCL Holdings runs supply lines in Afghanistan for the DoD.
NCL Holdings is believed to be paying protection money to the Taliban to
leave supply lines alone.
"The Afghan war is the center of a Western military
operation that is broadening into wider and wider circles throughout Eurasia
and in varying degrees taking in dozens of nations from the Chinese border to
the Indian Ocean to the Black Sea to the Adriatic Sea. Nations being absorbed
into this military transit, overflight, troop recruitment, training network
include all those in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and
Georgia), the Black Sea region (Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine)
and the Southern Balkans (Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro,
Serbia and Slovenia) in addition to Afghanistan and
Pakistan. With the exception of the
Central Asian states (so far), all of those nations mentioned above have sent
troops to the war theater or soon will, Serbia alone possibly excepted." - Rick
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