Afghanistan, an ancient focal point of
trade and migration populated with a mosaic of ethnic groups, exists at the
junction of the crossroads between the East and West in the center of the
"world island" - Asia.
Afghanistan has suffered almost continuous
conflict being repeatedly
invaded throughout history.
6th century BC The Median invasion comes from the region south of the
516 BC The Zoroastrian Darius I creates the
Achaemenid Persian empire which
reaches to the Indus river. Zoroastrianism appered along with a
Mithraic Median prototype and its Zurvanist Sassanid successor served as the
state religion of pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BC to 650
4th century BC The Scythian empire reached
its greatest extent in the during the reign of Ateas and included Bactria
Alexander III of
Macedonia enters the territory of present-day Afghanistan to
capture Bactria and finally conquers a
region reaching to the Indus river. Alexander III of Macedonia brings leprosy
to Europe from India.
273 BC to 232 BC The Indian Hindu warrior and general
Ashoka Maurya reigns as the
emperor of the Mauryan empire. The
brutality of the conquests led Ashoka Maurya later in life to
adopt Buddhism under the guidance of
the Brahma Buddhist sages Radhaswami and Manjushris.
2nd century BC The Bactrian Hellenistic Greek king Euthydemus
and his son Demetrius cross the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of Northern
Afghanistan and the Indus valley creating the Indo-Greek
century AD The Kushan empire wrestled control of the area from the
Bactrian's including the Kabul valley, part of Qandahar and established the
twin capitals near present-day Kabul and Peshawar then known as Kapisa and
Pushklavati respectively. The Kushans adopted elements of
the Hellenistic culture of
Bactria including a writing system that used the Greek alphabet. During the
Kushana empire rule, Afghanistan and Gandhara became major centers of culture.
425 White Huns of the
Hephthalite empire, an agricultural people with a
developed set of laws, displace the Kushan and conquer Sogdiana and Khorasan
before 425. They cross the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) River and invaded
Persia in 425. Held off at
first by Bahram Gur, they later succeed in making
Persia a tributary in 485. After a series
of wars they were driven out of Persia, permanently lost the offensive, and
were finally defeated by Khosru I in 557 . The White Huns also
invaded India and succeeded in extending
the empire to include the Ganges river valley.
552 The Göktürks or Kök-Türks - a Turkic
people of ancient North and Central Asia, Eastern Europe and northwestern China
- under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan and his sons, establish the
first known Turkic empire around in the general area of territory that had
earlier been occupied by the White Huns, and expand rapidly to rule wide
territories in Central Asia.
The Göktürks originate from the
Ashina tribe, an Altaic people who lived in the northern corner of the area
presently called the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomus Region of China. Known in
medieval Chinese sources as Tujue. They were the first Turkic tribe to use the
name "Türk" as a political name.
552 - 642 The Sassanid empire,
Sassanian empire, second Persian empire, the fourth Iranian dynasty, and other
powers ruled the rest of Afghanistan.
The Sassanid empire's territory
encompassed all of today's Iran,
Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of
Turkey, and parts of Syria,
Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia and Arabia.
642 Arab Muslims invade
the entire region and introduce Islam.
Muslims used local rulers including the
empire of Tang China which had extended its
influence all the way to
875-999 The Samanids reign over a
reemerging Persian empire in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its
founder Saman Khoda.
It was among the first native Iranian dynasties in
Iran and Central Asia after the Arab conquest and the collapse of the Sassanid
999 Mahmud of Ghazni and Bughra Khan
Bughra Khan occupies Bukhara, the capital of the Persian
The Samanid domains were split up between the
Ghaznavids, who gained Khorasan and Afghanistan, and the Karakhanids, who
received Transoxania; the Oxus River thus became the boundary between the two
During this period the Karakhanid, Kara-Khanid Khanate,
are converted to Islam.
962 to 1187 Mahmud of Ghazni, founder
of the Ghaznavid empire, a Sunni Muslim state in Khorasan in modern day
Afghanistan, consolidates the conquests of his predecessors and turns Ghazna,
Ghazni, into a great cultural center as well as a base for frequent forays into
992 to 1041
Khwarezm is a province of
the Ghaznavid empire.
Turks gain control of Khwarezm.
Seljuk Turks, a Muslim
dynasty originally of Oghuz Turkic descent, is at its zenith under Malik Shah.
The Seljuk empire stretched from Anatolia to Pakistan.
Malik Shah I
dies and the Seljuk empire is split as his brother and four sons quarrel over
the apportioning of the empire among themselves. They become the target of the
1124 The Khitan empire, Kara-Khitan Khanate, is founded by
Yelü Dashi, who led the remnants of the Liao dynasty to Central Asia after
fleeing from the Jurchen conquest of their homeland in
Muhammad 'Ayn ad-Dawlah takes over administration of the
western branch of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, centred at Bukhara. The unity of the
Karakhanid empire is fractured by constant internal warfare and later serves
the dual suzerainty of both the Kara-Khitan empire to the north and the Seljuk
empire to the south.
1141 The Khwarezms expanded
their territories south. Seljuk Sultan Ahmed Sanjar is defeated by the
Kara-Khitan Khanate and the Great Seljuk empire falls into
chaos. Anu-sh Tigin's grandson Ala
ad-Din Aziz is forced to submit
as a vassal to the Khitan empire as is the the Kara-Khanid Khanate.
1146 The Ghaznavid empire is
defeated by Muhammad of Ghor, who founds the
Ghori empire. The Ghaznavid
Khans continue to live in Ghazni as the 'Nasher' until the early 20th century.
They regain power in 1709 when the Ghilzai Pashtuns's defeated the Safavid
Persians in Kandahar.
1175 The Ghurid empire
under the leadership of Muhammad of Ghor, stretches over a vast area including
parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India,
Turkistan, Iraq and parts of other Arab
Muhammad of Ghor occupies Uch, Multan, Peshawar, Lahore, and
1194 Last Sultan of Great Seljuk empire
is defeated by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish.
1200 Ala ad-Din Tekish dies and is succeeded by his son, Ala
ad-Din Muhammad, who in 1205 declares himself Shah, Persian for King. He
becomes known as the Kwarezmshah, the ruler of the
empire of Khwarezm.
1204 Uthman briefly reestablishes the independence of the
1206 Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Ghurid
general, conquers Delhi and founds the Delhi Sultanate which lasted from
1211 Karakhanids are defeated by the
Khwarezm-Shah 'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad and the dynasty is extinguished.
1212 Ala ad-Din Muhammad defeats the Ghurid empire
and conquers the lands of the Kutluk, the Gur-Khan of the Kara-Khitan Khanate,
expanding the empire of Khwarezm, ruling a territory from the Syr Darya nearly
to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea.
The empire of
Khwarezm has now conquered both Khitan and Ghurid.Continuous warfare between
these empires has drained the life from them making them vulnerable to
Khan invades Afghanistan slaughtering resisters, salting fertile
agricultural areas and destroying cities including Herat, Ghazni, and Balkh. To
enhance the heinous legends of his conquests
Chingiz Khan leaves
mountains of the skulls of the defenders of those cities that would not
submit throughout Central
"The Mongols took no prisoners and allowed no torture. They
executed swiftly and efficiently, including all the soldiers of the defeated
army who, they believed, would be a constant source of future problems if
allowed to live. The first several months of a Mongol
invasion were bloody, but once the
takeover ended, the bloodshed ended." - Jack Weatherford
How Climate Change Drove the Rise of Chingiz Khan
1227 After Chingiz Khan died a
succession of petty chiefs and princes struggle for supremacy until Timur Lang,
Tamerlane or Tamburlaine, incorporate what is today Afghanistan into the
There are two factions within the
of the pen, Wazirs in Persian, of
Persian descent, chancellors, merchants, artists and scholars;
men of the sword, a combination of Turk and Mongol descent.
Babur, a descendant of Tamburlaine, establishes the
Mughal Empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodi,
the last of the Delhi Sultans, in the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughal
Empire's capital is based in Kabul.
At its greatest territorial extent
the Mughal Empire includes most of the Indian subcontinent, then known as
Hindustan, and parts of what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Persian word for Mongol is Mughal, generally used to refer to Central Asian
nomads who claimed descent from the Mongol warriors of
Chingiz Khan. The Mughal
rulers were adherents of
On the whole the
indigenous Pashtun tribes, Afghans living in the Kandahar area pitted foreigner
against foreigner, Persian against Arab against Turk against Mongol, siding
sometimes with the Persians, sometimes with the Turks, sometimes with the
Afghanistan was divided in many parts in the 16th, 17th and
early 18th century. North were the Turkisk Uzbeks, west was Persian Safavid's
rule and east was the Mongol's or Mughals rule and local Pashtun rule.
1501 to 1736 The Persian
Safavid's were the Azeri -speaking Iranian dynasty which established
Shi'a Islam as Iran 's official
15th century Pashtun Sher Shah Suri,
Sher Khan, the Lion King, conquers much of Central Asia and founds the Sur
empire of northern Indian during the time of Moghul Humayun.
empire grows considerably Akbar the Great and now includes all of Hindustan.
Mughal empire expands until its defeat under Aurangzeb's rule.
16051627 Jahangir, the son of Moghul Akbar and Rajput
princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, rules the Mughal empire.
1627 Shah Jahan, the son of Jahangir and Mariam-uz-Zamani,
succeeds to the throne and inherits the greatest
empire on Earth.
16301653 Shah Jahan commissiones the Taj Mahal in Agra as a tomb for his
wife Mumtaz Mahal who died giving birth to their 14th child.
Pashtuns rise against the Persian Safavids in Kandahar. The Persians are
defeated. The Afghans conquer and hold Isfahan,
1729 Nadir Shah pushes back the
Afghans in the Battle of Damghan.
1738 Nadir Shah
conquers Kandahar and occupies Ghazni, Kabul and Lahore.
1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani, a Pashtun, is elected King in a loya
jirga after the assassination of Nadir Shah.
With the death of Nadir
Shah the Durrani Pashtuns became the principal rulers of Afghanistan. Pashtun
martial prowess has been renowned since
Alexander III of
Macedonia fought them. The Pashtuns were one of the few groups that managed
to impede British imperialism during the 19th century.
The Pashtuns are
the world's largest patriarchal segmentary lineage
tribal group. The total
population of the group is estimated to be at least 45 million, but an accurate
count remains elusive because there has not been an official census in
Afghanistan since the 1970s, and because of the migratory nature of many
Pashtun tribes and the practice of secluding women in Pakistan.
Durrani consolidates chieftains, petty principalities, and fragmented provinces
into one country. Ahmad Shah Durrani's rule extended from Mashad in the west to
Kashmir and Delhi in the east, and from the Amu Darya (Oxus) River in the north
to the Arabian Sea in the south.
From 1747 until the 1978 Marxist coup,
all of Afghanistan's rulers, with the exception of a 9-month period in 1929,
were from Durrani's Pashtun tribal confederation, and all were members of that
tribe's Mohammadzai clan.
Afghanistan becomes a battleground in the rivalry between imperial Britain and
Tsarist Russia for control
of Central Asia.
1809 "Imperial planners saw
themselves playing "the Great Game." They sacrificed an entire British army of
twelve thousand men in the wilderness of Afghanistan." - Peter Dale Scott
1893 Britain establishes an unofficial border,
the Durand Line, separating Afghanistan from British India.
Anglo-Afghan wars (1839-1842, 1878-1880, 1919) end with London granting full
Emir Amanullah foundes an Afghan monarchy in 1926. King
Amanullah moves to end Afghanistan's
traditional isolation in
the years following the Third Anglo-Afghan war. King Amanullah established
diplomatic relations with most major countries and introduces reforms intended
to modernize Afghanistan. Some of these reforms, such as the abolition of the
traditional Muslim veil for women and
the opening of a number of co-educational schools, quickly alienated many
tribal and religious leaders. Faced with overwhelming armed opposition, King
Amanullah is forced to abdicate in January 1929 after Kabul falls to forces led
by Bacha-i-Saqao, a Tajik.
1929 Prince Mohammed Nadir Khan, a
cousin of Amanullah's, kills Bacha-i-Saqao and with considerable Pashtun tribal
support he is declared King Nadir Shah. King Nadir Shah began consolidating
power and regenerating Afghanistan.
1933 King Nadir Shah is assassinated in
a revenge killing.
Mohammad Zahir Shah succeeds to the throne and reigns from 1933 to
At this time a handful of families
including the Karzais and the Kalilzidads own nearly all arable land, while
most Afghans languished amidst some of the planet's worst poverty.
Khalilzad was instrumental in pushing the US covert action and later the US
invasion of Afghanistan in hopes of regaining lost power.
1946 Zahir Shah rules with the assistance of his uncle Sardar
Mohammad Hashim Khan, who holds the post of Prime Minister and continues the
policies of Nadir Shah. Zahir Shah's uncle, Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan, becomes
1951 The Afghan government of
King Mohammed Zahir Shah is tasked by the CIA to find an assassin to kill
Pakistan first Prime
Minister Liaqat Ali Khan.
Syed Akbar accepts the task and
arrangements are made for him to be killed.
CIA assassinates Pakistan first PM Liaqat Ali
1953 Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan is
replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's cousin and
Daoud Khan, after seeking a closer relationship with the
Soviet Union and a more hostile one
towards Pakistan, creates a dispute with Pakistan which leads to an economic
crisis and Mohammed Daoud Khan is forced to resign.
1964 King Zahir Shah promulgates a
liberal constitution providing for a
bicameral legislature to which the king appointes one-third of the deputies.
The people elected another third, and the remainder are selected indirectly by
provincial tribal assemblies.
King Zahir Shah's "experiment in
democracy" produces few lasting reforms and it permits the growth of extremist
parties on both the left and the right. These included the communist
People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan which had close ideological
ties to the Soviet Union.
Zahir Shah takes a more active role.
People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan splits into two major rival
factions: the Khalq (Masses) faction headed by Nur Muhammad Taraki and
Hafizullah Amin supported by elements within the military, and the Parcham
(Banner) faction led by Babrak Karmal. The split reflected ethnic, class, and
ideological divisions within Afghan society.
Most of the following
heads of state are Ghilzai (Taraki, Amin, Najib, Mullah Omar).
1973 Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan seizes power in a military
coup. King Zahir Shah flees.
Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan attempts to
carry out economic and social reforms.
Iranian intelligence agency (SAVAK) and CIA-supported Islamist agents arrived
from Iran with
bulging bankrolls in an attempt to create a clamp-down on the People's
Democratic Party of Afghanistan by purging left-wing officers from the
Afghan army. On April 27, 1978, the People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan initiates a bloody coup, which resulted in the overthrow and
murder of Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan and most of his family.
Muhammad Taraki, Secretary General of the People's Democratic Party of
Afghanistan, becomes President of the Revolutionary Council and Prime
Minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan,
strongly supported by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan implementes a
socialist agenda which included decrees abolishing usury, banning forced
marriages, state recognition of women's rights to vote, replacing religious and
traditional laws with secular and Marxist ones, banning tribal courts, and land
Men are obliged to cut their beards, women couldn't wear a
burka, and mosque visiting was forbidden. Taraki embarked upon an ambitious
land reform program to help poor Afghan sharecroppers; built schools for women;
opened Afghan universities to the poor and introduced free health
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics sends contractors
to build roads, hospitals, schools and dig water wells; they also train and
equip the Afghan army.
Pro-Taraki militants, convinced
of a CIA destabilization plot, assassinated CIA Kabul Chief of Station Adolph
Taraki appoints Tabizullah Amin in charge of land
reform. Amin launched a brutal campaign of terror against political
KGB Chief Yuri Andropov claimed that Amin was an agent
provocateur working with the CIA to infiltrate the Kabul government, intent on
discrediting its progressive agenda.
groups are formed in an attempt to reverse the dependence on the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, some
resorting to violent means
and sabotage of Afghanistan's industry and
infrastructure. The government
respondes with heavy handed military intervention and arrests, exiles and
executes many mujahideen.
Pashtuns play a
pivotal role in the Soviet war in Afghanistan as many join the ranks of the
Operation Cyclone the largest covert operation in history is launched in
Afghanistan shortly after James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. signs
the first executive directive
for secret aid.
Saudi-born Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden, is
recruited to organize and train the mujahideen.
secret presidential directive James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. gives the CIA the
authority to arm the mujahideen
under Usamah bin
Mohammad bin Laden.
This secret aid lays the foundations of
"With the active
encouragement of the CIA and Pakistan's ISI, who wanted to turn the Afghan
Jihad into a global war waged by all Muslim states against the
Soviet Union, some 35,000 Muslim
radicals from 40 Islamic countries joined Afghanistan's fight between 1982 and
Tens of thousands more came to
study in Pakistani madrasahs. Eventually, more than 100,000 foreign Muslim
radicals were directly influenced by the Afghan jihad." - Ahmed Rashid
"It was the government of the US who supported Pakistani dictator
General Zia-ul Haq in creating thousands of religious schools, from which the
germs of the Taliban emerged." - Revolutionary Association of the Women of
BCCI, a Pakistani-operated institution with connections to
the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency, is used by US
intelligence agents to funnel money to
Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden and the Mujahideen in Afghanistan.
loaned George Herbert Walker Bush the funds to form Arbusto Energy which later
merged with Harken Energy. Harken Energy had first been
incorporated as an unprofitable collection of Texas oil wells for investors
seeking tax write-offs. George Walker Bush's investment in Harken Energy
was enhanced by Sheik Abdullah Bakhsh, a Saudi billionaire, and by the Emirate
of Bahrain, who granted Harken Energy an extraordinary off-shore oil
concession, choosing it over Amoco Oil. George Walker Bush sold two-thirds of
his stock in Harken Energy two months before Saddam
Hussein sent Iraqi troops into
Kuwait netting $1 million in profit before Harken Energy stock crashed." -
"According to the official version of history, CIA aid to the Mujahideen began
on 24 December 1979. On July 3, 1979, President Carter signed the first
directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.
And that very day, I wrote a note to the President in which I explained to him
that in my opinion, this aid was going to induce a Soviet military
intervention." - Zbigniew Kazimierz
"Regret what? The secret operation was an excellent
idea. It drew the Russians into the Afghan trap and you want me to regret it?
On the day that the Soviets officially crossed the border, I wrote to President
Carter, saying, in essence: 'We now have the opportunity of giving to the USSR
its Vietnam War.'" -
Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski, co-founded
the Trilateral Commission
with David Rockefeller,
conceptualizes modern geopolitics as a New Great Game of competition in Central
Eurasia between the US, the United Kingdom and other
NATO countries against
Russia, the People's
Republic of China and other Shanghai Cooperation Organisation countries for
"influence, power, hegemony and profits in Central Asia and the
Mohammad bin Laden, a member of one of Saudi Arabia's richest
oil/construction families, build military bases.
During the 1980s and early 1990s,
an estimated $500 million is split between
Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden training bases and the Hezb-e Islami faction of the mujahideen led by
Hekmatyar who received American weapons including
missiles. American officials estimated that from 1985 to
1992, some 12,500 people were trained
in bomb making, sabotage, and urban
Afghan army is overwhelmed by the number of
Union sends troops which enter Kabul on December 25, five months after the
CIA hires Usamah bin
Mohammad bin Laden and al-Qa`ida, to crush the
insurrection and install another pro-Moscow government.
"Relations between the CIA (US - CIA) and the
Inter-Services Intelligence (Pakistan - ISI) had grown increasingly warm
following Zia's ouster of Bhutto and the advent of the military regime. During
most of the Afghan war, Pakistan was more aggressively anti-Soviet than even
the US. Soon after the Soviet military invaded Afghanistan in 1980, Zia sent
his ISI chief to destabilize the Soviet Central Asian states." - Diego
Cordovez and Selig Harrison
Prior to the Soviet-Afghan war, opium
production in Afghanistan and Pakistan is directed to small regional
markets. There was no local production of Heroin.
McCoy's study confirms that within two years of the beginning of the CIA
operation in Afghanistan, "the
Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands became the world's top
supplying 60 per cent of US demand."
Gulbeddin Hekmatyar, a preferred
client of Pakistan's Inter-Services
Intelligence, built a sophisticated Heroin supply network in
Afghanistan's Kunar and Nuristan provinces with CIA funds. Heroin from
the Golden Crescent, negligible before 1979, amounted in 1980 to 60% of the
1986 Golden Crescent is suppling 70% of the high-grade
Heroin in the world. Eight
tons of Afghan-Pakistani morphine base from a single Pakistani source supplied
the Sicilian mafia "Pizza Connection" in New York - 80% of the Heroin
reaching the US between 1978 and 1984.
that opium was shipped out of the area on the same Pakistan Army trucks which
shipped in "covert" US military aid. At the same time the the CIA and ISI
together encouraged the mujahedin to get Soviet troops addicted to
Heroin, hashish, and
cocaine from Latin America in
"Half of Taliban manpower and equipment originate
in Pakistan under the ISI." - Jane's
The CIA, Pakistan, and
Saudi Arabia assisted in the financing
of the résistance.
In the case of
Saudi Arabia the
House of Saud made
a deal with the Wahabbi to
share the oil revenues - revenues that would be spent on the support of Wahabbi
For over nine years the Soviet Army occupied
Afghanistan while conducting military operations against the Afghan
first, everyone thought, there's no way to beat the Soviets. So what we have to
do is throw the worst crazies at them that we can find, and there was a lot of
collateral damage. We knew exactly who these people were, and what their
organizations were like, and we didn't care. Then, we allowed them to get rid
of, just kill all the moderate leaders. The reason we don't have moderate
leaders in Afghanistan today is because we let the nuts kill them all. They
killed the leftists, the moderates, the middle-of-the-roaders. They were just
eliminated, during the 1980s and afterward." - Cheryl Benard, a RAND
Corporation expert on Islam and the wife of future US ambassador to Afghanistan
Khalilzad (formerly a Unocal lobbyist)
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad,
an ethnic Pashtun, was mentored by
Brzezinski, the Carter Administration's architect of the policy supporting
the mujahideen résistance to the invasion of Afghanistan by the
Soviet Union .
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was given
Council on Foreign
Relations fellowship were he was mentored by
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz Director of
Policy Planning at the State Department.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served
Ronald Reagan as a
Department official advising on the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the
IranIraq War. During this time he was
the State Department
Special Advisor on Afghanistan to Undersecretary of State Michael H.
Armacost. In this role he developed and guided the international program to
promote the merits of a Mujahideen-led Afghanistan to oust the Soviet
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad served under President George H. W.
Bush in the Defense Department as Deputy Undersecretary for Policy
Planning. Between 1993 and 2000, Khalilzad was the Director of the
Strategy, Doctrine, and Force Structure at the RAND Corporation. During this
time, he helped found RAND's Center for Middle Eastern Studies as well
as "Strategic Appraisal," a periodic RAND publication.
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad consulted for
Cambridge Energy Research Associates, which at the time was conducting a
risk analysis for Unocal,
later a part of Chevron, for a proposed
1,400 km (890 mile), $2-billion, 622 m³/s (22,000 ft³/s)
Trans-Afghanistan gas pipeline project which would have extended from
Turkmenistan to Afghanistan and further proceeding to Pakistan.
Mamozy Khalilzad acted as a special liaison between UNOCAL and
the Taliban regime. As one
of the original members of Project for the New American Century,
Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad was a
signatory of the letter to William Jefferson Clinton sent on January 26, 1998,
which called for him to accept the aim of "removing Saddam Hussein and his
regime from power" using "a full complement of diplomatic, political and
Pipelines to 9/11
in Afghanistan and Oil Pipeline Politics
Soviet Union withdraw troops but
continues to aid Mohammed Najibullah.
government is overthrown when Abdul Rashid Dostum mutinies, and allies himself
with Ahmed Shah Massoud, to take control of Kabul and declare the
Islamic State of
oil reserves are of top strategic
importance in the quest to control the earth's remaining oil supply. The US
developed a policy called "The Strategy of the Silk Route." The strategy was
designed to lock out Russia,
China, and Iran
from the oil in this region. This called for US corporations to construct an
oil pipeline running through Afghanistan.
James Baker, a
key Bank of Credit and Commerce International player, former Treasury
Secretary, Secretary of State and Chief of Staff during Bank of Credit and
Commerce International's reign, is a leading player in developing the "Strategy
of the Silk Route."
Consortium of US oil companies led by Unocal, later
bought by Chevron, pursue this goal. The plan is to build a Trans-Afghanistan
Pipeline from Turkmenistan's natural gas fields to
Unocal partnered with Saudi Delta Oil, which was owned by al Qeada funders
Khalid bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein al-Amoudi form Central Asia Gas
Pipeline, Ltd. (CentGas).
A feasibility study for the Central Asian
pipeline project is performed by Enron.
This study concludes that as long as the country is split among fighting
warlords the pipeline could not be built. Stability was necessary for the $4.5
billion project and the US believed that the Taliban would impose the necessary
order. US intelligence and
Pakistan's ISI then continued the close
relationship that they established through Bank of Credit and Commerce
International (BCCI) and agreed to funnel arms and funding to the Taliban in
their war for control of Afghanistan.
Until 1999, US taxpayers pay the entire
annual salary of every single Taliban
"We would show up in someone's office, offer our
thanks, and we would leave behind a briefcase full of $100 bills, sometimes
totaling more than a million in a single transaction." -
CIA Director George J.
Taliban control Afghanistan except a
small corner in the
In reaction to the anarchy and warlordism prevalent in
Afghanistan, and the lack of Pashtun representation in the Kabul government,
the Taliban, a movement of religious
scholars and former mujahideen,
emerged from the southern province of Kandahar.
"The Taliban conducted simultaneous negotiations with two
potential oil companies: Argentinean Bridas and Unocal/CentGas. Once George
Walker Bush was elected president, Unocal and BP-Amoco, which had in the
meantime bought Bridas, the Argentinean rival resumed consortium negotiations
with the Taliban. Under Secretary of State
Armitage, previously a lobbyist for Unocal, represented the
administration's interests. The Taliban, for their part, employed as their PR
officer in the US Laila Helms, niece of Richard Helms, former director of the CIA
and former US ambassador to Iran. In March 2001,
Richard Helms brought
Rahmatullah Hashami, Mullah Omar's adviser, to Washington. Throughout the
1990's Hamid Karzai, a top adviser and lobbyist for Unocal, was involved in
negotiations with the Taliban regime for the construction of a Central Asian
gas pipeline from Turkmenistan through western
Afghanistan to Pakistan. At the same
time, Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad, who was also working for Unocal, lobbied the
Clinton administration to 'engage' with the Taliban." - Loretta
Taliban's Ban On Poppy A Success, U.S. Aides
oil interests take control of the
White House by selecting
George Walker Bush. Enron CEO
Kenneth Lee Lay, a
Bush family friend and
Bush's biggest campaign contributor, is eager.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld, the
Secretary of Defense,
is a large stockholder
Thomas White, former
vice-chairman of Enron, is appointed
Secretary of the Army.
Condoleezza Rice, a
former Chevron board member, becomes National
Security Advisor and then Secretary of State.
A major benefactor of the CentGas deal is going to be
Halliburton. Vice President
Richard Bruce Cheney is
Halliburton's CEO. Richard Armitage, a
key lobbyist for Unocal, is appointed Under Secretary of State.
who would later become Afghanistan's Prime Minister, is a top Unocal adviser.
James Baker and the
Council on Foreign
Relations demand immediate action and publicly release a Task Force Report
labeled, "Strategic Energy Policy Challenges For The 21st Century," by the
James A. Baker III Institute. They claimed urgency of the pipeline project and
openly called for the Bush Administration to "quickly facilitate higher exports
of oil from the Caspian Basin
" and they reiterated the basic premise of the "Strategy of
the Silk Route," stating, "the exports from oil discoveries in the
Caspian Basin could be
hastened if a secure, economical export route could be identified swiftly."
That "export route," as previously planned, would need to run through
Afghanistan and into Pakistan.
"The Chairman of the 911
Commission investigation was Thomas Kean, director of Hess Corp., which was in
a joint venture called Delta Oil, with Khalid Bin Mahfouz and Mohammed Hussein
al Amoudi. It is also important to mention that James Baker, who had a lead
role in developing the "Strategy of the Silk Route" and Bank of Credit and
Commerce International operations, was hired by these same BCCI/Saudi/al-Qa`ida oil
interests to defend them against lawsuits brought by families of 911 victims."
- David DeGraw
Afghan Northern Alliance, led by Ahmed Shah Massoud, has
receive diplomatic recognition in the United Nations as the government of
Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud leads the United Islamic Front for the
Salvation of Afghanistan. Ahmed Shah Massoud, an ethnic Tajik, is assassinated
in late September.
Under the auspices of a response to the September 11,
2001 attacks, the US and its coalition allies launched an
invasion of Afghanistan to
oust the Taliban
government. Sponsored by the United Nations, Afghan factions met in Bonn,
Germany and choose a 30 member interim authority led by
Hamid Karzai, a Pashtun from
"The CIA has funneled hundreds of millions of dollars to
Pakistan's intelligence service since
the Sept. 11
attacks, accounting for as much as one-third of the foreign spy agency's
annual budget. The Inter-Services Intelligence agency also has collected tens
of millions of dollars through a classified CIA program that pays for the
capture or killing of wanted militants. The ISI has used the covert CIA money
for a variety of purposes, including the construction of a new headquarters in
Islamabad, the capital. The CIA has routinely brought ISI operatives to a
secret training facility in North Carolina. The CIA also directs millions of
dollars to other foreign spy services. But the magnitude of the payments to the
ISI reflect Pakistan's central role. The CIA depends on Pakistan's cooperation
to carry out missile strikes by Predator drones that have killed dozens of
suspected extremists in Pakistani
border areas. CIA payments to the ISI can be traced to the 1980s, when the
Pakistani agency managed the flow of money and weapons to the Afghan mujahedin.
In addition to bankrolling the ISI's budget, the CIA forged a clandestine
reward program that paid bounties for suspected terrorists. The first check,
for $10 million, was for the capture of Abu Zubaydah, a top Al Qaeda figure.
The ISI got $25 million more for the capture of
Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. " -
Greg Miller November 15, 2009
Massacre: the Convoy of Death
Hamid Karzai is selected as
president of Afghanistan.
2007 DoD contracts for
up to $300 million with AEY Incorporated to became the main supplier of
munitions to Afghanistan's army and police forces. AEY Incorporated provided
ammunition that was more than 40 years old in decomposing packaging
manufactured in China. The US government contributed $2 million to destroy
excess small-caliber weapons and 2,000
tons of ammunition in Albania, according to the
through 2007 which included 104 million 7.62 millimeter cartridges. AEY bought
more than 100 million cartridges manufactured in China from Albania for the
AEY also provided ammunition or equipment in 2004 to
the Department of Energy, the EPA, the Transportation Security Administration
and the State Department. AEY was operated by Efraim E. Diveroli, president,
and David M. Packouz, vice president, (son of Rabbi Kalman Packouz) both in
their early 20's. Yoav Botach, an Israeli citizen and "entrepreneur" who
"co-owns" 144 commercial and other properties in Los Angeles through Botach
Tactical, incorporated AEY and is the father of Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and
grandfather of Efraim E. Diveroli. AEY won the contract primarily because the
US government declared Hasidic
Jews to be a disadvantaged minority for purposes of minority business
encouragement in 1984.
2008 "The chief effect of
military operations in Afghanistan so far has been to push radical Islamists
across the Pakistani border. As a
result, efforts to stabilize Afghanistan are contributing to the
destabilization of Pakistan, with
potentially devastating implications." - Andrew Bacevich
"This is a warrior culture. If you walk around
looking scared, they are not going to respect you." - Army Gen. Stanley A.
Afghanistan and the New Great Game
The oil connection: Give
me a pipeline
"Hell's Angels" of the Taliban engineer a revolt in
the Swat valley of Pakistan by
exploiting profound fissures between a small group of wealthy landlords and
their landless tenant sharecroppers.
Taliban close a major supply route
ferrying some 80% of NATO supplies
into Afghanistan by blowing up a 30-yard-long iron highway bridge in the Khyber
Obama ordered 17,000 American troops to Afghanistan "to stabilize a
4000 newly arrived Marines and 650 Afghan
troops poured into Taliban-infested villages of southern Afghanistan with armor
and helicopters in the first major operation under a new Pentagon strategy to
clear insurgents from the hotly contested region before the nation's August 20
presidential election. Southern Afghanistan is a Taliban stronghold but also a
region where Afghan president
Hamid Karzai is
seeking votes from fellow Pashtun tribesmen.
Hamid Karzai is
reelected August 20 in a "landslide victory".
August 27 a
suicide bomber hits a
Pakistani border security checkpoint killing at least 18 border guards (dozens
reported wounded) at the Torkham checkpoint, the main border crossing from the
Khyber Pass into Afghanistan.
August 30 the Chaman border crossing had
been closed for two days due to a dispute between Afghan and Pakistani customs
officers. 1,000 trucks were backed up along the road waiting to cross the
border. An explosion set several NATO vehicles on fire: three oil
tankers, two container trucks and two dump trucks.
NATO troops fighting the Taliban in
Afghanistan get about 75% of their supplies from
Pakistan through the Chaman and
Torkham border crossings.
140 Afghan peasants are killed in rural Farah
province by American airstrikes according to the Red Cross. Relatives received
about $2,000 for family members killed and $1,000 for those injured.
"As of March 2009, there were 68,197 DoD contractors in
Afghanistan, compared to 52,300 uniformed personnel. Contractors made up 57% of
DoD's workforce in Afghanistan. This apparently represented the highest
recorded percentage of contractors used by DoD in any conflict in the history
of the US. Poor contract management has also played a role in abuses and crimes
committed by certain contractors against local nationals, which likely has
undermined US counterinsurgency efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan." -
Congressional Research Service, 08/13/2009
troops set up bases along a dirt track that a Chinese firm is paving as part of
a $3 billion project to gain access to the Aynak copper reserves. American
troops are providing security to enable China to exploit one of the world's
largest unexploited deposits of copper, earn tens of billions of dollars and
feed its voracious appetite for raw materials.
U.S. troops set up bases
last month along a dirt track a Chinese firm is paving as part of a $3 billion
project to gain access to the Aynak copper reserves. Some troops made camp
outside a compound built for the Chinese road crews, who are about to return
from winter break. American forces also have expanded their presence in
neighboring Logar province, where the Aynak deposit is.
Chinese company and Taliban battle over Afghanistans
China gets an all-clear from the Taliban to mine for copper in
"Contrary to the official portrayal of the Afghan
National Army (ANA) as ethnically balanced, the latest
data from US sources reveal that the Tajik minority now accounts for far more
of its troops than the Pashtuns, the country's largest ethnic group. Tajik
domination of the ANA feeds Pashtun
resentment over the control of
the country's security institutions by their ethnic rivals, while Tajiks
increasingly regard the Pashtun population as aligned with the Taliban." -
The Campaign for a US-Afghanistan
Partnership is a nonprofit pro-war front group established by Washington's
most monied lobbying firm Patton Boggs LLP. One of Patton Boggs
LLP clients is NCL Holdings, a US firm headed by Hamed Wardak, the
Afghan-American son of Afghanistan's defense minister, General Abdul Rahim
Wardak. NCL Holdings runs supply lines in Afghanistan for the DoD.
NCL Holdings is believed to be paying protection money to the Taliban to
leave supply lines alone.
"The Afghan war is the center of a Western military
operation that is broadening into wider and wider circles throughout Eurasia
and in varying degrees taking in dozens of nations from the Chinese border to
the Indian Ocean to the Black Sea to the Adriatic Sea. Nations being absorbed
into this military transit, overflight, troop recruitment, training network
include all those in Central Asia (Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan) and the South
Georgia), the Black Sea
region (Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria,
Ukraine) and the Southern
Bosnia, Croatia, Macedonia,
Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia) in addition to Afghanistan and
Pakistan. With the exception of the
Central Asian states (so far), all of those nations mentioned above have sent
troops to the war theater or soon will, Serbia alone possibly excepted." - Rick
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