1800 Rothschilds hire general
Napoleon Bonaparte of the
French Revolutionary Army to restore order.
The privately owned
central bank of France, is
"The bankers owned its shares, and even
Napoleon himself bought shares in the bank." - Andrew Gavin
Eventually Napoleon Bonaparte
decides France has to break free of debt.
Bonaparte declares that when a government is dependent on bankers for
money, it is bankers - not government leaders - in control.
that gives is among the hand that takes.
Money has no motherland, financiers
are without patriotism and without decency, their sole object is gain." -
1801 William IX, Landgrave of
Hesse-Cassell, formally designated Mayer Amschel Bauer "Hoffaktor".
Napoleon Bonaparte strikes a deal
Jefferson, the Louisiana purchase, exchanging the Mississippi basin for
$3,000,000 in gold which Napoleon
Bonaparte uses to hire an army for the Napoleonic Wars:
the War of
the Third Coalition (1805),
the War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-7),
the War of the Fifth Coalition (1809),
the War of the Sixth
and the War of the Seventh Coalition (1815).
Before industrilization military forces are organized around "foraging"
Soldiers extensively interact with locals to acquire
supplies in the conflict zone.
As they move forward they strip the land
to continue the forward march.
This is how the Russian scorched earth
policy worked to defeat Napoleon.
The Napoleonic Wars have profound
consequences for global and European history.
They lead to:
spread of nationalism and liberalism;
the rise of the British Empire as
the premier world power;
the independence movements in Latin America;
the collapse of the Spanish Empire;
reorganization of German and Italian territories into larger states;
and the establishment of radically new methods in warfare.
Land warfare becomes dependent on mechanized
Bank of England quickly rises to
oppose Napoleon Bonaparte
and finances every nation in his path
profiteering off war.
Prussia, Austria, and
then finally Russia all go
heavily into debt to City of London
there remained but one grand imperialism in the world - the imperialism of
massive capital - Money Power in the City of
Hesse-Cassell, William IX flees to Denmark, leaving 600,000 lb (about
$3,000,000) with Mayer Amschel Bauer for safekeeping when Hesse-Kassel is
annexed by the Kingdom of Westphalia, ruled by Jérôme Bonaparte,
These funds were to go to the mercenaries or their
dependants and not to the Landgrave as the agreement-for-hire did not expire
when peace was declared, but only one full year after the peace was declared
and only when the mercenaries had returned home.
Instead of the
principal being sent to Cassel, the home of the Landgrave, the money is
retained in England where it is invested.
Interest is paid to the
Landgrave in drafts.
The money actually transferred to Cassel is used
to provide high interest loans.
This resulted in a tremendous movement
of funds in and out of Cassel with substantial income for the Landgrave, who
had taken up with the Thurn und Taxis family (Grafschaft Thurn und Taxis,
State of the Holy Roman Empire)
who held the postal monopoly for all of Europe.
The mercenaries, who
had done the most to earn the money, got nothing, but the bare promised
amounts, as they were not privy to the "private" interest bearing
side-agreements done behind their backs.
1810 William Brown establishes
William Brown & Co. in England.
1811 A bill
is put before Congress to renew the charter of the First Bank of the US.
The legislatures of both Pennsylvania and Virginia pass resolutions
asking Congress to kill the bank.
The national press openly attacks the
bank: a great swindle; a vulture; a viper; and a coiled cobra.
the application for renewal of the charter is granted, or the US will find
itself involved in a most disastrous war." -
The renewal bill clears the House of Represenatives by a
single vote and becomes deadlocked in the Senate.
James Madison, a staunch opponent of
the central bank, sends his Vice-President, George Clinton, to break the tie in
the Senate which kills the central bank.
The charter for the First Bank of the US is not renewed and
the British attack America.
As the British are still busy fighting
Napoleon Bonaparte they are unable to mount much of an assault and the war ends
with America undefeated.
1815 British Treasury owes a
debt of £ 885,000,000, much due to the
compounding of interest, to the Bank of
1818 John Alexander Brown
establishes John A. Brown and Co. in Philadelphia.
1825 James Brown establishes
Brown Brothers &
Co. on Pine Street in New York.
Brown Brothers &
Co. relocates to Wall Street.
of 1837 Brown Brothers withdraws from the lending business to focus
on currency exchange and international trade.
Civil War Brown Brothers ships
carry 75% of the slave cotton from the
American South to British mill owners.
Moses Taylor, Chairman of the Loan
Committee to finance the Union in the Civil War, offers the government another
$5,000,000 at 12% to continue financing the war by shaving 33% off
Colonel Dick Taylor of Chicago suggests Abraham Lincoln have
Congress pass a bill authorizing the printing of full legal tender
Legal Tender Act of 1862, allows the printing of $150 million
Greenback with the US Treasury acting as the
"The government should create, issue and circulate all the
currency and credit needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and
the buying power of the people.
The privilege of creating and issuing
money is not only the supreme prerogative of government, but it is in the
government's greatest creative opportunity.
By the adoption of these
principles the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest.
will cease to be master and become the servant." -
July 11, 1862 Second Legal Tender
Act enacted allows another $150 million Greenback
to be printed.
"If that mischievous financial policy, which had its
origin in the North American Republic, should become indurated down to a
fixture, then that government will furnish its own money without cost.
It will pay off debts and be without a debt.
It will have all
the money necessary to carry on its commerce.
It will become prosperous
beyond precedent in the history of civilized governments of the world.
The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to North America.
That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on
the globe." - The Times of London
December 17, 1862 General Order No. 11 decreed:
Jews, as a class violating every
regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department and also
department orders, are hereby expelled within twenty-four hours from the
receipt of this order.
2. Post commanders will see to it that all of
this class of people be furnished passes and required to leave, and any one
returning after such notification will be arrested and held in confinement
until an opportunity occurs of sending them out as prisoners, unless furnished
with permit from headquarters.
3. No passes will be given these people
to visit headquarters for the purpose of making personal application of trade
they come in with their Carpet sacks in
spite of all that can be done.
The Jews seem to be a privileged class
that can travel any where.
They will land at any wood yard and make
their way through the country.
If not permitted to buy Cotton
themselves they will act as agents for someone else who will be at a Military
post, with a Treasury permit to receive Cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes
which the Jew will buy up at an agreed rate, paying gold
a curse to the Army
expelled." - Ulysses S. Grant to Christopher
Wolcott, the United States Assistant Secretary of War
March 3, 1863 Third Legal Tender Act allows another $150
million Greenback to be printed.
June 3, 1864 Abraham Lincoln, failing to
garner congressional authority to print more Greenback signs the
National Banking Act
The North is being financed by the Rothschilds through their
American agent, August Belmont, while the South is being financed through the
Erlangers, Rothschild relatives.
"The agents of the banks fell upon the
bill in haste and disfigured it." - Thaddeus Stevens
Tsar Alexander II states Russia would consider active British
or French military action a declaration of war and sends part of his Pacific
Fleet to San Francisco.
Tsar Alexander II, like
Otto Von Bismarck in
Germany, could clearly see what the soulless central bankers were up to, indeed
he had already refused to let them set up a central bank in
1864 Abraham Lincoln is re-elected.
"The money power
preys upon the nations in times of peace and conspires against it in times of
It is more despotic than monarchy, more insolent than
autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy." - Abraham Lincoln, November
"My agency in promoting the passage of the National Banking
Act was the greatest financial mistake in my life. It has built up a
monopoly which affects every interest in the country." -
"While boasting of our noble deeds we're careful to conceal
the ugly fact that by an iniquitous money system we have nationalized a system
of oppression which, though more
refined, is not less cruel than the old
system of chattel slavery." -
"Importers were obliged to go to Wall Street to buy gold to
pay duties on their goods, and the Wall Street gamblers held the power to
fix the price.
Gold went to a premium.
Had the greenbacks
been permitted to retain their full legal tender quality, there would have been
no need for gold to pay import duties.
The price of gold rapidly rose
and before the war closed had reached the price of $2.85, measured in
Thus during the entire war these gold gamblers speculated
in gold, making fortunes from the blood and tears of the
This 'sacred war debt' was only a gigantic of
fraud, concocted by European capitalists and enacted into American law with the
aid of congressmen, who were their paid hirelings or their ignorant dupes." -
Mrs M. E. Hobart
1865 Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, at
Allegations that international bankers were responsible for
Lincoln's assassination surfaced in the Canadian House of Commons in 1934.
Gerald G. McGeer obtained evidence deleted from the public record
provided by Secret Service Agents that stated John Wilkes Booth was a mercenary
working for Rothschild.
"They were the men opposed to his national currency program
and who had fought him throughout the whole
Civil War on his policy of the
They were the men interested in
the establishment of the Gold Standard and the right of the bankers to manage
the currency and credit of every nation.
With Abraham Lincoln out of
the way they were able to proceed with that plan and did proceed with it in the
8 years after Lincoln's assassination,
silver was demonetized and the
Standard set up in the US." - Gerald G. McGee, Vancouver Sun,
May 2, 1934
"It was during the Civil War that
the conspirators launched their first concrete efforts.
We know that
Judah Benjamin, chief advisor of Jefferson Davis, was a Rothschild agent.
We also know that there were Rothschild agents planted in Abraham
Lincoln's cabinet who tried to sell him into a financial dealing with the
House of Rothschild.
Abe saw through the scheme and bluntly rejected it thereby incurring the
undying enmity of the Rothschilds; exactly as the
Russian Tsar did when he
torpedoed their first League of Nations at the Congress in Vienna.
Investigation of the assassination of Lincoln revealed that the assassin
Booth was a member of a
secret conspiratorial group. " - Myron Fagan
central bankers wanted the reinstitution of a central bank under their control
and an American currency backed by gold.
was chosen as gold had always been relatively scarce, was a lot easier to
monopolize , than silver - now plentifully found in huge quantities in Aspen,
Caribou, Telluride and Leadville Colorado, Virginia City Nevada and the Calico
Mountains of California.
1866 Congress passes the, "Contraction Act," which
authorizes the Secretary of the Treasury to contract the
money supply by retiring some of
the Greenback in circulation.
hard times which occurred
after the Civil War could have been avoided if the Greenback legislation had continued as
Abraham Lincoln had intended.
Instead there were a series of
money panics, what we call
recessions, which put pressure on Congress to enact legislation to place the
banking system under centralized control. " - Theodore R. Thoren and Richard F.
Congress passes the "Contraction
Act"The money supply falls as currency is
withdrawn from circulation.
1866 - $1,800,000,000
in circulation - approximately $50.46 per capita
1867 - $1,300,000,000 in circulation - approximately $44.00
1876 - $600,000,000 in circulation -
approximately $14.60 per capita
1886 - $400,000,000 in circulation -
approximately $6.67 per capita
1872 Ernest Seyd appears in America with
$100,000 to bribe as many
Congressmen as necessary for the purposes of getting silver
Grant signs the Coinage Act (H. R. 2934 written in 67 sections
filling 35 pages of the House Journal on May 27, 1872) which results in the
minting of silver dollars being abruptly stopped.
Hooper, who introduced the bill in the house, admits Ernest Seyd drafted the
Western mining interests and others who want silver in
circulation labeled this measure the "Crime of '73."
"I went to America
in the winter of 1872 - 1873, authorized to secure, if I could, the passage of
a bill demonetizing silver.
It was in the interests of those I
represented, the governors of the Bank of England, to have it done.
By 1873, gold coins were the only form of
coin money." - Ernest Seyd
1876 One third of
the workforce is unemployed and unrest is growing.
There are even calls
for a return to Greenback or silver.
Congress creates the US Silver Commission to investigate the
This commission states that the deliberate contraction of the money supply
created the current "monetary crisis."
disaster of the Dark Ages was
caused by decreasing money and falling prices. Without money, civilization
could not have had a beginning, and with a diminishing supply, it must
languish, and unless relieved, finally perish. History records no other such
disastrous transition as that from the
Roman Empire to the
Dark Ages." - US Silver
Despite this report no action is taken.
Rioting breaks out from Pittsburgh to Chicago.
Association urges membership to do everything in their power to put
down any notion of a return to Greenbacks.
The American Bankers
Association secretary, James Buel, writes a letter to the
"It is advisable to do all in your power to sustain such
prominent daily and weekly newspapers, especially
the Agricultural and Religious Press, as well as oppose the
Greenback issue of paper money and that you will
also withhold patronage from all applicants who are not willing to oppose the
government issue of money.
To repeal the Act creating bank notes, or to
restore to circulation issue of money will be to provide the people with money
and will therefore seriously affect our individual profits as bankers and
See your Congressman at once and engage him to support our
interests that we may control legislation." - Secretary James Buel of the
Associated Bankers of New York, Philadelphia, and Boston
1878 Congress passes the Sherman Law.
allows the minting of a limited number of silver dollars, ending the 5 year
However this did not mean that anyone who brought silver to the
US Mint could have it struck into silver dollars, free of charge, as in the
period prior to Ernest Seyd's Coinage Act in 1873.
Gold backing of the American
currency also remains.
The Sherman Law ensures that some money begans
to flow into the economy again.
James Abram Garfield, Chairman of the Appropriations Committee and a member of
Banking and Currency, is elected President.
"Whosoever controls the
volume of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce.
And when you realize that the entire system is very easily controlled,
one way or another, by a few powerful men at the top, you will not have to be
told how periods of inflation and depression originate." - James Abram
July 2, 1881 James Abram Garfield is
shot by the assassin Charles J. Guiteau.
1892 "Let us make use of the courts.
Let us go forward as fast as possible at foreclosing on
debentures and mortgages.
Through the intervention of law,
the common people shall have lost their homes, they will be
more easy to control and
more easy to govern.
not be able to resist the strong hand of the government acting in accordance
with the orders of the central power of imperial wealth, under the control of
the leaders of finance.
Our top leaders are presently working at
establishing an imperialism of capital to rule the world.
are implementing this plan, they must keep the people busy with political
antagonisms." - United States Bankers' Magazine 1892
1893 "The year 1893 saw the biggest
economic crisis in the country's history. After several decades of wild
industrial growth, financial manipulation, uncontrolled speculation and profiteering, it
all collapsed: 642 banks failed and 16,000 businesses closed down. Out of the
labor force of 15 million, 3 million were unemployed." -
1894 "Were the Government to establish banks as depositories
for all the money in the country it is safe to presume that nearly all the
money in the country would come into these banks.
We cannot enumerate
in an hour all the benefits of government ownership of the banking system but
you will recognize the following:
I. Absolute safety of the bank as a
place for depositing money.
Relief from anxiety to all
persons who deposit money in the banks.
III. The inducement for the
common people to acquire and save money that they may place it in the bank and
get 3 per cent interest on their deposits.
IV. The constant abundance
of money in the bank by which any person can always borrow who has security.
V. The absolute impartiality by which the poor can borrow as cheaply as
the rich, the man in Idaho borrow as cheaply as the man in New York.
VI. Freedom from broken banks, which precipitate the financial panic,
which shut down business, which starves out the laboring man, which compels the
poor to sell for what they can get in order to have something to eat.
VII. Freedom from the hard times, resulting from bank failures, in
which period the rich take advantage of the poor, who are out of work, to buy
that which they are compelled to sell at a quarter of the value.
Freedom from the distressed
conditions from time to time in which the millionaire so rapidly doubles
and trebles his fortune.
IX. The abolition of the chattel mortgage
shark that gets his 5 per cent a month when banks are failing and money is
X. The abolition of the money broker who gets his living
through the simple finding of places where money can be borrowed during the
continual period of hard times.
XI. The settled financial conditions by
which people can know what to depend upon when they engage in business.
XII. The immense revenue to the Government - a clear profit over and
above all present means of revenue.
XIII. Freedom from the expense
borne by people who pay annually hundreds of thousands of dollars to save
manufacturers and the proprietors of depositories for the custody of money in
these hiding places.
XIV. The convenience and safety from
robbery of doing business with
checks instead of being compelled to carry and use money in all business,
XV. The low rate of interest to borrowers by which the
money expended in interest can be saved and put into general circulation
instead of going into rich money loaner's hands at the great financial
centers." - Thomas E. Hill
1895 Supreme Court
finds an income tax law similar to the 16th amendment
1896 The central issue in the Presidential campaign is the
issue of more silver money.
Senator William Jennings Bryan from
Nebraska makes an emotional speech at the Democratic National Convention in
Chicago, labeled, "Crown Of Thorns And Cross Of Gold."
"We will answer
their demand for a Gold
Standard by saying to them, you shall not press down upon the brow
of labor this crown of thorns, you
shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." - Senator Jennings
William McKinley favors the Gold Standard.
industrialists inform their employees that if William Jennings Bryan is elected
all factories and plants would close.
William McKinley beats
William Jennings Bryan by a small margin.
"On the one hand there is the party which holds
the power because it holds the wealth, which has in its grasp all labor and all
trade, which manipulates for its own benefit and its own purposes all the
sources of supply, and which is powerfully represented in the councils of State
On the other side there is the needy and
powerless multitude, sore and
Rapacious usury, which, although more than once condemned by
the Church, is nevertheless under a different form but with the same guilt,
still practiced by avaricious and grasping men so that
a small number of very rich men have
been able to lay upon the masses of the poor a yoke little better than slavery
itself." - Pope Leo XIII
The US annexes Guam,
the Philippine Islands,
Puerto Rico and gains temporary control over
League opposed annexation on economic, legal, and
William McKinley as an imperialist.
McKinley is re-elected with imperialist
foreign policy paramount.
William Jennings Bryan did not want war with Spain, opposed the
annexation of the Philippines and campaigned for silver money.
McKinley claimed to want American producers supreme in
global markets and
after the passage of the Gold Standard Act of 1900
William McKinley easily won re-election.
1901 Leon Frank Czolgosz
assassinates William McKinley.
Leon Frank Czolgosz was heavy influenced
by the anarchists Emma Goldman and Ovsei Osipovich Berkman who are deported
under the Anarchist Exclusion Act of 1903.
1907 Two stock market crashes occur.
In March 1907 and
then again in October 1907 with the stock market falling nearly 50% from its
peak in 1906.
There were numerous runs on banks and trust companies
leading to the closings of many banks and businesses.
Shortly before the
Panic of 1907
Jacob Hirsch Schiff, the head of
Kuhn & Loeb, speaking to the New York Chamber of Commerce:
"Unless we have a central bank with adequate control of credit
resources, this country is going to undergo the most severe and far reaching
money panic in its history."
"If the Tsar will not accord our people
desired liberties, then a revolution will bring about a republic which will
assure us our rights." - Jacob
John Pierpont Morgan, threatened by the developing
trusts, refuses to help Knickerbocker Trust which is experiencing a run
Charles T. Barney, the president of Knickerbocker
Trust, Charles Morse and his partners Otto and Augustus Heinze, have failed
in a hostile takeover attempt
of United Copper .
21 National Bank of
Commerce announces it will stop accepting cheques from Knickerbocker
Trust and Knickerbocker Trust collapses.
October 23 New York
Times runs front-page article describing the run on the Knickerbocker
Trust with a companion article describing the Trust Company of
America, the second largest trust in New York City, as the current "sore
point" in the panic according to George W. Perkins, a senior Morgan
"Oakleigh Thorne testified before a congressional committee
that his bank had been subjected to only moderate withdrawals
had not applied for help, and that it was the [Morgan's] 'sore point' statement
alone that had caused the run on his bank.
Morgan interests took
advantage of the unsettled conditions during the autumn of 1907 to precipitate
the panic, guiding it shrewdly as it progressed so that it would kill off rival
banks and consolidate the preeminence of the banks within the Morgan orbit." -
Frederick Lewis Allen, Life Magazine April 25, 1949
Morgan publicly announces he will provide
liquidity to the Trust Company of
America to stave off collapse.
John Pierpont Morgan takes control of
many smaller New York banks by manufacturing over $40,000,000 completely
reserveless private money (fungible
instruments), purchasing goods and services with it while sending some of
it to his branch banks to be lent out at interest.
"A study of the panics of 1873, 1893, and
1907 indicates that these
panics were the result of the international banker
operations in London." - Eustace Mullins
signs into law a bill creating the, National Monetary Commission.
This commission is packed with friends and cronies of John Pierpont
Morgan including chairman Senator
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich
representing America's richest banking families from Newport Rhode
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich's daughter Abby
marrys John D. Rockefeller
Jr., and together they have five sons including
Nelson who would
become Vice President in 1974 and David who would become Head of the
Council on Foreign
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich's son Winthrop Aldrich became
chairman of the Chase National Bank.
Following the setting up of this National Monetary Commission,
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich immediately embarks on a 2 year 'fact finding' tour of
Europe, where he consulted at length with the central bankers in England,
France, and Germany, or rather Rothschild,
"Finance and the tariff are reserved by Nelson Aldrich as falling
within his sole purview and jurisdiction.
Mr. Aldrich is endeavoring to
devise, through the National Monetary Commission, a banking and currency
A great many are firmly of the opinion that Mr. Aldrich sums up in
his personality the greatest and most sinister menace to the popular welfare of
the US." - Harper's Weekly, May 7, 1910
Shortly after Nelson
Wilmarth Aldrich return the most wealthy and powerful men in America board his
private railcar in the strictest secrecy and journey to Jekyll Island off the
coast of Georgia.
In this group is
Paul Warburg who has been lobbying
for over five years for a privately owned central bank in America and
Jacob Hirsch Schiff
who has recently purchased control of Kuhn & Loeb shortly after he arrives
in America from England.
interconnected by marriage.
Paul Warburg married
Nina Loeb, daughter of
Solomon Loeb of
Kuhn & Loeb.
Felix Warburg married Frieda
Schiff, daughter of Jacob Hirsch
"I was as secretive indeed,
as furtive as any
Discovery we knew, simply must not happen, or else all
our time and effort would be wasted.
If it were to be exposed that our
particular group had got together and written a banking bill, that bill would
have no chance whatever of passage by Congress." -
Frank Vanderlip, Saturday Evening
Post, February 9, 1935
"In the US today we have in effect two
We have the duly constituted Government.
have an independent, uncontrolled and uncoordinated government in the
Federal Reserve system, operating the
money powers which are reserved to
Congress by the Constitution." - Represenative Wright Patman, Chairman
of the House Banking Committee
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