Edward Murrow

"We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. When the loyal opposition dies, I think the soul of America dies."

Edward R. Murrow

State Secrets Privilege: Selected Case Files

Background on the State Secrets Privilege

State Secrets Privilege

"Taken as a whole, the evidence thus far shows that a very substantial fraction of the funding for academic US research into social psychology and into many aspects of mass communication behavior during the first fifteen years of the cold war was directly controlled or strongly influenced by a small group of men who had enthusiastically supported elite psychological operations as an instrument of foreign and domestic policy since World War II.

This was not a "conspiracy," in the hackneyed sense of that word.

It was rather precisely the type of "reference group" or informal network that is so well known to sociologists" - Christopher Simpson, Science of Coercion

1946 US Chamber of Commerce is so worried about the spread of Communism that it proposed removing liberals, socialists and communists from places like schools, libraries, newspapers and entertainment.

August 3, 1948 Whittaker Chambers, a former US Communist Party member, testifies under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) that Alger Hiss has secretly been a Communist while in federal service.

January 1950 Alger Hiss is found guilty of perjury.
Americans are being warned communists are infiltrating the government.

1951 Edward Hunter coins a new word: brainwashing.

Communists have found ways of controlling people's minds.

Brainwashing in Red China - Edward Hunter

1952 Colonel Frank Schwable, is shot down over Korea and captured, the highest ranking military officer to meet that fate.

February 1953 Frank Schwable and other prisoners of war confess to using germ warfare against the Koreans, dropping everything from anthrax to the plague on unsuspecting civilians.

The American public shocked, grew even more so when 5,000 of the 7,200 POWs either petitioned the US government to end the war, or signed confessions of their alleged crimes.

The final blow came when 21 American soldiers refused repatriation.

Milo Radulovich is discharged from the Air Force Reserve after members of his family are believed to have Communist sympathies.

He was given the opportunity to resign but refuses and requests a hearing.

During the hearing, the prosecution waves around a sealed manila envelope claiming there is evidence in it that cannot be seen as they are state secrets.

Radulovich is severed from the Air Force Reserves.

Loyalty is never questioned.

An article in the Detroit Press is read by Alfred Friendly, Murrow's producer.

They have been searching for a story to illustrate the dangers of McCarthy.

The case is based on Radulovich's father and sister political orientation.

Emigrants from Serbia, his father subscribes to several Serbian newspapers, one of which was classified as Communist by the US government.

His sister is labeled a sympathizer as she supported liberal causes though she has declared that she has no political sympathies.

Friendly film crew interviews Radulovich, his family, and his attorneys.

Mr. Murrow broadcasts the report on October 20, 1953.

The impassioned interviews make an impression on the country.

Thousands of letters pour into CBS in support of Radulovich.

"First time any of us appreciated the power of television." - Fred Friendly

Radulovich is reinstated to reduce tension.

Murrow accidentally may have done a great service to the deep state by shifting the focus of the ability of the government to produce secret evidence from state secrets to the political affilation of the subject.

The following theatrics of the Red Scare shift the focus off the ability of the State to use secret evidence to convict onto political orientation.

Why Did Noel Field Spy for the Russians?

1992 Records are found in Hungarian Interior Ministry archives in which self-confessed Soviet spy Noel Field names Alger Hiss as a fellow agent.

Noel Field, an American Quaker citizen, grew up in Switzerland.

Field attended Harvard and worked in the US Foreign Service from 1929 until 1936, when he left the State Department for a job at the League of Nations in Geneva helping refugees from the Spanish Civil War.

During World War II, Field, who never concealed he was a Communist, headed a Unitarian Services organization to aid displaced persons in Marseilles, before fleeing to Geneva, where he collaborated with Allen Dulles of the OSS (who was based in Bern).

After the war ended Field traveled to Prague were he was seized by Stalinist security services and accused of having organized an anti-Communist resistance network in Eastern Europe for the OSS during the war.

Held for five years in solitary confinement, interrogated under torture in Hungary, Field eventually broke down and confessed to being an agent.

"The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department." - Patrick Moynihan

Venona document, #1579, actually mentioned "HISS" by name.

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