"Combination of agriculture with manufacturing
Point 9 Communist Manifesto, Karl Heinrich Marx
"The atrocious system of poisoning, by poisons so
slow in their operation, as to make the victim appear, to ordinary observers,
as if dying from a gradual decay of nature, has been practiced in all ages." -
"The Committee of Research and Information on
Genetic Engineering (CRIIGEN) and Universities of Caen and Rouen studied
Monsanto's 90-day feeding trials data of insecticide producing Mon 810, Mon 863
and Roundup® herbicide absorbing NK 603 varieties of GM corn.
The data "clearly underlines
adverse impacts on kidneys
and liver, the dietary
detoxifying organs, as well as
different levels of
damages to heart, adrenal
glands, spleen and
haematopoietic system." - Gilles-Eric Séralini,
at the University of Caen
1901 Monsanto Chemical
Works founded by John Francis Queeny, a member of the Knights of Malta.
The first product is saccharin, sold to
Coca-Cola® as an
This is a patent infringment as saccharin is only manufactured in
1907 Department of
Agriculture investigates whether replacing sugar with saccharin violates
the Pure Food and Drug Act, a consumer protection law.
Roosevelt, a saccharin consumer, objects.
1911 Department of Agriculture proclaims food with saccharin
"adulterated" banning it except for use by medical patients who must avoid
World War I starts, and sugar
shortages prompt the government to lift saccharin restrictions.
1915 Caffeine and vanillin are added to Monsanto's product
line, and with Coca-Cola as a chief
customer, sales reach $1 million.
1917 Monsanto begins producing
aspirin, becoming the
top producer in the US, a title it held until the 1980s.
1928 Queeny passes on the incorporation to his son, Edgar M.
Queeny. Monsanto flourishes under the protection of high US tariffs.
1930 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) begin to
Total global production of PCBs on the order of 1.5
million tons - US over 600,000 tons through 1977.
follows with nearly 450,000 tons through 1984.
1933 Expanding, the incorporation renames itself the Monsanto
Chemical. One of its products, styrene, will become critical to the US during
World War II.
1964 The variety of product offerings prompts the group to
rebrand as the Monsanto.
1964-69 As a
government contractor Monsanto manufactures Agent Orange,
a highly toxic
herbicide used by the US military in Operation Ranch Hand during the
Vietnam War to clear
jungles, starve North Vietnamese soldiers and
South Vietnamese resisters.
scientists are the first to genetically modify a plant cell.
Monsanto acquires the Jacob Hartz Seed known for its soybean
The soya bean (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East
Jacob Hartz produced the first soybean crop in Arkansas in 1925.
The fact the soybean plant grew well in the nitrogen depleted cotton
and rice fields of Arkansas County led to the growth of the soybean
1984 Vietnam veterans settle a
lawsuit with Monsanto for its role in exposing troops to Agent Orange, a 50:50
mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs estimates the US military
exposed 4.8 million people to Agent Orange causing 400,000 deaths and
birth defects in 500,000 babies.
Monsanto buys pharmaceutical firm G.D. Searle , patent holder of
1994 Monsanto introduces a recombinant version
of bovine somatotropin, a bovine growth hormone (BGH, bST and BST) brand-named
Posilac, a synthetic supplement for dairy cows.
1996 Roundup Ready seeds genetically engineered to tolerate
Roundup herbicide are introduced.
cotton, and other
crops have since dominated every market.
corn and soybean
seeds from DeKalb Genetics and buys the cotton and biotech corporation
Cetus of Madison, Inc. was founded by Winston Brill in
Cetus of Madison, Inc. was focused on finding a rhizobium species,
nitrogen fixation and nodulation in legumes, in the hope of some day using
horizontal gene transfer to enable maize to have the ability to fix
This is a literally insane idea and I thought so at the
In 1984 Cetus sells half of its interest in Cetus of Madison, Inc.
to the WR Grace Co. to become Agracetus, Inc.
Agracetus Campus of
Monsanto Company with 21,700 employees worldwide in 2008 is the world's largest
soybean transformation laboratory.
(C20H19NO3), a pyridine based pesticide, is
found effective in protecting cotton crops against whitefly.
Latin American Doctors Suggest Monsanto Larvicide Cause of
1998 Under the leadership of
lawyer and former urban affairs professor Robert Shapiro (former head of
NutraSweet® operations), the corporation spins off its chemical operations.
Monsanto then commits to biotech, with the official goal of helping
people "lead longer, healthier lives, at costs that they and their nations can
afford and without continued environmental
1999 After an $8 billion
licensing and buying spree, Monsanto becomes the foremost producer of
genetically modified seeds.
becomes a publicly traded corporation.
2006 Trace amounts of genetically
modified rice are found in US long-grain stocks.
The decline in rice
futures costs US
growers about $150 million when the European Union, Japan, Russia, and other
markets refuse to purchase rice.
Department of Agriculture
deregulates one of the two grains implicated in the lawsuits in an attempt to
salvage the contaminated rice.
Over 30% of ricelands have been
contaminated with LibertyLink strains of rice designed to be resistant to the
Liberty (gluphosinate) herbicide.
"Traces of LL601 rice were discovered
in the rice grain merchandising system in Europe, Africa and Asia in August
2006." - E. Neal Blue
"Aside from the risks involved in the process of
developing this genetically modified rice residues of the powerful herbicide -
LibertyLink (gluphosinate) - also put at risk those who will be consuming it on
a daily basis and at least two times a day. GMO rice should never be allowed to
enter Philippine shores again and threaten our rice supply in the future." -
Over 1200 farmers in Texas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Arkansas and Missouri file separate lawsuits against Bayer
The total costs incurred
throughout the world as a result of the
contamination are estimated to
range from $741 million to $1.285 billion.
agrees to pay $100 million to the University of California for patent
infringement of the bovine growth
2009 Federal jury rules in re Genetically Modified Rice
Litigation, 06-MD-01811, US District Court, Eastern District of Missouri (St.
Louis) that Bayer CropScience AG is responsible for the
contamination of farmers
Ken Bell and Johnny Hunter long grain rice crops with genetically modified
organisms (GMO). Bayer CropScience AG admitted it was unable to control the
spread of its genetically-engineered organisms despite 'the best practices' to
stop contamination. Bayer
CropScience AG was ordered to pay just under $2 million in compensatory damages
as a cross-pollination event occurred mixing regular and genetically modified
modified corn seeds donated by
the earthquake. The
National Peasant Movement of the Congress of Papay call the
charity "a very strong attack on
small agriculture, on farmers, on Creole seeds and on what is left of
environment in Haiti."
2011 Public Patent Foundation, which consists of 60 farmers, seed
businesses, and organic agricultural organizations, files a lawsuit challenging
Monsanto's patents on genetically modified seed.
September 2011 Monsanto collects $85,000 from Vernon Bowman,
an Indiana soy farmer, for patent infringement.
September 2012A highly contested study finds that Roundup
herbicide and genetically modified corn cause tumors and organ damage in
October 2012 A television
spot opposing Proposition 37, California's genetically engineered food labeling
initiative, is pulled. It features a research fellow from a conservative
think tank posing as a Stanford
University professor and a founding director of the
FDA Office of Technology.
November 2012 Prop. 37 is defeated in
President Obama signs the
Monsanto Protection Act, which requires the Department of Agriculture to
approve genetically modified crops even if courts have ruled against them.
Nine Supreme Court justices
award a patent case to Monsanto against Indiana soybean farmer Vernon
Bowman, ruling that patent exhaustion doesn't apply to Roundup Ready soybean
According to the New
York Times, "The ruling has implications for many aspects of modern
agriculture and for businesses based on vaccines, cell lines and software."
reports in Oregon prompt Monsanto to issue a "We're here to help!"
June 2013 Connecticut passes the
nation's first GMO labeling law. Three weeks later, Monsanto EVP and chief
technology officer Robert T. Fraley wins the World Food Prize (the "Nobel Prize
of food"), along with two other scientists who work on GMOs. The incorporation
is one of the award's biggest donors.
2013 Monsanto expands weed-management
which come with cash, for farmers.
Washington state's GMO labeling initiative is defeated. A year after it ran,
the journal that published the study linking GMOs with cancer in mice, Food and
Chemical Toxicology, retracts the paper as the publisher is purchased by a
2014 The Natural Resources Defense Council petitions the EPA to
review its rules for glyphosate use to save
plummeting monarch butterfly
March 2014 Monsanto partners
with MIT researchers to form Preceres LLC, a incorporation that will develop
new biological products for pest, virus, and weed control.
June 7, 2018 Bayer CropScience AG completes acquisition of
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