conservation is defined as:
protect from loss or harm
use carefully or sparingly, avoiding waste
to keep in a safe or sound
state; to save; to preserve; to protect
The Land Pyramid
"An ethic to
supplement and guide the economic relation to land presupposes the existence of
some mental image of land as a biotic mechanism.
We can be ethical only
in relation to something we can see, feel, understand, love, or otherwise have
The image commonly employed in conservation education is 'the
balance of nature.'
For reasons too lengthy to detail here, this figure
of speech fails to describe accurately what little we know about the land
A much truer image is the one employed in ecology: the
I shall first sketch the pyramid as a symbol of land,
and later develop some of its implications in terms of land-use.
absorb energy from the sun.
This energy flows through a circuit called
the biota, which may be represented by a pyramid consisting of layers.
The bottom layer is the soil.
A plant layer rests on the soil,
an insect layer on the plants, a bird and rodent layer on the insects, and so
on up through various animal groups to the apex layer, which consists of the
The species of a layer are alike not in where they
came from, or in what they look like, but rather in what they eat.
successive layer depends on those below it for food and often for other
services, and each in turn furnishes food and services to those above.
Proceeding upward, each successive layer decreases in numerical
Thus, for every carnivore there are hundreds of his prey,
thousands of their prey, millions of insects, uncountable plants.
pyramidal form of the system reflects the numerical progression from apex to
Man shares an intermediate layer with the bears, raccoons, and
squirrels which ear both meat and vegetables.
The lines of dependency
for food and other services are called food chains.
soil-oak-deer-Indian is a chain that has now been largely converted to
Each species, including ourselves, is a link in
The deer eats a hundred plants other than oak, and the cow
a hundred plants other than corn.
Both, then, are links in a hundred
The pyramid is a tangle of chains so complex as to seem
disorderly, yet the stability of the system proves it to be a highly organized
structure." - Aldo Leopold, Sand County Almanac
Fundamental to natural
selection is the idea of change by common descent.
This implies that
all living organisms are related to each other; for any two species, if we look
back far enough we will find that they are descended from a common ancestor.
This is a radically different view than Aristotles Great Chain of
Being, in which each species is formed individually with its own purpose and
place in nature and where no species evolves into a new species.
Evolution by natural selection is a purely mechanistic theory of change
that does not appeal to any sense of purpose or a designer.
There is no
foresight or purpose in nature, and there is no implication that one species is
more perfect than another.
There is only change driven by selection
pressures from the environment.
Although the modern theory of biological
evolution by natural selection is well accepted among professional biologists,
there is still controversy about whether natural selection selects for fit
genes or fit organisms or fit species.
Thomas Aquinas, borrowing from
Aristotle, devised an
ingenious two-step strategy for deciding whether an action is moral.
Step one: look at what happens always or for the most part in
nature to determine its laws.
That investigation will reveal the
natural and proper functions of organs and activities: those that
Nature, so to speak, intended.
(If Nature is another name
for God, then intent can even be taken literally.)
use the resulting observations to determine what we ought to do and
especially what we ought not to do according to whether it was found to
be natural or unnatural in step
Aquinas strategy, still holding sway in the Vatican as the
doctrine of natural law, is a slippery example of bait-and-switch.
In step one, the word law seems to be used as in science,
to refer to descriptive
generalisations about what actually happens.
In step two, however,
the words meaning is closer to that of legislation.
Laws of this second sort are
promulgated and often
the first sort cannot be broken, even if they are stochastic, specifying
Laws of one kind are about
the facts of nature; laws of the
other kind are about how we
should change those facts.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of
the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For
more information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to
use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond
'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved