"The corporate culture came to dominate the news
business, treating news as a commodity or service no different from 'toasters,
light bulbs, or jet engines'." - Lawrence Grossman 1995
"The rhythm of the news cycle has changed so
dramatically that what's really been excluded is the time that it takes to
think." - Barry SchwartzMost newspapers in the early
19th century cost six cents a copy and were affordable only to the upper
classes, though a barter system often allowed readers to trade rags, whiskey or
other goods for a subscription.
Presses were still
hand-powered and essentially unchanged from Gutenberg's design.
1810 German printer Friedrich Koenig patented the
1843 American Richard M.
Hoe makes a further improvement with the rotary printing press, which arranged
the material to be printed on a cylinder rather than a flat plate, allowing a
much larger volumes of material to be printed-millions of copies in a day
rather than thousands-at a lower cost. These advances led to a rise in the
number of newspapers published, with more available at prices affordable to the
working class-by 1860, about 3,000 newspapers were published in the U.S. with a
circulation of roughly 1.5 million, in comparison with about 500 newspapers
with a circulation of about 3,000 in 1820.
Randolf Hearst runs the following headline in the New York Journal the
day after the USS Maine is blown up:
"HOW DO YOU LIKE
THE JOURNAL'S WAR!"
"I rather like the idea of
war - not a big one - but one that will arouse interest and give me a
chance to gauge the reflex on our circulation figures."
Joseph Pulitzer realized he needed
to create a newspaper for a broad audience who was steeped in
cheap dime novels and
family story papers.
Pulitzer* pioneered the use of
employing color lavishly
and writing news in such a way that it
appealed to the fundamental emotions.
The evolution of the New York World into a visual entertainment
medium increased circulation from 15,000 to 350,000 within four
"The New York Graphic editor Emile Gauvreau, with an
insight not unlike Hearst's realized that
newspapers could create characters from real people and then "star" them in
adventures that could be featured on the front
page news. Once they were created,
anything these individuals
said or did would be news simply by dint of their recognizability.
Thus was the celebrity
created." - Neil Gabler
"In the days before radio
was controlled almost exclusively by newspapers. There must have been more
deliberate lying in the world from 1914 to
1918 than in any other period of the world's history." - Arthur
"A profession once dominated by tough, streetwise
refugees from the working class is now dominated by dainty alumni from our
finest schools, people to whom poverty
is not only unpleasant and unhygienic but totally uncool." - Joe
Department of Journalism 1992 survey of 147 editors of daily
- 93.2 percent said sponsors had "threatened to withdraw
advertising from the newspaper because of the content of the stories." (89
percent replied advertisers followed through on this threat) 89.9 percent
responded that advertisers had "tried to influence the content of a news story
- 71.4 percent said that "an advertiser tried to kill a
story at the newspaper."
- 55.1 percent revealed that they had gotten
"pressure from within the newspaper to write or tailor news stories to please
- 36.7 percent said that advertisers had "succeeded in
influencing news or features in the newspaper."
"Most editors and newsmen on the staffs of
Life, Look, Time,
Newsweek, etc., and most editors,
reporters, and commentators at NBC, CBS, and ABC
take their news and editorial cues from the New York Times. Technically, it is a
great newspaper; but it reports much of the news in conformity with its
editorial policies." - Alice Widener
Journalism of verification
has ceded ground for years on talk shows and cable to a new journalism of
assertion, where information is offered with meager attempts independently to
verify the informations veracity.
The result is that
sometimes true and sometimes false.
All this makes it easier for those who would
public opinion - governments,
think tanks and
Those who distrust corporate news media
are often heavier consumers of news outlets than those who are more
trusting. This is explained by the fact that
there is so much conflicting content.
Journalists need to make significant changes by documenting their
reporting process openly so that audiences can decide for themselves
whether to trust their reports.
of PBS will see a different range of concerns from those who watch cable, where
celebrity are a notable part of the
On Fox news, the journalists themselves offer their opinions,
without attribution to any reporting, in seven out of ten stories. That happens
in less than one story out of ten on CNN, and
in fewer than three stories out of ten on MSNBC. Fox news stories are more
deeply sourced than those of its cable rivals, but are also more one-sided.
PBS's NewsHour, however, is noticeably even more thorough in its
"News organizations often willingly collude with efforts to
censor because media owners are
members of the political
elite themselves and therefore share the goals and outcomes of
leaders. Profit ranks higher than truth telling in the minds of
media owners and many of their
employees." - Nancy Snow
2004 7% of all newspaper
stories, and 13% of front-page stories, contain anonymous sources. Among the
largest newspapers, 12% of all 2004 coverage
contained anonymous sources, compared to just 3% at
the smallest newspapers and 6% at mid-range
newspapers. Magazines, the growth area in
publications, focus on shopping.
53% of all network television
stories contain anonymous sources. On the
morning television programs the figure rose to 79%.
The use of
anonymous sources was rare on cable television news. Just 9% of the stories
overall contained any anonymous sources. Online 19% of the stories studied
contained anonymous sourcing.
The long term trend is toward investing
fewer resources in original news gathering. Much
of the investment and effort is in
repackaging, reformulating, redacting, reenacting, thus re-presenting
previously presented "information" in new distracting ways, not in gathering
it. Americans are more likely to see the same images across multiple television
channels, read the same wire story in different
publications and observe the crosspollination the various media outlets such as
a television advertisement that is also played on the radio and, as well, is
visually incorporated into a billboard and print ads venues than they were a
Americans remain skeptical
about the corporate news media.
A wave of high-profile scandals
involving plagiarism and fabrication at some of the
nation's most established news institutions confirmed what people
People have long considered the
press sensational, rude, pushy, and
"In the late 1970s early 1980s,
consumers of news began to see the press as less professional, less
inaccurate, and less caring
about the interests of ordinary Americans.
Statistical changes of
opinion about 'news' between 1985 and 2002:
highly professional -
decline from 72% to 49%;
moral - decline from
54% to 39%;
accurate - decline from 55% to 35%;
mistakes - increase from 13% to 67%;
politically biased - increase from 45% to 59%.
Overall, trust in news
sources is down. Despite major news events such as the war in Iraq, the median
cable news audience has not grown since 2001. English language newspaper
circulation declined 11% since 1990 and network evening news ratings are down
34% over the last decade.
The percentage of people who believe what
they read in newspapers has declined from 80% in 1985 to 59% in 2003, and the
percentage who give high grades in credibility to network news dropped from 74%
in 1996 , to 65% in 2002.
Americans resent the lack of independence, the
lack of altruistic aspiration and the sense of professional ethics that defined
the quality journalism of the past." -
Project for Excellence in
"Investigative reporting - the kind Jack Anderson
used to do regularly and which was carried in hundreds of papers across the
country, the kind of muckraking, data-intensive work that takes time and money
and ruffles feathers - is dying. Until there is some official investigation or
allegation made by a prominent politician, there is no
story. Sometimes the media like to cover the
controversy, but riot the substance, preferring an
ambiguous and unsatisfying "he said, she said" report. Safe reporting, but not
investigative. I know some of the reasons why
investigative reporting is on the decline. To begin with, investigations take
time and money. In America's cash-short,
instant-deadline journalistic world, there's not much room for that. Are there
lented investigative reporters in America?
are hundreds. I'll mention two: Seymour Hersh, formerly of the New York Times,
and Robert Parry, formerly of the Associated Press, who uncovered the
Iran-Contra scandal. The operative word here is "formerly." Robert Parry tells
me that he can no longer do this kind of investigative work within the confines
of an American daily newsroom. One of the biggest disincentives to doing
investigative journalism is that it jeopardizes future access to politicians
and corporate elite. During
the I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby trial,
the testimony of Judith Miller and other American journalists about the
confidences they were willing to keep in order to maintain access seemed to me
sadly illuminating. Expose the
critters and the door is slammed. That's not a price
many American journalists are willing to pay." - Greg Palast
"Professional journalism had three distinct biases
built into it, biases that remain to this day. First, it regarded anything done
by official sources, for example, government officials and prominent public
figures, as the basis for legitimate news. Second, professional journalism
posited that there had to be a news hook or a news peg to justify a news story.
This helped to stimulate the birth and rapid rise of the public relations (PR)
industry. Surveys show that PR accounts for anywhere from 40 to 70 percent of
what appears as news. The third bias is that professional journalism smuggles
in values conducive to the commercial aims of the owners and advertisers as
well as the political aims of the owning class." - Robert McChesney
news room culture
"Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those
who own one."
"The reality is that it is increasingly less
realistic to expect commercial broadcast outlets to effectively serve two
masters: the and the corporate
bottom line." - Orville Schell, dean of UC Berkley's Graduate School of
"What were once legitimate news programs now fill
our minds with stories about criminals. Dateline NBC and 48-Hours are prime
examples." - John Kozy
Television news is driven by questions such as,
"Can we get good video of this?" "Is it dramatic?" "Will it draw an audience?"
It's not impossible to produce serious, quality journalism when those
conditions are always on your mind, but it's difficult. The reality is that
people in the US get most of their information about politics and policy from
television, and they get fed a lot of propaganda in the process." - Sheldon
RamptonTraditional journalistic news room culture
determines the basic nature of a story before the facts are
Just as theorists develop a working hypothesis before
collecting data, journalists formulate the frame of a story before they
interview anyone, read a document, or collect any other facts.
reporter writes an expose, but the editor says, "I don't think we're going to
run that." The second time the reporter goes to her editor, the editor says, "
I don't think that's a good idea." She doesn't research and write the story.
The third time the reporter has an idea. But she doesn't go to her editor. The
fourth time she doesn't get the idea." - Nicholas Johnson, formerly FCC
The changing economic structure of the television networks
has eroded newsroom values. Where once a culture committed to great journalism
flourished, a culture dominated by MBAs and financial accountability has taken
One of the many byproducts of news consultancy on the news
industry has been the decreased time
spent by news programs on each story.
This emphasis on condensation and
brevity is a very subtle, but very real form of
censorship in that only accepted
conventional wisdom will be
Accountability to shareholders has replaced accountability to
democracy and the citizens it serves.
"The realities of journalism don't
involve just facts, for if they did, computers would replace journalists.
Journalism always involves choices
choices among subjects,
treatment, words. As a result, the claim of
objective reporting functions simply to camouflage what is in fact a
value laden activity. It is not only the
readers who are misled by the claim. The journalists too can be
blinded by their own cover." -
Vladimir Vladimirovich Pozner, Soviet propagandist and son of Vladimir
(Vladimir Aleksandrovich Pozner was chief
engineer of the European branch of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in Paris in 1938 and in
1943 headed the Russian Section of the film department of the US War
Department. Vladimir Aleksandrovich Pozner was identified as a Soviet spy by
the Venona Project and corroborated by the Mitrokhin Archives after the fall of
the Soviet Union.)
News Distortion Rule2003 Goldman Environmental Prize, known as
the "Nobel Prize for grass roots work," bestowed on former Fox television
network reporters Jane Akre and Steve Wilson. The two investigative reporters
lost their jobs when they refused to change a news report that had displeased
reporters had visited regional dairies and
discovered that Monsanto's
bovine growth hormone was
being injected into cows. The chemical was present in the state's milk supply
despite commitments by Florida's supermarkets not to sell milk tainted
In various studies Monsanto's
rBGH bovine growth
hormone has been linked to cancer
and is banned by many countries, including Canada, New Zealand, and the entire
European community. Jane Akre and Steve Wilson's report said that
Monsanto had been accused of
scientific fraud in connection
with information it had provided to the EPA concerning food safety and had
attempted to bribe public officials in Canada.
Jane Akre and Steve
Wilson testified that the local Fox television network station manager, David
Boylan, carefully reviewed the investigative reports for
factual accuracy, found no errors, and scheduled
them to run the following week. Monsanto hired a powerful law
firm before the show ran and threatened to sue Fox television network if the
report was run. The station offered Monsanto an
opportunity to appear on the show and
respond but Monsanto declined the offer.
Jane Akre and Steve Wilson
testified that the local Fox television network station manager, David Boylan,
then ordered the reporters to edit the show in a way that was favorable to
Monsanto and deceptive. Declining to
cooperate in the deception both reporters were given a 'special assignment'
with full salaries for their contract period provided they agreed to sign a
confidentiality agreement and provide a report acceptable to Monsanto. For
nine months they
worked on 83 different drafts of the story -
none of which satisfied Monsanto.
"For every fact we intended to broadcast, we had documentation
six weeks from Sunday. The station's lawyer told us, 'You don't get it. It
doesn't matter what the facts are, we don't want
to be spending money to defend a lawsuit.'" - Steve Wilson
testified that the station had tried to force her to say that Monsanto's
rBGH milk was safe and
no different from milk without Monsanto's
rBGH, despite abundant
studies that proved otherwise.
"We told them to go ahead and kill the
story," Steve Wilson says, "just don't make us
They were fired. They sued. They
won on whistleblower statute law. Overturned on appeal.
The 50 year old
FCC News Distortion Rule which prohibits broadcast of false reports was
declared to not qualify
under the whistleblower statute since it had been created over the years in
judicial decisions and was never
promulgated in a rule creation process.
Monsanto agrees to pay $100 million to the University of California for patent
infringement of the rBGH
bovine growth hormone.
video and audio "news" releases
"I thought news briefings were meant to inform
not entertain." - Matt Giorgi
"We are vunerable to video lies. Against
purposeful lies, truth has never been so helpless."
"Most of what we, the audience, thinks is news is
just PR that is pitched to program producers by the publicity department of an
entity with a vested interest in seeing that person or idea promoted." - Nancy
"There's a market for news that weighs
counterclaims and assesses truth value. It just hasn't kept up with demand. No
wonder Jon Stewart has such a loyal audience: His perspective is rooted in
reality and is not ideologically based." - Marty Kaplan, associate dean USC
Annenberg SchoolVNRs (also referred to as fake
television "news") or ANR's (audio "news" releases) are video or audio segments
designed to be indistinguishable from independently-produced "news" reports.
Laurence Moskowitz* is the President, Chief Executive and Chairman of
the Board of Medialink Worldwide and Director of the Jewish Community
Federation. Medialink Worldwide specializes in "news"
Television stations incorporate VNRs into their newscasts,
rarely alerting viewers to the source of the footage. While government-funded
VNRs have been most controversial, most VNRs are paid for by corporations.
Laurence Moskowitz worked closely with the Radio-Television News Directors
Association to establish a "code of ethics" based on full disclosure relating
to the production and distribution of VNRs - a "code of ethics" which appears
to have been compromised as VNRs orginations are rarely disclosed!
may be simply the audio component of a video news release, from a satellite
media tour or can be tailor made. On its website, one corporation outlines that
it "will prepare a script, record the necessary soundbites, and then have the
script professionally voiced. We will then produce and edit the ANR into a
final mixed cut, and after approval from our client, distribute it to radio
stations throughout the country."
"We extol the virtues of the free press, but the
reality is that our press really is not free." - Syed Hussani
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of Life - a rational religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not
occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to
those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information
for research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved