Milk drinking started in central Europe

Polish Society from the Middle Ages through the Twentieth Century

966 Poland officially adopts Roman Catholicism.

In 2005 approximately 88% of Poles identified themselves as Catholic.

Kazimierz (Latin: Casimiria; Yiddish Kuzmir) is a historical district of Kraków (Poland), best known for being home to a Jewish community from the 14th century until the World War II.

Jews had played an important role in the Kraków region economy since the end thirteenth century.

The Jewish community in Kraków had lived undisturbed alongside their Christian neighbors under the protective King Kazimierz III.

Poland's nobility, unlike France's aristocracy, was not a rigidly exclusive, closed class.

Many low-born individuals, including townsfolk, peasants and Jews, could and did rise in Polish society.

The Szlachta, a legally privileged noble class in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was tolerant of other religions.

There were almost no conflicts based on faith, and szlachta members are known to have intervened several times to pacify religious conflicts.

In the 18th century many followers of Jacob Frank, a Jewish religious leader born in Podolia who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi, joined the ranks of Jewish-descended Polish gentry.

Europe: The cracks are beginning to show

The Arc of History Bends From Ukraine to Israel and Back Again

1648-1654 Ukrainian Cossacks revolted against the Polish szlachta who have attempted to force Cossacks into submissions as peasants.

The Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion or war of liberation in the lands of present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654.

Cossacks allied with Crimean Tatars, along with the local Ukraine peasantry, fought several battles against the armies and szlachtian disorganized militia of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and eradicated the control of the Polish szlachta, Roman Catholic priests and their Jewish intermediaries.

The Uprising started as the rebellion of the Cossack estate, but as other Orthodox Christian classes (peasants, burghers, petty nobility) of the Ukrainian palatinates joined them, the ultimate aim became a creation of an autonomous Ukrainian state.

The Uprising succeeded in ending the Polish Catholic domination over the Orthodox Christian population.

1654 Pereyaslav Agreement Eastern Ukraine is incorporated into the Tsardom of Russia when the Cossacks swear allegiance to the Tsar.

August 5, 1772 The First Partition of Poland.

The balance of power in Europe shifted with Russian victories against the Ottomans in the Russo-Türkish War (1768–1774) strengthening Russia and endangering Habsburg interests in the region (particularly in Moldavia and Wallachia).

King Frederick II of Prussia suggested a partition of the Polish borderlands by Austria, Prussia, and Russia, with the largest share going to the party most weakened by the recent changes in balance of power, Austria.

January 23, 1793 Russian and Prussian troops enter the Commonwealth again and cleave the Second Partition.

Austria did not participate in the Second Partition.

Kosciuszko Uprising against the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia is led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko.

October 24, 1795 Third Partition of Poland takes place in reaction to the unsuccessful Polish Kosciuszko Uprising the previous year.

Partitions of Poland eliminate sovereignity of Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

1918 Commonwealth of Poland, the Polish state is re-established in the aftermath of World War I.

500,000 Poles from the Soviet Union return to Poland.

1919 Polish government introduces compulsory education for all children aged 7 to 14.

Between November 1919 and June 1924 some 1,200,000 people leave the territory of the USSR for Poland.

1921 27.2 million people reside in Poland, 30.8% of the population consists of ethnic minorities.

16,057,229 Poles (approx. 62.5%) are Roman (Latin) Catholics.

3,031,057 citizens of Poland (approx. 11.8%) are Eastern Rite Catholics (mostly Ukrainian Greek Catholics and Armenian Rite Catholics).

2,815,817 (approx. 10.95%) are Greek Orthodox;

2,771,949 (approx. 10.8%) are Jewish;

940,232 (approx. 3.7%) are Protestants (mostly Lutheran).;

1931 Poland had the second largest Jewish population in the world, with one-fifth of all the world's Jews residing within its borders (approx. 3,136,000).

1935 After Józef Pilsudski dies the Endecja intensified their efforts which lead to violence in a few cases pogroms in smaller towns.

1937 Endecja pass resolutions that "its main aim and duty must be to remove the Jews from all spheres of social, economic, and cultural life in Poland".

1938 Second Republic of the Commonwealth of Poland is the sixth largest country in Europe.

1939 It is estimated 35.1 million reside in Poland.

Almost a third of population came from minority groups: 13.9% Ruthenians; 10% Ashkenazi Jews; 3.1% Belarusians; 2.3% Germans and 3.4% Czechs and Lithuanians.

At the same time, a significant number of ethnic Poles live outside the borders.

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