Does the Creator exist?
It appears that the
Creator does not exist;
of two contraries be infinite, the other would have no place to be.
word "Creator" means that the Creator is infinite goodness;
be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world.
Creator does not exist.
It is superfluous to assume that what can be accounted for by a
few simple scenarios has been produced by many complex scenarios.
Everything can be accounted for by other scenarios.
things can be reduced to one scenario - nature.
All voluntary things
can be reduced to one scenario - motivation.
herefore there is no need
to suppose the Creator's existence.
On the contrary,
it is said in the individual of the Creator: "I
am who I am." (Exodus 3:14)
answer that, the existence of the Creator can be proved in five ways.
First recognition of
It is evident to our senses, that in the world some things
Now whatever is in motion is put in motion by another,
for nothing can put itself in motion.
For motion is nothing else than
the reduction of something from potentiality to actuality.
be reduced from potentiality to actuality, except by something in a state of
Thus that which is actually hot, as fire, makes
wood, which is potentially hot, to be
actually hot, and thereby motivates and changes it.
Now it is not
possible that the same thing should be at once in actuality and potentiality in
the same regard, but only in different aspects.
For what is actually
hot cannot simultaneously be potentially hot; but it is simultaneously
It is therefore impossible that the potentially of
duality could be self-motivated.
Whatever is in motion must be put in
motion by another.
If that by which it is put in motion be itself put
in motion, then this also must needs be put in motion by another, and that by
This cannot go on to
infinity, as what would start
the first motion?
Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first motion,
put in motion by no other; and this everyone understands to be the Hand of the
recognition of efficient cause.
In the reality of sense we find there
is an order of efficient causes.
There is no case known in which a
thing is found to be the efficient cause of itself; for so it would be prior to
itself, which is impossible.
Now in efficient causes you find an
unbroken chain; first cause gives rise to intermediate cause which in turn is
the cause of the ultimate cause.
To remove the cause is to remove the
Therefore, if there be no first cause among efficient causes,
there will be no intermediate, nor any ultimate cause.
Therefore it is
necessary to admit a first efficient cause, to which everyone gives the name of
Third recognition of possibility
We find in nature things that exist within a limited
It is impossible for these always to exist as they have a
If everything has a limited lifespan, then at one
time it may be assumed there could have been nothing in existence.
this were true, there would be nothing in existence, because that which does
not exist only begins to exist by being created by something already existing.
If nothing was in existence, it would have been impossible for anything
to have begun to exist; and thus even now nothing would be in existence.
There must exist some thing the existence of which is necessary as
every necessary thing either has its necessity caused by another.
impossible to go on to infinity in things which have
their necessity caused by another, as has been already proved in regard to
Therefore we postulate the existence of something
having its own necessity, and not receiving it from another, but rather causing
in others their necessity.
This all men speak of as the Creator.
Fourth recognition of
uniqueness among beings.
Among beings there are some more and some less
good, true and noble.
There is something which is truest, something best, something noblest
and, consequently, something which is uttermost being; for those things that
are greatest in truth are greatest in being.
Now the maximum in any
genus is the cause of all in that genus; as fire, which is the maximum heat, is
the cause of all hot things.
Therefore there must also be some things
which is the cause of their goodness, and every other
noble perfection; and this we speak of
as the Creator.
Fifth recognition of the
governance of the universe.
We see that things which lack intelligence,
such as natural bodies, act for an
end, and this is evident from their acting always, or nearly always, in the
Not fortuitously, but designedly, do they achieve their end.
Whatever lacks intelligence cannot move towards an end, unless it be
directed by some being endowed with knowledge and
intelligence; as the arrow is
shot to its mark by the archer.
Therefore some intelligent being
exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end; and this being we
speak of as the Creator.
Reply to Objection 1.
As Augustine says (Enchiridion xi): "Since the Creator is the highest good,
the Creator would not allow any evil to exist in His works, unless His
omnipotence and goodness were such as to bring good even out of evils."
This is part of the infinite
goodness of the Creator, that He should allow evil to exist, and out of it
Reply to Objection 2.
Since nature works
for a determinate end under the direction of a higher agent, whatever is done
by nature must needs be traced back to the Creator, as to its first cause.
So also whatever is done voluntarily must also
be traced back to some higher cause other than human reason or will, since
these can change or fail; for all things that are changeable and capable of
defect must be traced back to an
immovable and self-necessary
Whether all things are life in the Creator?
It appears that not all things are life
in the Creator. For it is said (Acts 17:28), "In the Creator we live, and move,
But not all things in the Creator are in motion. Therefore not
all things are life in the Creator.
all things are in the Creator as their first model. But things modelled ought
to conform to the model.
then, not all things have life in themselves, it appears that not all things
are life in the Creator.
Further, as Augustine says (De Vera Relig. 29), a
living substance is better than a substance that does not live.
therefore, things which in themselves have not life, are life in the Creator,
it appears that things exist more truly in the Creator than themselves.
But this appears to be false; since in themselves they exist actually,
but in the Creator potentially.
as good things and things made in time are known by the Creator, so are bad
things, and things that the Creator can make, but never will be made.
If, therefore, all things are life in the Creator, inasmuch as known by
the Creator, it appears that even bad things and things that will never be made
are life in the Creator, as known by the Creator, and this appears
On the contrary, (Jn. 1:3,4), it is said, "What
was made in the Creator was Life."
things were made, except the Creator.
all things are Life in the
To live in the Creator is to
In the intellect, the thing understood, and the
act of understanding, are one and the same.
Hence whatever is in the Creator as understood is the
very living or Life of the Creator.
Since all things that have been
made by the Creator are in the Creator as things understood,
that all things in the Creator are the divine life itself.
Reply to Objection 1.
Creatures are said to be in the
Creator in a twofold sense.
In one way, they are held together and
preserved by the divine power. And creatures are thus said to be in the
Creator, even as they exist in their own natures.
In this sense we must
understand the words of the Apostle when he says, "In the Creator we live,
move, and be"; since our being, living, and moving are themselves caused by the
In another sense things are said to be in the Creator, as in
the Creator who desire them, in which sense they are in the Creator through
their proper ideas, which in the Creator are not distinct from the divine
Hence things as they are in the Creator are the
divine essence. And
since the divine essence is life and not motion, it follows that things
existing in the Creator in this manner are not motion, but life.
Reply to Objection 2.
The thing modeled must be like the
model according to the form, not the mode of being.
For sometimes the
form has being of another category in the model from that which it has in the
Thus the form of a house has in
the mind of the architect immaterial and intelligible being; but in the house
that exists outside his mind, material and
ideas of things, though not existing in themselves, are life in the divine
mind, as having a divine existence in that mind.
Reply to Objection
If form only, and not matter, belonged to natural things, then in
all regards natural things would exist more truly in the divine mind, by the
ideas of them, than in themselves.
For which reason, in fact,
Plato held that the "separate" man was
the true man; and that man as he exists in matter, is man only by
But since matter enters into the being of natural things
a natural thing has being more truly in its own
nature than in the divine mind,
because it belongs to human
nature to be material, which, as existing in the divine mind, it is not.
So a house has nobler
being in the architect's mind than in matter; yet a material house is a
house more truly than the one which exists in the mind; since the former is
actual, the latter only potential.
Reply to Objection 4.
Although bad things are in the Creator's knowledge, as being comprised
under that knowledge, yet they are not in the Creator as forged by the Creator,
or preserved by the Creator, or as having their type in the Creator.
They are known by the Creator through the types of good
Hence it cannot be
said that bad things are life in the Creator.
Those things that are not
in time may be spoken of as of as life in the Creator in so far as life means
and inasmuch as they are understood by the Creator; but
not in so far as life implies a principle of operation.
Aquinas,Prima Secundae of the Summa Theologiae
Thomas Aquinas seven conditions that must coincide
to make a war just became the traditional doctrine of the Catholic
Church:victory must be assured;
fought for must itself be just;
the purpose of the warring power must
remain just while hostilities go on;
war must be truly the last resort,
all peaceful means having been exhausted;
the methods employed during
the war to vanquish the foe must themselves be just;
concluded at the end of the war must be just and of such nature as to prevent a
the benefits the war can reasonably be expected to bring for
humanity must be greater than the evils forged by the war.
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