Colonial projects did not
begin with nation-states but as joint-stock company ventures with private stock
sold to private investors (aristocracy).
Using the capital raised from
the joint-stock company, the company would assemble a crew of prospectors.
The prospectors only goal was maximizing profits for the shareholders
in the joint-stock company.
The most common methods are:
convert agriculture to a cash-crop, exploit resources and exploit
A colonial mission nearly always includes all three.
Before colonization, most of these economies were food sovereign,
meaning, they could grow enough food to feed the population.
process of colonization, all the variety of crops and produce are replaced by
the single cash-crop or
a small group of
cash crops that maximizes profit for the colonizing entity.
711 AD Shortly after the Arab conquest of North Africa, the
city of Ceuta is used as a staging ground in the Umayyad conquest of
850 Benin's inner wall, a 7 mile
earthen rampart girded by a moat 20 feet deep, is built.
1200 Benin City and Timbuktu have thriving economies based on
trading salt, gold, spices and dyes.
As the wealth of Timbuktu grows it
becomes a center of learning attracting Muslim scholars.
1415 John I of Portugal leads a surprise assault on Ceuta,
landing on Playa San Amaro marking the beginning of the
Portuguese Empire in Africa.
1440 36 known Ogiso are accounted for as rulers
of Benin when Oba Ewuare, also known as Ewuare the Great, takes
Joao Afonso de Aveiro visits Benin City.
Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Portuguese Vasco da Gama reaches India.
Significant trading developed between England and Benin based on the export of
ivory, palm oil, pepper, and slaves.
string of Portuguese defensive naval fortifications connect Lisbon to Nagasaki
along the coasts of Africa, Middle East, India, and South Asia.
are larger territorial colonies in Brazil,
Angola, and Mozambique.
commercial network of colonial trade has a substantial impact on the Portuguese
economy accounting for about a fifth of per-capita income.
1578 Morocco successfully repells an attempt by
conquer it at the Battle of
With Morocco, on the verge of bankruptcy, Sultan
Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi turns his attention to looting the Songhai
Sultan Ahmad I al-Mansur Saadi commands Judar Pasha, a Spanish
eunuch, to take the salt mines at Taghaza and advance on the capital
1591 Judar Pasha sacks and loots Gao but
finding few riches moves on to the richer trading centers of Timbuktu and
The looting of the three cities marked the end of the
1593 Ahmad I al-Mansur citing
"disloyalty" arrests and subsequently kills or exiles many of Timbuktu's
scholars, including Ahmad Baba al Massufi.
Virginia Company begins as a joint-stock company.
1661 Compagnie des aventuriers d'Afrique, a joint-stock
company was given exclusive rights to exploit Africa by the "Sun King", Louis
XIV of France.
The Sun King consolidated a system of absolute
monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution, a direct
result of absolutism.
1691 "Great Benin, where
the king resides, is larger than Lisbon. all the streets run straight and as
far as the eye can see. The houses are large, especially that of the king,
which is richly decorated and has
fine columns. The city is
wealthy and industrious. It is so well governed that theft is unknown and
the people live in
such security that they have no doors to their houses."
1701 Ashanti king Osei Tutu and his adviser Okomfo Anokye
establish the Ashanti Kingdom, with the Golden Stool of Asante, conquer
early 1800s Search for ivory, often
used in the production of
luxury goods, led many white traders into the interior of
With the exception of trading posts along the coasts, the
continent is essentially ignored.
French invade Algiers.
One of France's longest-held overseas
territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European
immigrants known as colons.
rebels organized the Algerian resistance movement against French
1841 Maurice (Moritz) Worms settles
The Worms brothers, Gabriel (1801-1888) and Moritz
(1805-1867) are the sons of Jeanette Rothschild (1771-1859), the sister of
& MB Worms establishes coffee and tea plantations with
(Rothschild) de Worms 1st Baron Pirbright grows up on the estate.
1874 Second African expedition of Henry M. Stanley is finance
by two newspapers, The New York Herald and Britain's Daily
Edward Levy Lawson, later Lord Burnham, was editor of the
Daily Telegraph; co-founded the Pilgrims Society (1902); chairman
of the First Imperial Press Conference (1909); founded the Empire
Press Union and lay the foundations of British MI6, MI5 and GC&CS
Born Edward Levy, London, 28 December; 1833, son of Joseph Moses
Levy and his wife Esther (née Cohen); legally changed to Levy-Lawson in
Lord Burnham's love of pheasant shooting resulted in him enjoying
a close relationship with King Edward VII, his son, King George V, and his son
King Edward VIII, with King George paying yearly visits to the Hall Barn
1897 Henry Pirbright oversees the British
patent office when Nikola Tesla files his wireless telegraphy
Pirbright allow the British Admiralty to steal from Tesla using
Guglielmo Marconi as the inventor to make monopolistic deals through Marconi
Pirbright coached Henry S. Wellcome and Sir Henry M. Stanley
in their acquisition of African poisons and cures used in vaccine
Henry Wellcome told the story of Stanley's use of his
medicine chests full of experimental vaccines in his The Evolution of
The Pirbright Institute
Pilgrims society monopoly over world culture
Pirbright Institute is now essentially controlled by the Wellcome
Trust and Bill
& Melinda Gates Foundation.
"Pacification campaign" by the colonial forces, who use chemical weapons,
mass executions of
civilians, concentration camps and
Algerian Genocide: Setif massacre
Genocide by France
1876 King Léopold II of Belgium, founds and controls
the International African Association, inviting Henry Morton Stanley to join
him in researching and 'civilizing' the continent.
1878 International Congo Society is formed, with economic
goals but still closely related to the former society.
secretly purchases foreign investor stock in the Congo Society, which turn to
imperialistic goals, with the Society serving as a philanthropic
1884 The Berlin
Conference ushers in a period of heightened colonial activity by
eliminating and overriding most existing forms of African autonomy and
Before the conference, European diplomacy treated
African natives in the same manner as New World natives: by forming trading
relationships with the indigenous chiefs.
Fruit Company running regularly between Jamaica and
In April they
import 44,202 boxes of oranges, 39,354 boxes of lemons, together with 163,779
bunches of bananas.
1897 German colonialists and missionaries arrived in
In pre-colonial times, Rwanda's rich farmland grows an
assortment of fruits, vegetables as well as cassava and yam as their staple
With colonization, first by the Germans and then by the
Belgians, the land is converted to a
large industrial coffee farm.
Rwanda, no longer able to feed
itself, is forced to import basic foodstuff from the mother
Many of the vegetables that once grew in Rwanda are now
Benin City is captured by Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, who razes
and burns the city, stealing and destroying treasured art.
Bronzes" - stolen portrait figures, busts, and groups created in iron, carved
ivory, and especially in brass - are now displayed in museums around the
Fruit Company (UFCO), the merger of Minor
C. Keith's banana-trading concerns with Andrew W. Preston's Boston Fruit
Manuel Estrada Cabrera modernizes Guatamala by granting concessions
to the United Fruit Company.
The United Fruit Company expands control
over the rich alluvial plains of Honduras Atlantic coast.
1900 Spain lacks
the wealth and interest to develop its African colonies during the first half
of the 20th century.
However, through a paternalistic system,
particularly on Bioko Island, Spain develops large
with thousands of imported Nigerian laborers.
1931 Following the fall of the monarchy, the Spanish African
colonies including Spanish Guinea and Spanish Morocco became part of the Second
1929 United Fruit Company owns
or controls 650,000 acres of the best arable land in Honduras, along with
railroads and ports.
1932 Martial law declared
in Honduras to stop a revolt by banana workers fired by the United Fruit
The quintessential "banana republic," Honduras is a US vassal
as a result of Anglo-American control over railroads, mining and banana
The banana operations are run like private
The company 'kept order' by crushing labor organizing with
their own security forces or by calling in US troops.
1936 Francisco Franco, a general
of the Army of Africa, rebels against the republican government and starts the
Spanish Civil War which lasts
1956 When French Morocco becomes
independent, Spain surrenders Spanish Morocco, but retains control of Sidi
Ifni, the Tarfaya region and Spanish Sahara.
Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea is established with a status similar to
the provinces of metropolitan Spain.
pressure from nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announces it will
grant Equatorial Guinea independence.
international pressure, Spain returned Sidi Ifni to Morocco.
Green March prompts withdrawal from Spanish Sahara under Moroccan military
Bantu groups migrate into
Rwanda and began to clear forest land for agriculture.
coalesced, first into clans (ubwoko), and then, by 1700, into eight
The Kingdom of Rwanda, ruled by the Tutsi Nyiginya clan,
became the dominant kingdom in the mid-eighteenth century.
neighbouring Burundi were assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of
German policy was to rule the country through the Rwandan
The colonists favoured the Tutsi over the Hutu when assigning
administrative roles, believing them to be migrants from Ethiopia and racially
1935 Belgium introduces a permanent
division of the population by strictly dividing the population into three
ethnic groups, with the Hutu representing about 84% of the population, Tutsi
about 15%, and Twa about 1% of the population.
Identity cards issued
label each individual: Tutsi, Hutu, Twa, or Naturalised.
emancipation movement beglns to grow after World War II.
1957 Hutu scholars write the "Bahutu Manifesto".
document labels the Tutsi and Hutu as separate races, and called for the
transfer of power from Tutsi to Hutu based on "statistical law".
1964 300,000 Tutsis have fled.
1990 To make the economic, social and political conflict look
more like an ethnic conflict propaganda campaigns of fabricated events of
ethnic crisis caused by the Tutsi and the Rwandan Patriotic Front.
process is described as "mirror politics", whereby a person accuses others of
what the person himself/herself actually wants to do.
primarily recruited from the vast pool of Hutu internally displaced persons
driven from their homes in the North, and claimed a total member of 50,000 on
the eve of genocide.
October 1993 President of
Burundi, Melchior Ndadaye, elected in June as the country's first ever Hutu
president, is assassinated by extremist Tutsi army officers.
April 6, 1994 The airplane carrying Rwandan President
Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, the Hutu president of
Burundi, is shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali, killing everyone on
Jean-Louis Bruguière concluded Paul Kagame ordered the
Genocidal killings began the following day.
Soldiers, police, and militia quickly executed key Tutsi and moderate
Hutu military and political leaders who could have assumed control in the
ensuing power vacuum.
Checkpoints and barricades are erected to screen
all holders of the national ID card of Rwanda, which contains ethnic
This enables Hutu to systematically identify and kill
|"Now, I am
under attack by the biggest force in military history, my little African son,
Obama wants to kill me, to take away the freedom of our country, to take away
our free housing, our free medicine, our free education, our free food, and
replace it with American style thievery, called "capitalism," but all of us in
the Third World know what that means, it means corporations run the countries,
run the world, and the people suffer." ~
Muammar Gaddafi, April 8, 2011
2011 United Nations Security Council adopts French-proposed Resolution
1973 on the situation in Libya.
The resolution forms the legal basis
for military intervention in the Libyan civil war, authorizing UN member states
to "take all necessary measures to protect civilians and civilian populated
January 1, 2016
State Department releases
3,105 of Hillary
Clinton's personal emails as Secretary of State.
An email raises
serious questions about the real motives behind the military intervention in
To Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
"Qaddafi has nearly bottomless financial resources to
continue indefinitely, according to the latest report we have received:
On April 2, 2011 sources with access to advisors to Salt al-Islam
Qaddafi stated in strictest confidence that while the freezing of Libya's
foreign bank accounts presents Muammar Qaddafi with serious challenges, his
ability to equip and maintain his armed forces and intelligence services
According to sensitive information available to these
individuals, Qaddafi's government holds 143 tons of gold, and a similar amount
During late March 2011, these stocks were moved to SABHA
(southwest in the direction of the Libyan border with Niger and Chad); taken
from the vaults of the Libyan Central Bank in Tripoli.
This gold was
accumulated prior to the current rebellion and was intended to be used to
establish a pan-African currency based on the Libyan golden Dinar.
plan was designed to provide the Francophone African Countries with an
alternative to the French franc (CFA)."
"Source Comment: According
to knowledgeable individuals this quantity of gold and silver is valued at more
than $7 billion.
French intelligence officers discovered this plan
shortly after the current rebellion began, and this was one of the factors that
influenced President Nicolas Sarkozy's decision to commit France to the attack
"According to these individuals Sarkozy's plans are driven
by the following issues: A desire to gain a greater share of Libya oil
production, Increase French influence in North Africa, Improve his internal
political situation in France, Provide the French military with an opportunity
to reassert its position in the world, Address the concern of his advisors over
Qaddafi's long term plans to supplant France as the dominant power in
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