visitation of violence - 19th
A new history of 19th-century America captures
how the United States was always an empire.
"The most important element of a free society,
where individual rights are held in the highest esteem, is the rejection of the
initiation of violence. All initiation of force is
a violation of someone else's
rights, whether initiated
by an individual or the state, for the
benefit of an individual or group of individuals, even if it's supposed to be
for the benefit of another individual or group of individuals. Legitimate use
of violence can only be that which is required in self-defense."
Congressman Ron Paul
Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist
Misadventures of US Military Forces Overseas in the 19th century
1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with
France. This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican
Republic city of Puerto Plata where marines capture a French privateer under
the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of
1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the US$
George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during
which a few marines landed with US Agent William Eaton to raise a force against
Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war
but not the US, although Congress authorized US military action by statute.
1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z.
M. Pike, with a platoon of troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters
of the Rio Grande on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner
without résistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado,
taken to Mexico, and later released after
seizure of his
1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from
New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta,
chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.
West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the
President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi
River as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He
was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.
Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession
was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by
any other power; but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so
irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.
War of 1812 On June 18, 1812,
the US declared war between the US and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland. Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of
neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities
Forgotten War of 1812
1813 West Florida (Spanish
territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay
in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. The US advanced
into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No
1813-14 Marquesas Islands. United States forces built a fort
on the island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured
from the British.
1814 Spanish Florida. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola
and drove out the British with whom the United States was at war.
1814-25 Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and
American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and
offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand
pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822
Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war,
two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.
Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared against the US by the Dey of
Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States.
Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under
Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.
1815 Tripoli. After
securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at
Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of
1816 Spanish Florida. US forces
destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders making
forays into US territory.
1816-18 Spanish Florida - First Seminole War.
Seminole Indians, whose area is a haven for escaped slaves and border
ruffians, are attacked and pursued into northern Florida by troops under
Generals Jackson and Gaines.
Spanish posts are attacked and occupied,
British citizens executed.
1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory
off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, US forces landed and expelled a
group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 Oregon. The US$
Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August
took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty
but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.
1819 Floridas ceded
to the US.
1820-23 Africa. Naval units raid the slave
traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of
1822 Cuba. US naval forces land on the northwest coast of
Cuba and burn a pirate outpost.
1823 Cuba. Brief landings in
pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo
Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at
1824 Cuba. In October the US$ Porpoise landed bluejackets
near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates.
1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish
territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of
Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval
officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore
Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.
Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La
Grande to capture pirates.
1827 Greece. In October and November
landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and
1831-32 Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the US$ Lexington
investigates the capture of three American sealing vessels seeking to protect
1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval force landed
and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for
plundering the American ship Friendship.
1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was
sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect business interests during an
1835-36 Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and
August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected business interests in Callao
and Lima during an attempted revolution.
1836 Mexico. General Gaines
occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to December during
the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the "imaginary boundary
line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.
1838-39 Sumatra. December 24,
1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns
of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for
depredations on corporate
1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish natives
for attacking corporate exploring and surveying parties.
Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman
by the natives.
1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed and
burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long
cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19,
believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar
incident occurred a week later at San Diego.
1843 China. Sailors and
marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and
Chinese at the trading post in
1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four US vessels
demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to
discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish
attacks by the natives on corporate seamen and
1844 Mexico. President Tyler deployed US forces to
protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of
annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against
a Senate resolution of inquiry.
1846-48 Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the US
recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of
Texas in 1845, the US and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and
President Polk deploys forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.
1849 Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an American seized
by Austrian officials.
1851 Turkey. After a massacre of foreigners
(including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean
Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast.
Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the US sloop of war Dale
exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an
American whaling brig.
1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852;
September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos
Aires to protect business interests during a revolution.
Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. US forces landed to protect business interests
during political disturbances.
1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his
naval expedition made a display of force leading to the "opening of
1853-54 Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three
visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan executed
a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession
from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands
with the purpose of securing facilities for corporate commerce.
China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to
protect business interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned
San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American
Minister to Nicaragua.
1855 China. May 19 to 21. US forces protected
business interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong
1855 Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval
force landed to seek reparations for
depredations on American residents and seamen.
November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect
business interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. US forces landed to
protect business interests during an insurrection.
1856 China. October
22 to December 6. US forces landed to protect business interests at Canton
during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an
assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the US flag.
April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the US Navy,
with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been
attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the
retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and
December of the same year US vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed
another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act
of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the US, was tacitly
disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into
Uruguay Forces from two US
warships land to protect American business property during a revolution in
A marine expedition
chastises natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
The Secretary of State requested a
display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa
and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities of Turkey of the power of
Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek
redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River.
Two hundred American soldiers crossed the Rio
Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.
A naval force lands to protect business interests in
Portuguese West Africa
American residents at Kissembo called upon
American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with
Naval forces land
to protect business interests during a revolution.
Wyoming retaliates for a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
Naval forces of the US, Great
Britain, France, and the Netherlands compel Japan and
the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be
used by foreign shipping in accordance with
treaties already signed.
US forces protected the lives and property of American
residents during a revolution.
US forces punish the locals for an assault on
the American consul at Newchwang.
General Sedgwick and 100 men obtain the surrender of Matamoras.
Marines occupied Managua and Leon.
Formosa A naval force lands and burns a number of huts to
punish the inhabitants for the presumed murder of the crew of a wrecked
US forces land in Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama,
and Negata to protect American corporate interests during the civil war in
US forces protect foreign
residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
US forces protect passengers and treasure in
transit at Colin during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion
of the death of the President of Colombia.
US forces destroy the pirate ship
Forward which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio
Campaign or Sinmi-yangyo
US naval force attack and capture five
Korean forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans,
particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the
schooner, and later, for firing on other American small boats taking soundings
up the Salee River. Adm. Rodgers, commanding five warships and a landing party
of over 1,230 men armed with Remington carbines and Springfield muskets attacks
Choji Fortress of Kanghwa-do, and proceeds to occupy the whole island (116.8 sq
mi), killing 350 Korean defenders of the island, and withdrawing to China only
when the Korean army sends in reinforcement armed with modern
US forces protected American interests during
hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of
US troops cross the Mexican border repeatedly in
pursuit of cattle thieves
and other brigands. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into
border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable cases were at Remolina
in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these
excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the US, the first in 1882, finally
legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes,
Hawaiian Islands Legislature elects David Kalakaua king,
resulting in a riot led by
supporters of Queen Emma. Detachments from American vessels land to preserve
order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of David
Laamea Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalakaua.
US force lands to police the town of Matamoras, a critical transportation
hub of United
Fruit Company temporarily while it was without other government. US
investors clash head on with dominant British finance.
US forces land
to protect American corporate interests during warfare between British and
Egyptians and looting
of the city of Alexandria
US forces guard valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad
including the safes and vaults of the
United Fruit Company
during revolutionary activity.
David Lumialani Kalakaua is forced to sign
a new constitution making the monarchy little more than a figurehead. Local
businessmen, sugar planters and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles force
the dismissal of the cabinet of controversial Walter M. Gibson and force the
adoption of the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The new documents
limited voting rights exclusively to only the literate males of the following
populations: Hawaiian, European, and American descent.
A naval force
was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled
political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.
A display of force persuaded the
Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the
charge of breach of blockade.
forces land to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native
Islands US forces protect American interests at Honolulu during a
Argentina A naval party lands to protect US consulate and
legation in Buenos Aires.
Alfred Mahan, president of the US Naval
College, writes the seminal The Influence of Sea Power Upon History,
Haiti US forces protect American lives and property on Navassa
Bering Strait Naval forces attempt to
stop seal poaching.
Chile US forces protect the
American consulate and refugees during a revolution in Valparaiso.
Hawaii Marines land to
promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole.
I don't think realize that Hawaii was an independent country before it was
brought into the US. In brief, this is the story. In the early part of the 19th
century, several hundred American missionaries, most of them from New England,
sailed off to what were then called the Sandwich Islands to devote their lives
to, as they would have put it, raising up the heathen savages and
teaching them the blessings of
Christian civilization. It wasn't long before many of these missionaries
and their sons began to realize that there was a lot of money to be made in
Hawaii. The natives had been growing sugar for a long time, but they had never
refined it and had never exported it. By dispossessing the natives of most of
their land, a group that came from what was then called this missionary planter
elite sort of left the path of God, went onto the path of Mammon and
established a series of giant sugar plantations in Hawaii, and they became very
rich from exporting sugar into the US.
early 1890s, the US passed a tariff
that made it impossible for the Hawaiian sugar growers to sell their sugar in
the United States. So they were in a panic. They were about to lose their
fortunes. And they asked themselves what they could do to somehow continue to
sell their sugar in the US They came up with a perfect answer: We'll get into
the US How will we do this? Well, the leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries,
if you want to call them that, who were mostly of American origin, actually
went to Washington. He met with the Secretary of the Navy. He presented his
case directly to the President of the US, Benjamin Harrison. And he received
assurances that the US would support a rebellion against the Hawaiian monarchy.
So he went back to Hawaii and became part of a triumvirate, which essentially
carried out the Hawaiian revolution. He was one part of the triumvirate. The
second part was the American ambassador, who was himself an annexationist and
had been instructed by the State Department to do whatever he could to aid this
revolution. And the third figure was the commander of the US naval vessel,
which was conveniently anchored right off the shores of Honolulu. This
revolution was carried out with amazing ease. The leader of the Hawaiian
revolutionaries, this missionary planter elite, simply announced at a meeting
one day, "We have overthrown the government of Hawaii, and we are now the new
government." And before the queen was able to respond, the US ambassador had
250 Marines called to shore from the ship that was conveniently off the coast
of Honolulu and announced that since there had been some instability and there
seemed to be a change of government, the Marines were going to land to protect
the new regime and the lives and property of all Hawaiians. So that meant that
there was nothing the queen could do. The regime was immediately recognized by
the US, and with that simple process, the monarchy of Hawaii came to an end,
and then ultimately Hawaii joined the US" - Stephen Kinzer
Brazil A display of naval
force protects American commerce
and shipping at Rio de Janeiro
during a Brazilian civil war.
1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to August 7. US forces sought to protect
American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.
Korea From July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896 marines
protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during
and following the Chinese-Japanese
US forces protected American interests
during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
A naval vessel is
beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.
Marines are stationed at Tientsin and penetrate Peking during the
Nicaragua US forces
protect American interests in Corinto during political unrest.
On April 25, 1898, the US declares war with Spain. The
war followes a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the
US$ Maine in the harbor at Havana when her forward gunpowder magazines
"Americans have had their eye on Cuba for a long time, ever
Jefferson was president. But it was in 1898 that this attachment to the
cause of Cuba Libré really seized the hearts of many Americans. Bear in
mind that in 1898, the Cuban economy was totally dominated by Americans. It was
a big sugar producer, and all the sugar plantations in Cuba were owned by
Americans. Also, it was a very big market for American manufactured goods.
About 85% of anything you could buy in Cuba had been made in the US, so
American business had very big interests there. Now, Cuban patriots spent much
of the late 19th century rebelling against Spanish colonial rule. In 1898 they
seemed very close to succeeding. This was a little bit troubling to some of the
American interests in Cuba, because the revolutionaries were also social
reformers. They advocated land reform, which would have meant breaking up the
big sugar plantations owned by Americans.
They also supported
a tariff wall around Cuba to allow
the growth of domestic manufacturing, which would have made it more difficult
for American companies to export their goods to Cuba.
In 1898, the American press, in some ways
excited by whisperings from American
businessmen active in Cuba, began a campaign to portray Spanish colonial
rule in Cuba as the most unspeakably brutal tyranny that could be imagined, and
the American public was whipped up into a fervor about this. The fervor
intensified when the US battleship, Maine, was blown up in Havana harbor. "Our
Warship Was Blown Up by an Enemy's Infernal Machine." That was the headline in
the New York Journal that I reproduce in my book. Actually, it wasn't until 75
years later that the Navy convened a board of inquiry, which turned up the fact
that the Maine was actually blown up by an internal explosion.
Congress, passed a law, the Teller Amendment, which said
very explicitly, "We promise Cuba that the moment independence is won, all
American troops will be withdrawn, and Cuba
will be allowed to become fully independent."
The Americans announced
that they changed their mind, that the Teller Amendment had been passed in
a moment of irrational enthusiasm and
that actually Cuban independence was not a very good idea, so the American
troops were not withdrawn. We remained in Cuba for some decades, ruling it
directly under US military officers, and then, for a period after that, through
The press played a really shameful role in the run-up
to the Spanish-American
War. The Americans had never been particularly fond of the Spanish rule in
Cuba, but it wasn't until the press, actually in a circulation war,
decided to seize on the
brutality, as they called it, of Spanish colonial rule in the summer of
1898 that Americans really went crazy.
Hearst was a crucial figure, who
very cleverly realized that he could push the circulation of his newspaper
dramatically higher if he hammered away on jingoistic issues by pointing at
foreign nations as constantly seeking to undermine the United States." -
The US 'purchases' 'jurisdiction' of the Spanish Colonial
Empire with the Treaty of Paris. Spain relinquishes nearly all of the remaining
Spanish Empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines to the
United States. The cession of the Philippines involves a payment of $20 million
from the United States to Spain. The treaty is signed on December 10, 1898, and
ends the SpanishAmerican War.
November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces
provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin
during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.
February 7 US forces protected American lives and
property at San Juan del Sur.
On May 9, the US Naval War Board advised Secretary of
the Navy John Davis Long that the US should seize the Spanish possession of
Guam in Micronesia. June 20, the US$ Charleston sailed into Guams Apra
Harbor and fires a few cannon shots.
British naval forces are landed to protect corporate interests at San Juan del
Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in
connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.
Samoa February-May 15. American and British naval forces
land to protect corporate interests and to take part in a bloody contention
over the succession to the throne.
Philippine Islands US
forces protect corporate interests following the war with Spain and conquer the
islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for independence.
June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the
The war officially ended on July 2, 1902 with a victory
for the United States.
General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan
member assumed presidency of the "Tagalog Republic" formed in 1902 after the
capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups continued hostilities in
remote areas and islands, including the Moro people and Pulahanes people, until
their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology.
This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of
the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion
based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no
supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
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