visitation of violence - 19th
A new history of 19th-century America captures
how the United States was always an empire.
"The most important element of a free society,
where individual rights are held in the highest esteem, is the rejection of the
initiation of violence. All initiation of force is
a violation of someone else's
rights, whether initiated by an individual or the state, for the benefit of
an individual or group of individuals, even if it's supposed to be for the
benefit of another individual or group of individuals. Legitimate use of
violence can only be that which is required in self-defense."
Congressman Ron Paul
Listing of Notable Deployments and/or Imperialist
Misadventures of US Military Forces Overseas in the 19th century
1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest
included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic, city of Puerto
Plata, where marines captured a French privateer under the guns of the forts.
Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.
1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the USS George
Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a
few marines landed with US Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli
in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not
the US, although Congress authorized US military action by statute.
1806 Mexico (Spanish territory). Capt. Z. M. Pike, with a platoon of
troops, invaded Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders
from Gen. James Wilkinson. He was made prisoner without résistance at a
fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later
released after seizure of
1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New
Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta,
chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.
West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the
President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi
River as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He
was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.
Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession
was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by
any other power; but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so
irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the
War of 1812 On
June 18, 1812, the US declared war between the US and the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland. Among the issues leading to the war were British
interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British
hostilities with France.
1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by
Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A
small Spanish garrison gave way. The US advanced into disputed territory to the
Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.
Islands. United States forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect
three prize ships which had been captured from the British.
Spanish Florida. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with
whom the United States was at war.
Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took
place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo
Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were
reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a
squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and
two gunboats in the West Indies.
1815 Algiers. The second Barbary War
was declared against the US by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act
not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military
expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and
1815 Tripoli. After securing an agreement from
Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he
secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.
Florida. US forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which
harbored raiders making forays into US territory.
Florida - First Seminole War. The Seminole Indians, whose area was a haven for
escaped slaves and border ruffians, were attacked by troops under Generals
Jackson and Gaines and pursued into northern Florida. Spanish posts were
attacked and occupied, British citizens executed. In
1819 the Floridas were ceded to the
1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of
President Monroe, US forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers,
adventurers, and freebooters.
1818 Oregon. The USS Ontario, dispatched
from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August took
possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia
and Spain asserted claims to the area.
1820-23 Africa. Naval units
raid the slave traffic pursuant to the
1819 act of Congress.
Cuba. US naval forces land on the northwest coast of Cuba and burn a
1823 Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates
occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa
Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.
1824 Cuba. In
October the USS Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of
1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter
with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates
and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November
and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for
overstepping his powers.
1825 Cuba. In March cooperating American and
British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.
1827 Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted
pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.
Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the USS Lexington investigates the capture
of three American sealing vessels seeking to protect business interests.
1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort
to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American
1833 Argentina. October
31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect
business interests during an insurrection.
1835-36 Peru. December
10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines
protected business interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.
1836 Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed
territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under
orders to cross the "imaginary boundary line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.
1838-39 Sumatra. December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force
landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for
depredations on corporate
1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish
natives for attacking corporate exploring and surveying parties.
Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of
a seaman by the natives.
1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed
and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.
1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long
cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19,
believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar
incident occurred a week later at San Diego.
1843 China. Sailors and
marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and
Chinese at the trading post in
1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four US vessels
demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to
discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish
attacks by the natives on corporate seamen and shipping.
President Tyler deployed US forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending
Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his
action against a Senate resolution
1846-48 Mexican War. On May
13, 1846, the US recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After
the annexation of Texas in 1845, the US and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary
dispute and President Polk deploys forces in Mexico to meet a threatened
1849 Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an
American seized by Austrian officials.
1851 Turkey. After a massacre of
foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the
Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Turkish (Levant) coast.
1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the US sloop
of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain
of an American whaling brig.
1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852;
September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos
Aires to protect business interests during a revolution.
Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. US forces landed to protect business interests
during political disturbances.
1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his
naval expedition made a display of force leading to the "opening of
1853-54 Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three
visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan executed
a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession
from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands
with the purpose of securing facilities for corporate commerce.
China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to
protect business interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned
San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American
Minister to Nicaragua.
1855 China. May 19 to 21. US forces protected
business interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong
1855 Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval
force landed to seek reparations for
depredations on American residents and seamen.
November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect
business interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. US forces landed to
protect business interests during an insurrection.
1856 China. October
22 to December 6. US forces landed to protect business interests at Canton
during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an
assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the US flag.
April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the US Navy,
with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been
attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the
retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and
December of the same year US vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed
another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act
of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the US, was tacitly
disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into
Uruguay Forces from two US
warships land to protect American business property during a revolution in
A marine expedition
chastises natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
The Secretary of State requested a
display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa
and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities of Turkey of the power of
Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek
redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River.
Two hundred American soldiers crossed the Rio
Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.
A naval force lands to protect business interests in
Portuguese West Africa
American residents at Kissembo called upon
American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with
Naval forces land to
protect business interests during a revolution.
Wyoming retaliates for a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.
Naval forces of the US, Great Britain, France,
and the Netherlands compel
Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of
Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already
US forces protected the lives and property of American
residents during a revolution.
US forces punish the locals for an assault on
the American consul at Newchwang.
General Sedgwick and 100 men obtain the surrender of Matamoras.
Marines occupied Managua and Leon.
Formosa A naval force lands and burns a number of huts to
punish the inhabitants for the presumed murder of the crew of a wrecked
US forces land in Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama,
and Negata to protect American corporate interests during the civil war in
US forces protect foreign
residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
US forces protect passengers and treasure in
transit at Colin during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion
of the death of the President of Colombia.
US forces destroy the pirate ship
Forward which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio
Campaign or Sinmi-yangyo
US naval force attack and capture five
Korean forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans,
particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the
schooner, and later, for firing on other American small boats taking soundings
up the Salee River. Adm. Rodgers, commanding five warships and a landing party
of over 1,230 men armed with Remington carbines and Springfield muskets attacks
Choji Fortress of Kanghwa-do, and proceeds to occupy the whole island (116.8 sq
mi), killing 350 Korean defenders of the island, and withdrawing to China only
when the Korean army sends in reinforcement armed with modern
US forces protected American interests during
hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of
US troops cross the Mexican border repeatedly in
pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal
pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently.
Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875.
Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico
and the US, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued
intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.
Legislature elects David Kalakaua king, resulting in a
riot led by supporters of
Queen Emma. Detachments from American vessels land to preserve order and
protect American lives and interests during the coronation of David Laamea
Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalakaua.
US force lands to police the town of
Matamoras, a critical transportation hub of United Fruit Company temporarily
while it was without other government. US investors clash head on with dominant
US forces land to protect American corporate
interests during warfare between British and
Egyptians and looting of
the city of Alexandria
US forces guard
valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad including the safes and vaults of
the United Fruit
Company during revolutionary activity.
Lumialani Kalakaua is forced to sign a new constitution making the monarchy
little more than a figurehead. Local businessmen, sugar planters and
politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles force the dismissal of the cabinet of
controversial Walter M. Gibson and force the adoption of the 1887 Constitution
of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The new documents limited voting rights exclusively
to only the literate males of the following populations: Hawaiian, European,
and American descent.
A naval force was sent ashore to protect American
residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of
the populace was expected.
A display of
force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had
been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.
US forces land to protect American citizens and the
consulate during a native civil war.
Hawaiian Islands US forces
protect American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.
Argentina A naval party
lands to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.
Haiti US forces protect
American lives and property on Navassa Island.
Strait Naval forces attempt to stop seal poaching.
Chile US forces protect the American consulate and refugees
during a revolution in Valparaiso.
Hawaii Marines land to promote a provisional government
under Sanford B. Dole.
"Many Americans I don't think realize that Hawaii
was an independent country before it was brought into the US. In brief, this is
the story. In the early part of the 19th century, several hundred American
missionaries, most of them from New England, sailed off to what were then
called the Sandwich Islands to devote their lives to, as they would have put
it, raising up the heathen savages and teaching them the blessings of Christian
civilization. It wasn't long before many of these missionaries and their sons
began to realize that there was a lot of money to be made in Hawaii. The
natives had been growing sugar for a long time, but they had never refined it
and had never exported it. By dispossessing the natives of most of their land,
a group that came from what was then called this missionary planter elite sort
of left the path of God, went onto the path of Mammon and established a series
of giant sugar plantations in Hawaii, and they became very rich from exporting
sugar into the US.
In the early 1890s, the
US passed a tariff that made it
impossible for the Hawaiian sugar growers to sell their sugar in the United
States. So they were in a panic. They were about to lose their fortunes. And
they asked themselves what they could do to somehow continue to sell their
sugar in the US They came up with a perfect answer: We'll get into the US How
will we do this? Well, the leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, if you want
to call them that, who were mostly of American origin, actually went to
Washington. He met with the Secretary of the Navy. He presented his case
directly to the President of the US, Benjamin Harrison. And he received
assurances that the US would support a rebellion against the Hawaiian monarchy.
So he went back to Hawaii and became part of a triumvirate, which essentially
carried out the Hawaiian revolution. He was one part of the triumvirate. The
second part was the American ambassador, who was himself an annexationist and
had been instructed by the State Department to do whatever he could to aid this
revolution. And the third figure was the commander of the US naval vessel,
which was conveniently anchored right off the shores of Honolulu. This
revolution was carried out with amazing ease. The leader of the Hawaiian
revolutionaries, this missionary planter elite, simply announced at a meeting
one day, "We have overthrown the government of Hawaii, and we are now the new
government." And before the queen was able to respond, the US ambassador had
250 Marines called to shore from the ship that was conveniently off the coast
of Honolulu and announced that since there had been some instability and there
seemed to be a change of government, the Marines were going to land to protect
the new regime and the lives and property of all Hawaiians. So that meant that
there was nothing the queen could do. The regime was immediately recognized by
the US, and with that simple process, the monarchy of Hawaii came to an end,
and then ultimately Hawaii joined the US" - Stephen Kinzer
Brazil A display of naval
force protects American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a
Brazilian civil war.
1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to
August 7. US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields
following a revolution.
Korea From July 24,
1894 to April 3, 1896 marines protect the American legation and American lives
and interests at Seoul during and following the
US forces protected American interests
during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.
A naval vessel
is beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American
nationals. Marines are stationed at Tientsin and penetrate Peking during the
Nicaragua US forces protect American interests in Corinto
during political unrest.
On April 25, 1898, the US declares war with Spain. The
war followes a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the
USS Maine in the harbor at Havana when her forward
"Americans have had their eye on Cuba for a long time, ever
Jefferson was president. But it was in 1898 that this attachment to the
cause of Cuba Libré really seized the hearts of many Americans. Bear in
mind that in 1898, the Cuban economy was totally dominated by Americans. It was
a big sugar producer, and all the sugar plantations in Cuba were owned by
Americans. Also, it was a very big market for American manufactured goods.
About 85% of anything you could buy in Cuba had been made in the US, so
American business had very big interests there. Now, Cuban patriots spent much
of the late 19th century rebelling against Spanish colonial rule. In 1898 they
seemed very close to succeeding. This was a little bit troubling to some of the
American interests in Cuba, because the revolutionaries were also social
reformers. They advocated land reform, which would have meant breaking up the
big sugar plantations owned by Americans.
They also supported
a tariff wall around Cuba to allow
the growth of domestic manufacturing, which would have made it more difficult
for American companies to export their goods to Cuba.
In 1898, the American press, in some ways
excited by whisperings from American
businessmen active in Cuba, began a campaign to portray Spanish colonial
rule in Cuba as the most unspeakably brutal tyranny that could be imagined, and
the American public was whipped up into a fervor about this. The fervor
intensified when the US battleship, Maine, was blown up in Havana harbor. "Our
Warship Was Blown Up by an Enemy's Infernal Machine." That was the headline in
the New York Journal that I reproduce in my book. Actually, it wasn't until 75
years later that the Navy convened a board of inquiry, which turned up the fact
that the Maine was actually blown up by an internal explosion.
Congress, passed a law, the Teller Amendment, which said
very explicitly, "We promise Cuba that the moment independence is won, all
American troops will be withdrawn, and Cuba
will be allowed to become fully independent."
The Americans announced
that they changed their mind, that the Teller Amendment had been passed in
a moment of irrational enthusiasm
and that actually Cuban independence was not a very good idea, so the American
troops were not withdrawn. We remained in Cuba for some decades, ruling it
directly under US military officers, and then, for a period after that, through
The press played a really shameful role in the run-up
to the Spanish-American
War. The Americans had never been particularly fond of the Spanish rule in
Cuba, but it wasn't until the press, actually in a circulation war, decided to
seize on the brutality, as they called it, of Spanish colonial rule in the
summer of 1898 that Americans really went crazy.
Hearst was a crucial figure, who
very cleverly realized that he could push the circulation of his newspaper
dramatically higher if he hammered away on jingoistic issues by pointing at
foreign nations as constantly seeking to undermine the United States." -
The US 'purchases' 'jurisdiction' of the Spanish Colonial
Empire with the Treaty of Paris. Spain relinquishes nearly all of the remaining
Spanish Empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines to the
United States. The cession of the Philippines involves a payment of $20 million
from the United States to Spain. The treaty is signed on December 10, 1898, and
ends the SpanishAmerican War.
November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces
provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin
during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.
February 7 US forces protected American lives and
property at San Juan del Sur.
On May 9, the US Naval War Board advised Secretary of
the Navy John Davis Long that the US should seize the Spanish possession of
Guam in Micronesia. June 20, the USS Charleston sailed into Guams Apra
Harbor and fires a few cannon shots.
American and British naval forces are
landed to protect corporate interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to
March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the
insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.
February-May 15. American and British naval forces land to protect corporate
interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the
Islands US forces protect corporate interests following the war with
Spain and conquer the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for
On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially
declared war against the United States.
The war officially ended on July
2, 1902 with a victory for the United States.
General Macario Sakay, a
veteran Katipunan member assumed presidency of the "Tagalog Republic" formed in
1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups continued
hostilities in remote areas and islands, including the Moro people and
Pulahanes people, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology.
This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of
the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion
based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no
supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not
occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
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