Birth of an Imperial Nation

1798-1800 Undeclared Naval War with France. This contest included land actions, such as that in the Dominican Republic city of Puerto Plata where marines capture a French privateer under the guns of the forts. Congress authorized military action through a series of statutes.

1801-05 Tripoli. The First Barbary War included the US$ George Washington and Philadelphia affairs and the Eaton expedition, during which a few marines landed with US Agent William Eaton to raise a force against Tripoli in an effort to free the crew of the Philadelphia. Tripoli declared war but not the US, although Congress authorized US military action by statute.

1806 Mexico (Spanish territory).

Capt. ZM Pike, with a platoon of troops, invades Spanish territory at the headwaters of the Rio Grande on orders from Gen. James Wilkinson.

He is made prisoner without résistance at a fort he constructed in present day Colorado, taken to Mexico, and later released after seizure of his papers.

1806-10 Gulf of Mexico. American gunboats operated from New Orleans against Spanish and French privateers off the Mississippi Delta, chiefly under Capt. John Shaw and Master Commandant David Porter.

1810 West Florida (Spanish territory). Gov. Claiborne of Louisiana, on orders of the President, occupied with troops territory in dispute east of the Mississippi River as far as the Pearl River, later the eastern boundary of Louisiana. He was authorized to seize as far east as the Perdido River.

1812 Amelia Island and other parts of east Florida, then under Spain. Temporary possession was authorized by President Madison and by Congress, to prevent occupation by any other power; but possession was obtained by Gen. George Matthews in so irregular a manner that his measures were disavowed by the President.

War of 1812 On June 18, 1812, the US declared war between the US and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Among the issues leading to the war were British interception of neutral ships and blockades of the United States during British hostilities with France.

Forgotten War of 1812

1813 West Florida (Spanish territory). On authority given by Congress, General Wilkinson seized Mobile Bay in April with 600 soldiers. A small Spanish garrison gave way. The US advanced into disputed territory to the Perdido River, as projected in 1810. No fighting.

1813-14 Marquesas Islands. United States forces built a fort on the island of Nukahiva to protect three prize ships which had been captured from the British.

1814 Spanish Florida. Andrew Jackson took Pensacola and drove out the British with whom the United States was at war.

1814-25 Caribbean. Engagements between pirates and American ships or squadrons took place repeatedly especially ashore and offshore about Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo, and Yucatan. Three thousand pirate attacks on merchantmen were reported between 1815 and 1823. In 1822 Commodore James Biddle employed a squadron of two frigates, four sloops of war, two brigs, four schooners, and two gunboats in the West Indies.

1815 Algiers. The second Barbary War was declared against the US by the Dey of Algiers of the Barbary states, an act not reciprocated by the United States. Congress did authorize a military expedition by statutes. A large fleet under Decatur attacked Algiers and obtained indemnities.

1815 Tripoli. After securing an agreement from Algiers, Decatur demonstrated with his squadron at Tunis and Tripoli, where he secured indemnities for offenses during the War of 1812.

1816 Spanish Florida. US forces destroyed Nicholls Fort, called also Negro Fort, which harbored raiders making forays into US territory.

1816-18 Spanish Florida - First Seminole War.

Seminole Indians, whose area is a haven for escaped slaves and border ruffians, are attacked and pursued into northern Florida by troops under Generals Jackson and Gaines.

Spanish posts are attacked and occupied, British citizens executed.

1817 Amelia Island (Spanish territory off Florida). Under orders of President Monroe, US forces landed and expelled a group of smugglers, adventurers, and freebooters.

1818 Oregon. The US$ Ontario, dispatched from Washington, landed at the Columbia River and in August took possession of Oregon territory. Britain had conceded sovereignty but Russia and Spain asserted claims to the area.

1819 Floridas ceded to the US.

1820-23 Africa. Naval units raid the slave traffic pursuant to the 1819 act of Congress.

1822 Cuba. US naval forces land on the northwest coast of Cuba and burn a pirate outpost.

1823 Cuba. Brief landings in pursuit of pirates occurred April 8 near Escondido; April 16 near Cayo Blanco; July 11 at Siquapa Bay; July 21 at Cape Cruz; and October 23 at Camrioca.

1824 Cuba. In October the US$ Porpoise landed bluejackets near Matanzas in pursuit of pirates.

1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish territory). Commodore David Porter with a landing party attacked the town of Fajardo which had sheltered pirates and insulted American naval officers. He landed with 200 men in November and forced an apology. Commodore Porter was later court-martialed for overstepping his powers.

1825 Cuba. In March cooperating American and British forces landed at Sagua La Grande to capture pirates.

1827 Greece. In October and November landing parties hunted pirates on the islands of Argenteire, Miconi, and Androse.

1831-32 Falkland Islands. Captain Duncan of the US$ Lexington investigates the capture of three American sealing vessels seeking to protect business interests.

1832 Sumatra. February 6 to 9. A naval force landed and stormed a fort to punish natives of the town of Quallah Battoo for plundering the American ship Friendship.

1833 Argentina. October 31 to November 15. A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect business interests during an insurrection.

1835-36 Peru. December 10, 1835, to January 24, 1836, and August 31 to December 7, 1836. Marines protected business interests in Callao and Lima during an attempted revolution.

1836 Mexico. General Gaines occupied Nacogdoches (Tex.), disputed territory, from July to December during the Texan war for independence, under orders to cross the "imaginary boundary line" if an Indian outbreak threatened.

1838-39 Sumatra. December 24, 1838, to January 4, 1839. A naval force landed to punish natives of the towns of Quallah Battoo and Muckie (Mukki) for depredations on corporate shipping.

1840 Fiji Islands. July. Naval forces landed to punish natives for attacking corporate exploring and surveying parties.

1841 Drummond Island, Kingsmill Group. A naval party landed to avenge the murder of a seaman by the natives.

1841 Samoa. February 24. A naval party landed and burned towns after the murder of an American seaman on Upolu Island.

1842 Mexico. Commodore T.A.C. Jones, in command of a squadron long cruising off California, occupied Monterey, California, on October 19, believing war had come. He discovered peace, withdrew, and saluted. A similar incident occurred a week later at San Diego.

1843 China. Sailors and marines from the St. Louis were landed after a clash between Americans and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.

1843 Africa. November 29 to December 16. Four US vessels demonstrated and landed various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to discourage piracy and the slave trade along the Ivory coast, and to punish attacks by the natives on corporate seamen and shipping.

1844 Mexico. President Tyler deployed US forces to protect Texas against Mexico, pending Senate approval of a treaty of annexation. (Later rejected.) He defended his action against a Senate resolution of inquiry.

1846-48 Mexican War. On May 13, 1846, the US recognized the existence of a state of war with Mexico. After the annexation of Texas in 1845, the US and Mexico failed to resolve a boundary dispute and President Polk deploys forces in Mexico to meet a threatened invasion.

1849 Smyrna. In July a naval force gained release of an American seized by Austrian officials.

1851 Türkey. After a massacre of foreigners (including Americans) at Jaffa in January, a demonstration by the Mediterranean Squadron was ordered along the Türkish (Levant) coast.

1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa). August. Forces from the US sloop of war Dale exacted redress for the unlawful imprisonment of the captain of an American whaling brig.

1852-53 Argentina. February 3 to 12, 1852; September 17, 1852 to April 1853. Marines were landed and maintained in Buenos Aires to protect business interests during a revolution.

1853 Nicaragua. March 11 to 13. US forces landed to protect business interests during political disturbances.

1853-54 Japan. Commodore Perry and his naval expedition made a display of force leading to the "opening of Japan."

1853-54 Ryukyu and Bonin Islands. Commodore Perry on three visits before going to Japan and while waiting for a reply from Japan executed a naval demonstration, landing marines twice, and secured a coaling concession from the ruler of Naha on Okinawa; he also demonstrated in the Bonin Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for corporate commerce.

1854 China. April 4 to June 15 to 17. American and English ships landed forces to protect business interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.

1854 Nicaragua. July 9 to 15. Naval forces bombarded and burned San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge an insult to the American Minister to Nicaragua.

1855 China. May 19 to 21. US forces protected business interests in Shanghai and, from August 3 to 5 fought pirates near Hong Kong.

1855 Fiji Islands. September 12 to November 4. An American naval force landed to seek reparations for depredations on American residents and seamen.

1855 Uruguay. November 25 to 29. United States and European naval forces landed to protect business interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.

1856 Panama, Republic of New Grenada. September 19 to 22. US forces landed to protect business interests during an insurrection.

1856 China. October 22 to December 6. US forces landed to protect business interests at Canton during hostilities between the British and the Chinese, and to avenge an assault upon an unarmed boat displaying the US flag.

1857 Nicaragua. April to May, November to December. In May Commander C.H. Davis of the US Navy, with some marines, received the surrender of William Walker, who had been attempting to get control of the country, and protected his men from the retaliation of native allies who had been fighting Walker. In November and December of the same year US vessels Saratoga, Wabash, and Fulton opposed another attempt of William Walker on Nicaragua. Commodore Hiram Paulding's act of landing marines and compelling the removal of Walker to the US, was tacitly disavowed by Secretary of State Lewis Cass, and Paulding was forced into retirement.


Uruguay Forces from two US warships land to protect American business property during a revolution in Montevideo.

Fiji Islands
A marine expedition chastises natives for the murder of two American citizens at Waya.
The Secretary of State requested a display of naval force along the Levant after a massacre of Americans at Jaffa and mistreatment elsewhere "to remind the authorities of Türkey of the power of the US."


Congress authorized a naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Parana River.

Two hundred American soldiers crossed the Rio Grande in pursuit of the Mexican bandit Cortina.

A naval force lands to protect business interests in Shanghai.


Angola, Portuguese West Africa

American residents at Kissembo called upon American and British ships to protect lives and property during problems with natives.

Naval forces land to protect business interests during a revolution.



The US$ Wyoming retaliates for a firing on the American vessel Pembroke at Shimonoseki.



Naval forces of the US, Great Britain, France, and the Netherlands compel Japan and the Prince of Nagato in particular to permit the Straits of Shimonoseki to be used by foreign shipping in accordance with treaties already signed.



US forces protected the lives and property of American residents during a revolution.



US forces punish the locals for an assault on the American consul at Newchwang.

General Sedgwick and 100 men obtain the surrender of Matamoras.


Marines occupied Managua and Leon.

Formosa A naval force lands and burns a number of huts to punish the inhabitants for the presumed murder of the crew of a wrecked American vessel.


US forces land in Osaka, Hiolo, Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Negata to protect American corporate interests during the civil war in Japan.

US forces protect foreign residents and the customhouse during an insurrection at Montevideo.
US forces protect passengers and treasure in transit at Colin during the absence of local police or troops on the occasion of the death of the President of Colombia.


US forces destroy the pirate ship Forward which had been run aground about 40 miles up the Rio Tecapan.


Korea Campaign or Sinmi-yangyo
US naval force attack and capture five Korean forts to punish natives for depredations on Americans, particularly for murdering the crew of the General Sherman and burning the schooner, and later, for firing on other American small boats taking soundings up the Salee River. Adm. Rodgers, commanding five warships and a landing party of over 1,230 men armed with Remington carbines and Springfield muskets attacks Choji Fortress of Kanghwa-do, and proceeds to occupy the whole island (116.8 sq mi), killing 350 Korean defenders of the island, and withdrawing to China only when the Korean army sends in reinforcement armed with modern weapons.

1872 Minor C. Keith begins acquiring banana plantations and starts to build a railroad in Costa Rica.


US forces protected American interests during hostilities between local groups over control of the government of the State of Panama.


US troops cross the Mexican border repeatedly in pursuit of cattle thieves and other brigands. There were some reciprocal pursuits by Mexican troops into border territory. Mexico protested frequently. Notable cases were at Remolina in May 1873 and at Las Cuevas in 1875. Washington orders often supported these excursions. Agreements between Mexico and the US, the first in 1882, finally legitimized such raids. They continued intermittently, with minor disputes, until 1896.


Hawaiian Islands Legislature elects David Kalakaua king, resulting in a riot led by supporters of Queen Emma. Detachments from American vessels land to preserve order and protect American lives and interests during the coronation of David Laamea Kamananakapu Mahinulani Naloiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalakaua.


US force lands to police the town of Matamoras, a critical transportation hub of Boston Fruit Company temporarily while it was without other government. US investors clash head on with dominant British finance.


US forces land to protect American corporate interests during warfare between British and Egyptians and looting of the city of Alexandria by Arabs.


US forces guard valuables in transit over the Panama Railroad including the safes and vaults of the United Fruit Company during revolutionary activity.


Hawaiian Islands
David Lumialani Kalakaua is forced to sign a new constitution making the monarchy little more than a figurehead. Local businessmen, sugar planters and politicians backed by the Honolulu Rifles force the dismissal of the cabinet of controversial Walter M. Gibson and force the adoption of the 1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. The new documents limited voting rights exclusively to only the literate males of the following populations: Hawaiian, European, and American descent.


A naval force was sent ashore to protect American residents in Seoul during unsettled political conditions, when an outbreak of the populace was expected.

A display of force persuaded the Haitian Government to give up an American steamer which had been seized on the charge of breach of blockade.

US forces land to protect American citizens and the consulate during a native civil war.


Hawaiian Islands US forces protect American interests at Honolulu during a revolution.


Argentina A naval party lands to protect US consulate and legation in Buenos Aires.

Alfred Mahan, president of the US Naval College, writes the seminal The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783.


Haiti US forces protect American lives and property on Navassa Island.

Bering Strait Naval forces attempt to stop seal poaching.

Chile US forces protect the American consulate and refugees during a revolution in Valparaiso.


Hawaii Marines land to promote a provisional government under Sanford B. Dole.

"Many Americans I don't think realize that Hawaii was an independent country before it was brought into the US. In brief, this is the story. In the early part of the 19th century, several hundred American missionaries, most of them from New England, sailed off to what were then called the Sandwich Islands to devote their lives to, as they would have put it, raising up the heathen savages and teaching them the blessings of Christian civilization. It wasn't long before many of these missionaries and their sons began to realize that there was a lot of money to be made in Hawaii. The natives had been growing sugar for a long time, but they had never refined it and had never exported it. By dispossessing the natives of most of their land, a group that came from what was then called this missionary planter elite sort of left the path of God, went onto the path of Mammon and established a series of giant sugar plantations in Hawaii, and they became very rich from exporting sugar into the US.

In the early 1890s, the US passed a tariff that made it impossible for the Hawaiian sugar growers to sell their sugar in the United States. So they were in a panic. They were about to lose their fortunes. And they asked themselves what they could do to somehow continue to sell their sugar in the US They came up with a perfect answer: We'll get into the US How will we do this? Well, the leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, if you want to call them that, who were mostly of American origin, actually went to Washington. He met with the Secretary of the Navy. He presented his case directly to the President of the US, Benjamin Harrison. And he received assurances that the US would support a rebellion against the Hawaiian monarchy. So he went back to Hawaii and became part of a triumvirate, which essentially carried out the Hawaiian revolution. He was one part of the triumvirate. The second part was the American ambassador, who was himself an annexationist and had been instructed by the State Department to do whatever he could to aid this revolution. And the third figure was the commander of the US naval vessel, which was conveniently anchored right off the shores of Honolulu. This revolution was carried out with amazing ease. The leader of the Hawaiian revolutionaries, this missionary planter elite, simply announced at a meeting one day, "We have overthrown the government of Hawaii, and we are now the new government."

Before the queen was able to respond, the US ambassador called 250 Marines ashore from a ship conveniently off the coast of Honolulu announcing instability caused regime change, the Marines landed to protect the new regime, lives and property of all Hawaiians.

So that meant that there was nothing the queen could do. The regime was immediately recognized by the US, and with that simple process, the monarchy of Hawaii came to an end, and then ultimately Hawaii joined the US" - Stephen Kinzer


Brazil A display of naval force protects American commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.

1894 Nicaragua. July 6 to August 7. US forces sought to protect American interests at Bluefields following a revolution.


Korea From July 24, 1894 to April 3, 1896 marines protect the American legation and American lives and interests at Seoul during and following the Sino-Japanese War.


US forces protected American interests during an attack on the town of Bocas del Toro by a bandit chieftain.

A naval vessel is beached and used as a fort at Newchwang for protection of American nationals.

Marines are stationed at Tientsin and penetrate Peking during the Sino-Japanese War.


Nicaragua US forces protect American interests in Corinto during political unrest.

Rise of the Surveillance State

111 Years of the US Surveillance State

Inside the Surveillance Program IBM Built

Communications surveillance in the digital age

US Surveillance State Dates Back to the 19th Century

Genomic surveillance of antibiotic resistance in the Philippines established

1898 Spanish-American War

On April 25, 1898, the US declares war with Spain. The war followes a Cuban insurrection against Spanish rule and the sinking of the US$ Maine in the harbor at Havana when her forward gunpowder magazines explode.

"Americans have had their eye on Cuba for a long time, ever since Thomas Jefferson was president. But it was in 1898 that this attachment to the cause of Cuba Libré really seized the hearts of many Americans. Bear in mind that in 1898, the Cuban economy was totally dominated by Americans. It was a big sugar producer, and all the sugar plantations in Cuba were owned by Americans. Also, it was a very big market for American manufactured goods. About 85% of anything you could buy in Cuba had been made in the US, so American business had very big interests there. Now, Cuban patriots spent much of the late 19th century rebelling against Spanish colonial rule. In 1898 they seemed very close to succeeding. This was a little bit troubling to some of the American interests in Cuba, because the revolutionaries were also social reformers. They advocated land reform, which would have meant breaking up the big sugar plantations owned by Americans.

They also supported a tariff wall around Cuba to allow the growth of domestic manufacturing, which would have made it more difficult for American companies to export their goods to Cuba.

In 1898, the American press, in some ways excited by whisperings from American businessmen active in Cuba, began a campaign to portray Spanish colonial rule in Cuba as the most unspeakably brutal tyranny that could be imagined, and the American public was whipped up into a fervor about this. The fervor intensified when the US battleship, Maine, was blown up in Havana harbor. "Our Warship Was Blown Up by an Enemy's Infernal Machine." That was the headline in the New York Journal that I reproduce in my book. Actually, it wasn't until 75 years later that the Navy convened a board of inquiry, which turned up the fact that the Maine was actually blown up by an internal explosion.

Congress, passed a law, the Teller Amendment, which said very explicitly, "We promise Cuba that the moment independence is won, all American troops will be withdrawn, and Cuba will be allowed to become fully independent."

The Americans announced that they changed their mind, that the Teller Amendment had been passed in a moment of irrational enthusiasm and that actually Cuban independence was not a very good idea, so the American troops were not withdrawn. We remained in Cuba for some decades, ruling it directly under US military officers, and then, for a period after that, through local dictators.

The press played a really shameful role in the run-up to the Spanish-American War. The Americans had never been particularly fond of the Spanish rule in Cuba, but it wasn't until the press, actually in a circulation war, decided to seize on the brutality, as they called it, of Spanish colonial rule in the summer of 1898 that Americans really went crazy.

Hearst was a crucial figure, who very cleverly realized that he could push the circulation of his newspaper dramatically higher if he hammered away on jingoistic issues by pointing at foreign nations as constantly seeking to undermine the United States." - Stephen Kinzer

The US 'purchases' 'jurisdiction' of the Spanish Colonial Empire with the Treaty of Paris.

Spain relinquishes nearly all of the remaining Spanish Empire, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involves a payment of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The treaty is signed on December 10, 1898, and ends the Spanish–American War.

Spanish-American War pushes Manifest Destiny deep into the Pacific annexing the colonial empire of Spain: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.

A genocidal war is waged against the Filipino people.

Kingdom of Hawaii is conquered and the Native Hawaiian people (the Kanaka Maoli) are subjected to near genocidal conditions.

manchu empire


November 5, 1898 to March 15, 1899. US forces provided a guard for the legation at Peking and the consulate at Tientsin during contest between the Dowager Empress and her son.

February 7 US forces protected American lives and property at San Juan del Sur.

On May 9, the US Naval War Board advised Secretary of the Navy John Davis Long that the US should seize the Spanish possession of Guam in Micronesia. June 20, the US$ Charleston sailed into Guam's Apra Harbor and fires a few cannon shots.


American and British naval forces are landed to protect corporate interests at San Juan del Norte, February 22 to March 5, and at Bluefields a few weeks later in connection with the insurrection of Gen. Juan P. Reyes.

Samoa February-May 15. American and British naval forces land to protect corporate interests and to take part in a bloody contention over the succession to the throne.

Philippine Islands US forces protect corporate interests following the war with Spain and conquer the islands by defeating the Filipinos in their war for independence.

On June 2, 1899, the First Philippine Republic officially declared war against the United States.

The war officially ended on July 2, 1902 with a victory for the United States.

General Macario Sakay, a veteran Katipunan member assumed presidency of the "Tagalog Republic" formed in 1902 after the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo. Other groups continued hostilities in remote areas and islands, including the Moro people and Pulahanes people, until their final defeat at the Battle of Bud Bagsak on June 15, 1913.

unique library index

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This website defines a new perspective with which to en❡a❡e Яeality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the faλsification of reaλity outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern pr☠paganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reaλity on the human race. Religi☯us int☯lerance ☯ccurs when any group refuses to tolerate religi☯us practices, religi☸us beliefs or persons due to their philosophical ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philºsºphy nªmed the Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière Infinie - a ra☨ional gnos☨ic mys☨ery re☦igion based on reaso🐍 which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a pers∞nal relati∞n with the Æon through the pursuit of the knowλedge of reaλity in the hope of curing the spiritual c✡rrupti✡n that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of the Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Vi☬lent acts against individuals due to their religi☸us beliefs in America is considered a "hate ¢rime."

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American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through c✡rp✡rate media by press☟ng em☠ti☠nal butt☠ns which have been πreπrogrammed into the πoπulation through prior c✡rp✡rate media psych☣l☣gical ☣perati☣ns. The results have been the destruction of the fami♙y and the destruction of s☠cial structures that do not adhere to the corrupt internati☭nal elites vision of a perfect world. Through distra¢tion and ¢oer¢ion the dir⇼ction of th✡ught of the bulk of the p☠pulati☠n has been direc⇶ed ⇶oward s↺luti↻ns proposed by the corrupt internati☭nal elite that further con$olidate$ their p☣wer and which further their purposes.

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