On The Road Again

Car Commercials of the 50s and 60s

Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us

Le Corbusier: Urban Utopias

Motivation in Complex Problem Solving

French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier, born Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, saw the machine age as a chance to remake society and improve the lives of all.

His philosophy is laid out in his "Five Points of a New Architecture:"

Pilotis, or piles: Columns that support the building’s mass, opening the ground underneath to free green space and allow for automobile movement.

The free plan: The separation of load-bearing columns from internal walls, allowing free modification of the floor plan.

The free façade: Similar to the free plan, the façade could be designed flexibly, since it has no structural function.

The horizontal window: The free façade can be cut horizontally to light the whole space.

The roof garden: Recover the sunlit green space lost beneath the building with a garden on the roof.

His functionalist ideology also appeared in an emphasis on raw geometry and opposition to decoration of any sort, separating the architecture from any preexisting culture.

In his view, a building must serve as a machine, built to fulfill its purpose in the most economical way possible.

He wanted to bring the industrial revolution to architecture, mass-producing buildings, and later cities.

Le Corbusier’s first foray into urban planning was the Contemporary City (Ville Contemporaine), a universal concept for a city of 3 million.

The plan was first presented at the Paris Salon d’Automne in 1922, and suggested a city of tomorrow based on "a theoretically water-tight formula to arrive at the fundamental principles of town planning."

This rational, uncompromising plan begins with an ideal site – level, open, and clear of buildings.

"The Corbusian connection struck me most acutely when I realized on my recent trip that many of Honolulu’s towers, both in Waikiki and throughout the rest of the city, sit atop open-air lobbies, of the very sort that Corbu said would bring healthy breezes to the masses.

I suppose it makes sense in Hawaii, with the trade winds and all, but the effect is still deadening. Ground floors are given to parking areas.

Towers are surrounded by pointless greenery and setbacks, making them mutually hostile towards each other.

Curb cuts interrupt the sidewalk and, in many neighborhoods, there’s really nowhere to walk to.

Mercifully, the most complete realization of Le Corbusier’s Plan Voison in the western hemisphere took the form of Brasilia, Brazil." - Josh Stephens

"Despite what Le Corbusier might have claimed, the pros of the transit oriented development, highly livable communities, and increased sustainability that stem from mixed zoning are undeniable.

The ideal urban form combines public and private spaces - in recent years, it has become apparent that mixed-use development is most desirable." - Alessandro Hseuh-Bruni

1943 Architect Le Corbusier publishes the Athens Charter.

The charter shaped the design of European and American cities for decades after the Second World War.

It presented a set of ninety-four tenets that cities should follow to become functional and efficient.

The Athens Charter proposed a strict formula for all cities to follow with no regard for geography or local culture while aiming at simplifying how cities worked, rather than to promote more complex ways of living.

Over the years, Le Corbusier’s ideas have been credited with destroying neighborhoods and street life, and they continue to influence city design, from the growth of gated communities to car-centric city streets.

Housing Act of 1949

The main elements of the Act included:

federal financing for slum clearance programs associated with urban renewal projects in American cities (Title I)

increased authorization for the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage insurance (Title II)

extension of federal money to build more than 800,000 public housing units (Title III)

funding for research on housing and building techniques (Title IV)

financing of "dwelling and other farm buildings on ... farms" (Title V).

The Act governed the way the immense financial resources of the federal government would shape the growth of American cities in the post-war era.

The government fell far short of its goal to build 810,000 units of new public housing by 1955, providing little aid to cities suffering from housing shortages.

Lincoln Center wasa New York City cultural development including 4400 apartments for which 7000 apartments were torn down.

Urban renewal also came under fire for discriminating against minorities, in that it often resulted in minority-heavy slums being destroyed and replaced with more expensive housing or non-residential public works that were not accommodating to the original inhabitants.

The federal government spent $13.5 billion on urban redevelopment and slum clearance projects between 1953 and 1986.


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noun -

the reason behind a persons actions;

motivation carries the intention of a particular goal.

adjective -

causing, or tending to cause, motion;

pertaining to motion;

prompting to action.

verb -

(used with object), mo·tived, mo·tiv·ing; to motivate.

Technological activity is the most primitive activity of man.

The technological phenomena is the main preoccupation of man.

In every field men seek to find the most efficient method of technique.

The choice now is no longer a subjective one as technique requires it be made on the basis of numerical calculation.

Technique rests at the foundation of human psychology in the reptilian brain.

Magik must be seen as an attempt through technique to modify nature.

The characteristics of modern industrial technique align with magik.

The supreme virtue of self-control rejects technique to embrace self destiny.

In Greece a conscious effort was made to reduce the influence of magik.

Rational scientific thought becomes a means to an end of applied technique.

The preoccupation of the Greeks was a balanced life of harmonic moderation.

Roman technique centered on civil justice to maintain order.

"It was not until the third century that Roman judicial technique attempted to deal with the details of everyday life, to regulate everything, to foresee everything, leaving the individual in a state of complete inertia.

Technical activity did not escape moral judgement.

When an element of technique appeared to be righteous it was adopted, but even then with excessive caution." - Jacques Ellul

Descartes spells out the scientific method technique of intellectual inquiry in Discourse on the Method.

The technique of rational logical linear thinking is now applied to thought.

A politically stable social structure with fixed tradition stifles creativity.

But conjoined with an atmosphere of scientific discovery, as in the early 18th century, it created a favorable climate for the universal acceptance of the application of technique in the exploitation of natural resources.

A politically unstable flexible social structure disrupts existing exchanges by creatively replacing them as in the European Revolutions of 1848.

Rapidly improving living conditions brought about by the industrial revolution and the centralization of power gave rise to the myth of progress.


US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, Operational Terms and Graphics, defines information warfare as "actions taken to achieve information superiority by affecting a hostile's information, information based-processes, and information systems, while defending one's own information, information processes, and information systems." - released 30 September 1997

The Mind Has No Firewall

Runaway Train

Hound Dog

Johnny B. Goode

"As an open system, man communicates with his environment through information flows and communications media.

We are on the threshold of an era in which these data processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated.

An entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on devices designed to introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body's psychological and data-processing capabilities, might be used to incapacitate individuals.

These weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various sensory and data-processing systems of the human organism.

In both cases, the goal is to confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium. " - Timothy L Thomas

Victor Solntsev examined the problem of "information noise," which creates a dense shield between a person and external reality.

This noise manifests as signals, messages, images and factcheckers.

The target of this noise is personal or collective consciousness.

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