French-Swiss architect Le
Corbusier, born Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, saw the
machine age as a chance to
remake society and improve the lives of all.
His philosophy is laid out
in his "Five Points of a New Architecture:"
Pilotis, or piles:
Columns that support the buildings
mass, opening the ground
underneath to free green space and
allow for automobile
The free plan:
The separation of
load-bearing columns from internal walls,
modification of the floor plan.
The free façade:
Similar to the
free plan, the façade
could be designed flexibly, since
it has no
The horizontal window:
The free façade can be
cut horizontally to light the whole space.
The roof garden:
Recover the sunlit green
space lost beneath the building with a garden on the roof.
functionalist ideology also appeared in
an emphasis on raw
geometry and opposition to
decoration of any sort, separating the architecture from
any preexisting culture.
In his view,
a building must serve
as a machine, built to fulfill
its purpose in the most economical way possible.
He wanted to bring
the industrial revolution to architecture, mass-producing buildings, and later
Le Corbusiers first foray into urban planning was the
Contemporary City (Ville Contemporaine), a universal concept for a city
of 3 million.
The plan was first presented at the Paris Salon
dAutomne in 1922, and suggested a city of tomorrow based on "a
theoretically water-tight formula to arrive at the fundamental principles of
This rational, uncompromising plan begins with an ideal
site level, open, and clear of buildings.
connection struck me most acutely when I realized on my recent trip that many
of Honolulus towers, both in Waikiki and throughout the rest of the city,
sit atop open-air lobbies, of the very sort that Corbu said would bring healthy
breezes to the masses.
I suppose it makes sense in Hawaii, with the
trade winds and all, but the effect is still deadening. Ground floors are given
to parking areas.
Towers are surrounded by pointless greenery and
setbacks, making them mutually hostile towards each other.
interrupt the sidewalk and, in many neighborhoods, theres really nowhere
to walk to.
Mercifully, the most complete realization of Le
Corbusiers Plan Voison in the western hemisphere took the form of
Brasilia, Brazil." - Josh Stephens
"Despite what Le Corbusier might
have claimed, the pros of the transit oriented development, highly livable
communities, and increased sustainability that stem from mixed zoning are
The ideal urban form combines public and private spaces - in
recent years, it has become apparent that mixed-use development is most
desirable." - Alessandro Hseuh-Bruni
Architect Le Corbusier publishes the Athens Charter.
shaped the design of European and American cities for decades after the Second
It presented a set of ninety-four tenets that cities should
follow to become functional and efficient.
The Athens Charter
proposed a strict formula for all cities to follow with no regard for geography
or local culture while aiming at simplifying how cities worked, rather than to
promote more complex ways of living.
Over the years, Le
Corbusiers ideas have been credited with
neighborhoods and street life, and they continue to influence city design,
from the growth of gated communities to car-centric city streets.
Housing Act of 1949
The main elements of the Act
federal financing for slum clearance programs associated with
urban renewal projects in American cities (Title I)
authorization for the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage insurance
extension of federal money to build more than 800,000 public
housing units (Title III)
funding for research on housing and building
techniques (Title IV)
financing of "dwelling and other farm buildings
on ... farms" (Title V).
The Act governed the way the immense financial
resources of the federal government would shape the growth of American cities
in the post-war era.
The government fell far short of its goal to build
810,000 units of new public housing by 1955, providing little aid to cities
suffering from housing shortages.
Lincoln Center wasa New York
City cultural development including 4400 apartments for which 7000 apartments
were torn down.
Urban renewal also came under fire for discriminating
against minorities, in that it often resulted in minority-heavy slums being
destroyed and replaced with more expensive housing or non-residential public
works that were not accommodating to the original inhabitants.
federal government spent $13.5 billion on urban redevelopment and slum
clearance projects between 1953 and 1986.
the reason behind a persons actions;
motivation carries the intention
of a particular goal.
causing, or tending to
pertaining to motion;
(used with object), mo·tived,
Technological activity is the most
primitive activity of man.
The technological phenomena is the main
preoccupation of man.
In every field men seek to find the most efficient
method of technique.
The choice now is no longer a subjective one as
technique requires it be made on the basis of numerical
Technique rests at the foundation of human psychology in
the reptilian brain.
Magik must be seen as an attempt through technique
to modify nature.
characteristics of modern industrial technique align with magik.
The supreme virtue of self-control rejects technique to embrace self
In Greece a
conscious effort was made to reduce the influence of magik.
scientific thought becomes a means to an end of applied technique.
preoccupation of the Greeks was a balanced life of harmonic moderation.
Roman technique centered on civil justice to maintain order.
not until the third century that Roman judicial technique attempted to deal
with the details of everyday life, to regulate everything, to foresee
everything, leaving the individual in a state of complete inertia.
Technical activity did not escape moral judgement.
element of technique appeared to be righteous it was adopted, but even then
with excessive caution." - Jacques Ellul
Descartes spells out the
scientific method technique of intellectual inquiry in Discourse on the Method.
The technique of rational logical linear thinking is now applied to
stable social structure with fixed tradition stifles creativity.
conjoined with an
atmosphere of scientific discovery, as in the early 18th century, it
created a favorable climate for the universal acceptance of the application of
technique in the exploitation of
A politically unstable flexible social structure
disrupts existing exchanges by creatively replacing them as in the
European Revolutions of
Rapidly improving living conditions brought about by the
industrial revolution and the centralization of power gave rise to the myth of
US Army Field Manual 101-5-1, Operational
Terms and Graphics, defines information warfare as "actions taken to achieve
information superiority by affecting a hostile's information, information
based-processes, and information systems, while defending one's own
information, information processes, and information systems." - released 30
"As an open system,
man communicates with his environment
through information flows and
We are on the threshold of an era in which these data
processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated.
entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on
devices designed to
introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body's
psychological and data-processing
capabilities, might be used to
These weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or
to attack the various sensory and data-processing systems of the human
In both cases, the goal is to
confuse or destroy the
signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium. " - Timothy L
Victor Solntsev examined the problem of "information noise,"
which creates a dense
shield between a person and external reality.
This noise manifests
target of this noise
is personal or
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This
web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the
Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based
on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme
leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of the
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been
directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of
individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the
capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully.
Opinion and thoughts have
been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and
re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has
been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his
or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, human rights, political,
economic, democratic, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe
this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for
in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.
Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those
who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for
research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved