"Researchers who receive funding from drug and
medical-device manufacturers are up to 3.5 times as likely to state their study
drug or medical device works than are researchers without such funding.
Dr. Doug Henderson and Dr. Gary Null
1866 Serge (Samuel) Voronoff, the Father of Transplantation is
born to a Jewish family in the
village Shekhman, Tambov
Governorate in Russia (now Tambov Oblast) shortly before July 10 the date of
his circumcision in a synagogue.
1895 New York
City pediatrician Henry Heiman intentionally infects two mentally disabled boys
with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment.
A review of the medical
literature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries found more than 40 reports
of experimental infections with gonorrheal culture, including some where
gonorrheal organisms were applied to the eyes of sick children.
1896 Dr. Arthur Wentworth performs spinal taps on 29 children
at Boston's Children's Hospital, to determine if the procedure is
1893 Caleb Bradham, a New Bern
phramacist, invents Pepsi.
Physicians in North Carolina, Pennsylvania and Ohio injected dozens of orphans
with syphilis and tuberculosis in
City dwellers evolved to fend off TB
1901 Dr. Walter Reed goes to
Cuba and uses 22 Spanish settler workers to prove the validity of Finlay's
mosquito-vector hypothesis that yellow fever is contracted through mosquito
Dr. Walter Reed pays them $100 in gold for their participation,
plus $100 extra if they contract yellow fever.
Clara Louise Maass, a
25-year-old American nurse, dies of yellow fever.
When The Poor Are Made Guinea Pigs
Maass, Yellow Fever and Human Experimentation
1905 Upton Sinclair publishes "the
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
Richard Pearson Strong, head of the
Philippine Biological Laboratory, inoculates 24 men - inmates of
Manila's Bilibid Prison - with a cholera vaccine contaminated with plague
Iatrogenic plague disaster in Bilibid Prison,
He continues his research by inducing Beriberi in another 29
Investigations into the ingredients of
halted by the Secretary of Agriculture even though the Pure Food and Drug
Act requires certain drugs, including
cannabis, be accurately
labeled with contents and dosage.
Chemistry begins policing quality of food.
1908 15 children at the parental surrogate's home St.
Vincent's House in Philadelphia are given tuberculin, resulting in
permanent blindness in some of the children.
St. Vincent's House Orphanage
1911 Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City publishes data on
injecting an inactive syphilis preparation into the skin of 146
hospital patients and
normal children in an
attempt to develop a skin test for syphilis.
In the experiment, Noguchi
injects an extract of syphilis, called luetin, under the subjects' upper arm
Skin reactions are studied, as they vary among healthy subjects
and syphilis patients, based on the disease's stage and its treatment.
Of the 571 subjects, 315 had syphilis.
The remaining subjects
are "controls;" they are orphans or hospital patients who do not have syphilis.
The hospital patients are already being treated
for various non-syphilitic diseases, such as malaria, leprosy,
The controls are
normal individuals, mostly children between the ages of 2 and 18
1913 Dr. Leo Stanley,
chief surgeon at California's San Quentin Prison from 1913 to 1951 begins
experimenting on prisoners.
Researchers perform testicular transplant
experiments on inmates at San Quentin State Prison in California,
inserting the testicles of recently executed inmates and goats into the
abdomens and scrotums of living prisoners.
Eugenics and Testicle Transplants: San Quentin's Dark
1915 Dr. Joseph Goldberger, under
order of the US Public Health Office, produces Pellagra, a debilitating
disease that affects the central
nervous system, in 12 Mississippi inmates.
Results are dramatic;
those fed a diet of fresh meat, milk and vegetables instead of a
corn-based diet recover from
Those without the disease who ate the new diet did not
20 years later after millions die from the disease,
the director of the U.S Public Health Office finally admits officials
knew Pellagra was caused by a niacin deficiency for some time,
but did nothing about it because it mostly affected poor
June 12, 1920 First
official transplantation of a monkey gland into a human by Serge Abrahamovitch
1927 Bureau of
Chemistry reorganized as the Food, Drug and Insecticide
Administration and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.
Sakel develops insulin shock therapy.
1930 Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration renamed
the Food and Drug Administration.
1935 Lobotomy is introduced
into the US.
100,000 people have their brains mutilated by
1938 The Pure Food and Drug Act is
replaced by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
becomes the first to use
treatment in fascist
Secretary of War
Henry L. Stimson tasks the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct
studies of biological warfare feasiblity.
NAS recommends steps be taken
to reduce US vulnerability and research conducted to explore the offensive
potential of bacteriological weapons.
1942 President Roosevelt
approves plan and the War Reserve Service, headed by George Merck, is
established and attached to the Federal Security Agency, a New Deal agency of the
Department of Agriculture.
George Wilhelm Herman Emanuel Merck is
the president of Merck & Co.
from 1925 to 1950 and a member
of Merck family.
Secret work begins under Merck's direction at 28
American universities, including Harvard and
warfare, which caused one million casualties during WWI, was already well
known, but biological warfare, banned by the Geneva Protocol of 1925, was
something new in the modern age. Merck concluded that the United States must
join the race." - Stephen Kinzer, Poisoner in Chief
"The value of
biological warfare will be a debatable question until it is proven or
disproven. There is but one logical course to pursue, namely, to
study the possibilities of such warfare
from every angle." - George Merck
National Academy of
Sciences and the National Research Council work in conjunction with the
War Reserve Service empowering the Army Chemical Warfare Service to greatly
expand its efforts in regard to biological weapons.
Although the highly
classified program was initially defensive, and closely tied with the chemical
weapons program, research continued on developing an independent retaliatory
capability using various disease agents.
Specifically recommended were
research programs, such as the testing of "innocuous organisms" in ventilation
systems, subway systems, and public water supplies.
Over the next 20
years,and the United States conducted a sequence of highly classified
scientific tests on unknowing populations throughout the country.
Special Operations Division at Camp Detrick conducted the research without
informing local or state governmental agencies and general
1949 An enclosed, 1-million-liter
steel test sphere is built at Camp Detrick and biological warfare explosive
munitions tests with agents begin.
Between 1955 and
1975, the number of
volunteer test subjects totaled between 6,000 and 7,000 soldiers. The array of
tests involved using illicit
substances, chemical agents, and other
mind-altering substances, all
designed to produce "fits or seizures, dizziness, fear, panic, hysteria,
hallucinations, migraine, delirium, extreme depression, notions of
hopelessness, lack of initiative to do even simple things, and mania,"
according to scientific director L. Wilson Greene.
|The baboon experiments for
HIV also reflect a new wave of enthusiasm among scientists in the field for
cross-species transplants, said Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, who
heads the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.
"As a concept it is very bold and avant-garde, but it is certainly
worth considering," Dr. Fauci said in an
interview, because it could be "potentially very
1962 Responsibility for testing of promising biological
warfare agents is given to a separate Testing and Evaluation
During the last 10 years of the offensive research and
development program, many scientific advances were made that proved that
biological warfare was clearly feasible, although dependent on careful
planning, especially with regard to meteorological conditions.
Large-scale fermentation, purification, concentration, stabilization,
drying, and weaponization of pathogenic
microorganisms could be done safely.
1963 In a National Institutes of Health sponsored
study, a researcher transplants a baboon
kidney into a human and the experiment fails.
first baboon-to-human transplants
So they attempt to use
brief history of cross-species organ transplantation
November 25, 1969
Richard Nixon visits Fort Detrick to
announce a new policy on biological warfare.
In two National
Security Memoranda, 14, 15 the US government
denounced all development,
production, and stockpiling of biological weapons and declared its intent
to maintain only small research quantities of biological agents, such as are
necessary for the development of vaccines, drugs, and diagnostics.
antipersonnel biological warfare stocks were supposed to be destroyed between
10 May 1971 and 1 May 1972, but they were not.
1981 60,000 Spaniards are poisoned. More than 700 of them
Ministry of Health widely informed of the possibility an
organothiophosphate insecticide could have triggered the new disease. It does
not act accordingly.
Widely documented in the book Pacto de
Silencio (Compañía General de las Letras, Barcelona,
March 1988) it was not curing the sick.
Ministry of Health dictated the
origin of the disease had to be found in a mycoplasma, transmitted by air, and
entered the body by respiratory route.
Dr. Muro affirmed on May 10, 1981
- at the 10 days after the disease was detected - that this was impossible, and
that the route of transmission was necessarily - given
the characteristics of the
symptoms - the digestive one.
Dr. Angel Peralta Serrano, head of the
Endocrinology Children's Hospital of Madrid, in an article published May 12,
1981, in his opinion the clinical image was better explained by organophosphate
insecticide poisoning than by a simple viral infection (atypical pneumonia).
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elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at
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American social mores and values have declined
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