"Within every atom traces of
the Sun hath been made manifest."
"Epicurian atomism is the best theory for the
Epicurian atomism is compatible with
|Electrons are simply too
small for us to observe.
J. J. Thompson in 1879 suggested an atom was
composed of electrons surrounded by a soup of positive charge - the plum
When Ernest Rutherford carried out his famous gold leaf
experiments along with Geiger and Marsden, they concluded that the mass of an
atom was concentrated at its center, and thus proposed a model with a positive
central nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons.
proposed electrons existed in orbitals - orbiting the central positive nucleus
in a manner analogous to planets orbiting a central star.
A spectral analysis of
hydrogen reveals a set of discrete emission lines which the Bohr model
explains as the transition of electrons between orbitals.
The Bohr model
is only able to explain the emission spectra for hydrogen or other single
electron atoms like ionized helium.
For multi-electron atoms the
spectral analysis showed many more discrete emission lines that could not be
explained by the Bohr model.
This is where the quantum model took over,
where, instead of existing in precisely-defined orbits, all that is known about
electrons is their probable
distribution around the atomgenerally referred to as an electron
The electron cloud model was developed in 1926 by Erwin
Schrödinger and Werner Heisenberg, and can be explained in terms of a
probability wave - specifically the Schrodinger wave equation - where the
states or "orbitals" that an electron can occupy in an atom is
analogous to that of a standing
In the quantum model, these states, or orbitals, depend on a
set of quantum numbers; for example, the principle quantum number n, the
angular momentum number l, the magnetic number m, and the spin number s.
It is these different quantum numbers that define the position and
momentum of an electron in terms of a probability cloud, and thus describe the
emission lines that were unaccounted for in the Bohr model.
model was also extended to explain emission lines that occur due to an external
magnetic field and/or due to interactions with the quantum
"The very attempt to conjure up
an image of elementary particles and think of them in visual terms is to wholly
"Our size is not an
accident. It is, within quite narrow
bounds, imposed by the invariant strengths of the forces of
balance occurs between
gravitational and atomic forces when matter has a density close to the density
of single atoms.
Living things are made out
of intricately organized collections of atoms and molecules, held together by
interatomic and molecular bonds.
trees, people, insects, cells and
molecules are all composed of closely packed arrays of atoms.
The density of these collections of
atoms is therefore similar to the density of a single one
of the atoms of which they are made." -
John D. Barrow
infinite universe is made of galaxies which
are made of stars which are made of planets which are made of atoms which
are made of electrons (negative), protons (positive), and neutrons (neutral)
which are made of elementary particles.
An elementary particle is a
subatomic particle that is not made up of smaller particles, and so can be
considered one of the fundamental units of matter.
There are three
groups of elementary particles: quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons.
Quarks, of which there are 12 types (up,
bottom, plus the anti-particles
of each), combine in groups of three to produce heavy particles called baryons,
and in groups of two to produce intermediate-mass particles called mesons. They
and their composite particles are influenced by the strong nuclear
Leptons are light particles. Again, there are 12 types: electron,
mu neutrino, and
tau neutrino; and the
anti-particles of each. These particles are influenced by the weak nuclear
Gauge bosons carry forces between other particles. There are four
types: gluon, photon,
weakon, and graviton. The gluon carries the strong nuclear force, the
electromagnetic force, the
weakons the weak nuclear force, and the graviton the
force of gravity.
physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same
mass but with opposite physical charges except a photon.
antiparticle of the electron is the antielectron or positron.
electron has a negative electric charge, the positron has a positive electric
charge, and is produced
naturally in certain types of radioactive decay.
If a particle and
antiparticle are in the appropriate quantum states, then they can annihilate
each other to produce photons.
Quantum mechanics differs
from classical physics in that
energy, momentum, angular momentum and other quantities of a bound system are
restricted to discrete values (quantization),
characteristics of both particles and waves (wave-particle duality), and
there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be measured (the
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern
propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an
international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt
version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any
group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due
to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of
philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a
rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate
This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the
intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The
international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system,
corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex
and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on
coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a
American social mores and values have declined precipitously over
the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more
power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of
the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
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facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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