"History of scientific knowledge consists of a
perennial rigging and collapsing of ever expanding paradigms - every expansion
denied and fought off with the last-ditch obstinacy of old guard scientists." -
There are a few exceptions to the idea
there is no conclusive proof in science.
intuitively feel how
scientific theories are,
rather than having a
precise logical method for making such judgements.
Shaping principles, based on
an intuitive understanding of variables
and probabilities, go unspoken as most
they are using
principles influence the data we
perceive as there is a
tendency for the mind to
in patterns based on these notions.
Such human contamination is
called internal theoretical orientation of data.
As a result, totally objective data
can, in reality, never be obtained.
"Framing is the process by which
a communication source, such
as a news organization,
defines and constructs a
political issue or public
controversy" (Nelson, Oxley, & Clawson, 1997, p. 221).
Kuypers defined frames as rhetorical
entities that "induce us to filter perceptions of the world in particular ways,
essentially making some aspects
of our multi-dimensional reality more noticeable than other
"Framing is a process whereby
communicators, consciously or
subconsciously, act to construct a point of view that
encourages the facts of a given situation to be interpreted by others in a
Frames operate in four key ways: they
make moral judgments, and
Frames are often found within
a narrative account of
an issue or event, and are generally
the central organizing idea." - Jim A. Kuypers
A frame must be relevant to observers and
Snow, Rochford, Worden, Benford (1986) identify three
core framing tasks.
The degree tasks are attended to will determine
Diagnostic framing for
identification of a problem causation;
prognostic framing to suggest
solutions, strategies and tactical possibilities;
motivational framing that
serves as a call to arms or rationale for action.
view reality through framing
Once a framework of a
personal worldview is in place it
recedes from conscious thought to
lodge itself deep in
Having built framework to
navigate, we no longer consciously plug
subconscious; what we think of as "common sense" is merely an act
or notion that resonates within one of our
deep subconscious frameworks.
"A new scientific truth does not triumph by
convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its
opponents eventually die, and a
next generation grows up that is familiar with it." - Max Planck
"Efforts to communicate science are hampered by the
fact that perfectly
intelligent people are ignorant of the basic principles of science." -
The goal of Science is to obtain
True Knowledge of
Reality, precisely the same goal as that of the
Philosophy of science
deals with the
systemic nature of scientific inquiry which is
equivalent to gnostic
To properly understand the philosophy of science, to
understand methods of gnostic inquiry, it is necessary to understand basic
elements of science which include data, theories, and
information about physical processes are termed data.
Collecting data to
support scientific theories is laborious.
Fundamental assumptions are made in data
Details of that process are often excluded when forming a
Overgeneralized data is easier to fit into a
scientific theory than specific data.
Scientific theories come in two
Phenomenological theories are empirical generalizations of
They describe recurring
processes of nature and do
not refer to causation.
Phenomenological theories involve
physical laws and
Explanatory theories attempt to explain the observations
rather than generalize them.
Whereas laws are descriptions of empirical
regularities, explanatory theories are conceptual
constructions to explain why the phenomena
Shaping principles are
fundamental assumptions that form the basis of science and go into selecting
Originally science, a systematic way of acquiring
knowledge, was seen as absolutely objective, rational, and
based on purely empirical
This traditional image of science held that
scientific theories and laws were to be
conclusively confirmed or falsified based on objective data.
believed that the "scientific method"
was based entirely on logic and
The definition of what the "scientific method" is has changed
In the early seventeenth century Baconian inductivism was
considered to be the "scientific method."
The basic concept:
collect as numerous of observations as
unaffected by any prior prejudice, theoretical preconceptions or
cognitive bias while gathering the data;
inductively infer theory from data
(generalize data into physical laws);
then collect more data to modify
or reject the
hypothesis as needed.
Unfortunately, when using inductivism to arrive at
preconceptions are absolutely vital.
To generalize the data into
physical laws, the individual must assume that the laws apply for physical
processes not observed.
results in several assumptions, such as a uniform operation of
Even if we put aside the fact that
inductive logic is invariably based on
such postulations, there is another problem.
Science deals with concepts
and explanatory theories that cannot be directly observed, including atomic
theory and the theory of gravity.
Many other theories include
unobservable concepts like forces, fields, and subatomic particles.
There is no known rigorous inductive logic that can infer those theories and
concepts solely from the data they explain.
Isaac Newton developed hypothetico-deductivism in the
Essentially, one starts with a
hypothesis, basically a provisional
theory, and then deduces what we would expect to find in the empirical world as
a result of that hypothesis.
"I am very astonished that the scientific
image of the real world around me is deficient." - Erwin
was to quarantine
A theory did not become a valid theory by its origins, but because of
method of verification.
Hypothetico-deductivism fails if rigorous
proof is necessary for valid science.
We must assume: sense experience,
memory, and testimony are all generally reliable; we have examined all the data
and there is no possibility
future observations will
Unfortunately every theory has an infinite number
of expected empirical outcomes, and we are incapable of testing all of those
As a result of the underdetermination of theories and
empirical evidence, a scientific theory cannot be conclusively proven
merely through the data.
Karl Popper recognized that one could not
record everything observed.
Some sort of selection is needed, and thus
observation is always
Karl Popper felt a hypothesis had to come first for
scientific investigation to begin as there is no other way to determine which
data is to be observed.
Karl Popper developed the idea of falsification
which suggests that if a prediction does not come true, then the scientific
theory must be false.
The necessity for a
scientific theory to be conclusively falsifiable is known as the demarcation
Surprisingly, the problem is that
it is impossible to conclusively falsify
theories by empirical data.
Scientific theories, by themselves, are
incapable of making predictions.
Empirical results of an
experiment invariably rest on
auxiliary assumptions - assumptions auxiliary to the original fundamental
Assume we have a particle theory that says if we process a
certain particle in a particular way, we will get specified values on various
We must assume:
all foundational theories
involved in deriving the prediction are correct;
the models we are using in deriving the
prediction are all correct;
the predictions derived from employing
the theories and models to make the prediction are all logically
and, due to the nature of reality, most variables we'll skip
Predictions of future probable
outcomes are dependent on the fundamental assumptions of previous
scientific theories and the models derived.
Unfortunately scientific theories cannot be
The dependence on foundational assumptions to
make predictions is sometimes called the Duhem-Quine problem.
can neither be conclusively proven nor conclusively falsified by empirical
It is possible to salvage a troubled theory or make
arguments against a well-supported
theory simply by altering auxiliary
assumptions to produce different predictions or
change the meaning of
It is also possible to modify virtually
any theory so that it's consistent with whatever data that might come
The shaping principles used to build theories form
the foundation of
Examples of shaping principles include:
there exists an external
objective reality; the belief
natural processes operate in a fairly consistent manner;
our senses are generally
Due to the underdetermination of theories, there is always
an infinite number of competing theories that can accommodate any given set of
Razor or the Law of Parsimony, the fundamental
shaping principles of logic, states that, if all other aspects are equal,
the simplest theory is preferred over other theories involving additional
Probability theory is the branch of
mathematics concerned with probability,
the analysis of conforming phenomena.
mathematical foundation for statistics,
probability theory is
essential to many human activities that involve
of large sets of data.
Methods of probability
theory also apply to
complex systems given only partial knowledge of their
state, as in statistical mechanics.
A great discovery of twentieth century physics
was the probabilistic nature
of physical phenomena at atomic
scales, described in
There is a fine line between
expecting what is possible and
expecting what is
highly unlikely or even impossible if your worldview is askew.
On a quantum level intention physically
modifies reality as free will gives us the
choice of whether to stand, sit or lie down.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that
the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace
unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done
purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish
to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance
occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious
beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the
founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie - a rational
religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no
tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every
individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and
Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing
the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their
religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass
media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the
family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the
corrupt international elites vision of
a perfect world. Through
distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population
has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite
that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
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opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed
the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully.
Opinion and thoughts have
been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and
re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has
been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his
or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present
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