1712 First record of variolation for smallpox in France.
1715 Lady Mary Montague suffers from an episode
of smallpox - variola - which severely disfigures her beautiful face.
1717 Variolation against smallpox instituted in
England by Lady Montague after she returns from Türkey where it is in an
Cotton Mather attempts variolation
by smearing smallpox pus into scratches of healthy people.
people are treated during the first six months of experimentation.
six have no apparent reaction.
Cotton Mather described them as
"rattle-snakes" and "barbarians."
Mather is bitterly attacked for
recommending this practice.
Charles Maitland is granted a royal license
to perform a trial of variolation on six prisoners in Newgate on August 9,
1722 Charles Maitland successfully
variolates the two daughters of the Princess of Wales.
gains general acceptance after this success.
Although only 2% to 3% of
variolated persons die from the disease they became the source of new epidemics
of other diseases (e.g., tuberculosis and syphilis) transmitted by the
Even so variolation rapidly gains popularity among
the aristocracy of Europe.
The case-fatality rate associated with
variolation is 10 times lower than that associated with naturally occurring
In Wales, a Dr. Wright refers to variolation against smallpox
in the British Isles as "an ancient practice".
A citizen of Wales, 99
years old, states that variolation had been practiced during his entire
lifetime, and his mother stated it was common during her life, as she got
smallpox through her "innoculation".
record of smallpox variolation in Ireland, when a doctor in Dublin variolates
Three died and variolation is briefly abandoned.
1724 First record of variolation for smallpox in
It soon fell into disfavor due to the
number of deaths.
later, doctors are able to reintroduce variolation.
1740 Smallpox epidemic in Berlin.
1750s Multiple blueblood European princes die of smallpox,
giving further impetus for the wide spread use of variolation.
1754 Variolation for smallpox introduced in Rome.
ancient Greece and Rome variolation against smallpox was not
They were famous in antiquity for their
general habits of
How Plumbers Saved the World
Smallpox is carried
there by those who have been variolated.
Epidemic of smallpox in France wipes out a large part of the population.
It is immediately attributed to variolation, and the practice is
prohibited by the French government for five years.
1768 The medical profession in France is successful in
instituting variolation inoculation.
The word "inoculation" is derived
from the Latin inoculare, meaning "to graft."
Inoculation referred to
the subcutaneous instillation of smallpox virus into nonimmune individuals.
The inoculator usually used a lancet wet with fresh matter taken from a
ripe pustule of some person who suffered from smallpox.
The material was then subcutaneously introduced on the arms or legs of
the nonimmune person.
John Quiers experiments with smallpox
inoculation in a population of 850 slaves.
Quier is a British doctor
serving as a plantation physician in rural Jamaica.
"Quier did not
simply inoculate to prevent disease.
We see from his reports that he
used slaves to explore questions that doctors in Europe dared not.
wanted to know, for example, whether one could safely inoculate menstruating or
He also wanted to know if it was safe to inoculate
newborn infants or a person already suffering from dropsy, yaws or fever." -
1778 Danish physicians move to
open two major variolation inoculation houses in Denmark, by order of the King.
In Italy, infants are inoculated by Neapolitan nurses without the
knowledge of parents bypassing
1790 Edward Jenner buys a medical degree from St. Andrews
University for £15.
1791 Edward Jenner
vaccinates his 18 month old son with swine pox.
1796 Edward Jenner is credited with concept of vaccination
which is an entirely different creature than variolation.
vaccinates an 8 year old boy with smallpox pus.
Jenner goes on to
vaccinate the boy 20 times.
boy dies from tuberculosis at the age
1798 General vaccine programs against
cowpox instituted in the US.
Edward Jenner vaccinates his son with
His son will die of
tuberculosis at the
age of 21.
Waterhouse at Harvard University introduces vaccination in Massachusetts.
1801 First widespread experimentation with
1802 The British government
gives Edward Jenner £10,000 for continued experimentation with "smallpox vaccine."
1809 Massachusetts encourages its towns to make provision for
the vaccination of inhabitants with cow pox vaccines.
1810 The London Medical Observer (Vol.VI, 1810) publishes
particulars of "535 cases of smallpox after vaccination, 97 fatal cases of
smallpox after vaccination and 150 cases of serious injury from vaccination,
ten of whom are medical men."
1822 The British
government advances Edward Jenner another £20,000 for "smallpox vaccine"
Jenner suppresses reports which indicate his concept
is causing more deaths than saving lives.
"Jenner looked upon the
whole thing as a
superfluity, and he hung up "Surgeon,
apothecary," over his door without any of the qualifications that warranted
It was not until twenty years after he was in practice
that he thought it advisable to get a few letters after his name.
Consequently he then communicated with a Scotch University and obtained
the degree of Doctor of Medicine for the sum of £15 and nothing more.
It is true that a little while before, he had obtained a Fellowship
of the Royal Society, but his latest biographer and apologist, Dr. Norman
Moore, had to confess that it was obtained by little less than a fraud.
A few years after this, rather dissatisfied with the only medical
qualification he had obtained, Jenner communicated with the
University of Oxford and
asked them to grant him their honorary degree of MD and got it.
sent to the Royal College of Physicians in London to get their diploma, and
even presented his Oxford degree as an argument in his favor.
They told him distinctly that until he passed the usual examinations
they were not going to give him any more degrees." Dr Walter Hadwen,
Smallpox epidemic in Wurtemberg,
Germany, where 995 vaccinated people succumb to the disease.
Marseilles, France, 2000 vaccinated people are stricken with smallpox.
1853 In England, the Compulsory Vaccination
From 1853 to 1860, vaccination reaches 75% of the live births
and more than 90% of the population.
Massachusetts requires vaccination as a condition for school
1857 Vaccination in England enforced
Smallpox epidemic begins in England that lasts until 1859.
Over 14,000 die.
Brittanica (8th Edition) states "nothing is more likely to prove hurtful to the
cause of vaccination and render the public careless of securing to themselves
its benefits, than the belief that they would require to submit to
re-vaccination every 10 to 15 years".
Later, in the 11th edition of the
Encyclopaedia Britannica, the policy would change: "it is desirable that
vaccination should be repeated at the age of 7 to 10 years, and thereafter at
intervals during life".
1863 Second major
epidemic of smallpox in England kills 20,000.
1867 Vaccination Act of 1867 in England begins to
elicit protest from the population and an increase in the number of antiVax
It compels vaccination of an infant within the first 90 days of
Those who object are continually badgered by magistrates and
fined until the child turned 14.
The law is passed on the assurance of
medical officials that smallpox vaccinations are safe.
fines for skipping smallpox vaccination result in harsh penalties.
fact must also be mentioned that the good rules laid down by Jenner, in regard
to the essential conditions to genuineness and full efficacy of vaccination,
have for many years been grossly neglected by the medical profession.
The Purveyor-General in New York kept up as large a stock of good virus
as the public dispensaries and private practitioners could supply.
the remote lines of the army there were occasions when an adequate supply of
fresh virus could not be obtained as soon as wanted, or there were some
occasions when none but deteriorated crusts, or dubious sores which came from
inoculation by them, could, for weeks, be obtained.
In the first two
years of the war there were 4132 cases of variola and varioloid officially
reported to the Medical Bureau.
In addition to these, there were nearly
as many more cases of the disease that were not returned to the Bureau in the
lists of the war hospital admissions.
Outbreaks of smallpox in
hospitals did not, during that period, enter into the bureau records of the
contagion, except in certain fatal cases.
There were many cases of the
disease, fatal and otherwise, among recruits at the temporary depots for the
volunteers in the several States, which at that period of the war never were
In the course of such thorough vaccinations, we
have known a completely pock-marked man exhibit a normal susceptibility to
The total number of official deaths from small-pox in the
army in the first two years was 1544." - Sanitary Memoirs of the War of the
Rebellion collected and published by the US Sanitary Commission,
1870 Third major
smallpox epidemic in England killd
1871 In the next three years in
Birmingham, England there are 7,706 cases of smallpox, out of these, 6,795 have
Select committee of the Privy Council convened to
inquire into the Vaccination Act of 1867 (England), as 97.5% of the
people who die from smallpox are vaccinated.
In Bavaria vaccination is
compulsory and re-vaccination is commonplace.
Out of 30,472 cases of
smallpox, 29,429 had been vaccinated.
Worldwide epidemic of smallpox
claims 8 million people worldwide.
institutes compulsory smallpox vaccination.
Within 20 years 165,000
smallpox cases manifest themselves.
England, 87% of infants are vaccinated for smallpox.
Over 19,000 die in
England and Wales.
1880 Smallpox vaccinations
start in the United States.
England, Dr. Charles Creighton is asked to write an article for the
Encyclopedia Britannica on vaccination.
After much research
internationally, he concludes that vaccination constituted "a gross
Later, Creighton writes two books, "Cowpox and
Vaccinal Syphilis" and "Jenner and Vaccination".
more that 1700 children vaccinated for smallpox die of syphillis.
Sobatta of the German Army reports on the results of vaccination to the
German Vaccination Commission, which subsequently publishes data proving
that re-vaccination does not work.
Deaths from vaccination are
routinely covered up by physicians.
Robert Koch and Friedrich Loeffler,
based on earlier concepts described by Jakob Henle, state four postualtes to
identify an infectious contagion.
· The microorganism must be
found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not
be found in healthy organisms.
· The microorganism must be
isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy
· The microorganism must be reisolated from the
inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the
original specific causative agent.
July 6, 1885
Louis Pasteur amalgamates a rabies
vaccine by growing the virus in rabbits and then drying the affected nerve
Louis Pasteur, an unlicensed physician, treats 9-year old Joseph
Meister badly mauled by a rabid dog.
Joseph Meister avoids the disease,
Louis Pasteur is hailed as a hero and the criminal matter is not pursued.
General vaccination program against rabies begins in the US.
1886 A seven year period begins in Japan where
25,474,370 vaccinations and re-vaccinations are performed in Japan,
representing 66% of the entire population of Japan.
During that period,
there are 165,774 cases of smallpox with 28,979 deaths.
1887 In England, Dr. Edgar M. Crookshank, professor of
pathology and bacteriology at Kings College, is asked by the British government
to investigate the cowpox outbreak in Wiltshire.
The result of the
investigation is contained in two volumes of "The History and Pathology of
Vaccination", in which he states that "the credit given to vaccination
belongs to sanitation".
Bacteriological Institute opens in Paris for experimentation with animals and
production of vaccines and sera.
institutes open around the world modeled after the Paris Institute.
Bacteriological Institute in Odessa, Russia tries its hand at a vaccine
Over 4500 sheep are vaccinated; 3700 of them die from the
"The evidence as to re-vaccination on a large scale
comes from the army.
According to a competent statistician (A. Vogt),
the death rate from smallpox in the German army, in which
all recruits are re-vaccinated, was
60 per cent, more than among the civil population of the same age.
was ten times greater among the infantry than among the cavalry, and sixty
times more among the Hessians than among the Wurtembergers.
Bavarian contingent, which was re-vaccinated without exception, had five times
the death rate from smallpox in the epidemic of 1870-71 that the Bavarian civil
population of the same ages had, although re-vaccination is not obligatory
among the latter."- Dr. Charles Creighton M.A., M.D. Encyclopedia Britannica,
published in 1888
"Notwithstanding the fact that Prussia was the best
re-vaccinated country in Europe, its mortality from smallpox in the epidemic of
1871 was higher (59,839) than in any other northern state. "- Dr. Charles
Creighton M.A., M.D. Encyclopedia Britannica, published in 1888
theory replaces the miasma theory (foul, nebulous vapors cause
Miasma theory, first decribed by Roman architectural writer
Vitruvius who described the potential effects of miasma (Latin nebula) from
fetid swamplands when visiting a city:
"For when the morning breezes
blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mist from marshes and,
mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of creatures of the marshes to be
wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site
Miasma theory replaced Demon theory - evil spirts cause
"Invisible enemies perceptible only by experts, germs to a
certain degree reflect the age-old belief in demonic powers." - Thomas A.
1889 In England, a royal commission is
appointed to inquire into certain aspects of the vaccination question.
The committee, in session for 7 years, issues 6 reports, with the final
report in 1896.
The result of the final report is the Vaccination
Act of 1898.
1895 Diptheria vaccination
Over the period lasting until 1907, 63,249 cases of
diptheria are vaccinated.
Over 8,900 die, giving a fatality rate of
Over the same period, 11,716 cases are not vaccinated, of which
703 died, giving a fatality rate of 6%.
Carlo Ruta, a professor at the University of Perugia in Italy, states that
"vaccination is a world-wide delusion and an unscientific practice, with
consequences measured today
with tears and sorrow without end."
Vaccination Act of 1898 in England.
Elections held for the
"board of guardians", the administrators of the vaccination laws.
600 boards are pledged not to enforce the law.
Vaccination Act of
1898 containes the first "conscience clause", although no claims of
conscience are ever approved by magistrates.
A conscience clause, or
conscientious objection, is a legislative provision that relieves a person of
compliance on approved exemption grounds, typically religious.
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