14th century Traveling charlatans promote
curing products and services through street
Doctors mounted the bench
(hence, the name: mountebank) , a stage, table or box, at fairs, street
corners, in market squares or wherever they could find an audience, to convince
the crowd of its desperate need for his medical miracle cures.
1449 King Henry VI grants Flemish-born John Utynam a patent
for making stained glass.
Black's Law Dictionary defines a patent as:
The exclusive right to make, use or sell an invention for a
1552 King Edward VI grant
Henry Smyth a patent for making Normandy glass.
1608 Mountebanks appear in Venice.
To draw the largest
crowd and to keep its attention fixed as long as possible, the mountebanks
resorted to a wide variety of entertainment including, among others, jugglers,
musicians, magicians, and clowns.
Small scale spectacles alternated
with their lectures that demonstrated how their tonics and services would
surely cure any ailment his spectator had, whether he was aware of it or
1618 A Paris mountebank inspires the work of
In England, nostrum makers succeed in obtaining "Royal
Patents" for their curing tonics and elixirs.
1632 Giulia Tofana begins marketing "Manna di San
Nicola", literally "Bread of Life of St. Nicholas," in
Manna di San Nicola is sold as a cosmetic and a
devotionary object in vials that include an image of St. Nicholas.
Tofana contained mostly arsenic, lead and possibly belladonna.
It was a
colorless, tasteless liquid easily mixed with water or wine.
of the mixture are mostly known but not how they blend.
poisoning goes unnoticed as the substance is clear and has no taste.
is slow acting, resembling death from progressive natural diseases.
symptoms seen are similar to the effects of arsenic poisoning.
first small dosage produces cold-like symptoms.
The victim becomes very
ill by the third dosage; symptoms include vomiting, dehydration, diarrhea and a
burning sensation in the digestive system.
The antidote often given is
vinegar and lemon juice hastening the process.
The fourth dosage kills
the victim, but being slow acting, allows victims time to recognize and prepare
for approaching death, including writing a will.
Giulia Tofana plies her
trade for a half century selling Manna di San Nicola in Naples, Perugia,
and Rome, Italy.
Legend suggests over 600 alleged abusive husbands as
1659 Giulia Tofana is arrested and
confesses to producing poison.
She implicates a number of clients many
of whom flee, others are strangled in prison, and many are publicly
1670 Affair of the Poisons: Influential
members of the French nobility began to die, unexpectedly and close upon one
Autopsies showed their insides blackened and corroded.
A fever for poisoning and witchcraft seemed to have infected the
XIV establishes a special tribunal - a Chambre Ardente, or burning
room - to
investigate and prosecute the murders.
Thomas Sydenham publishes Treatise on the Gout.
gout was the result of ease, voluptuousness, high living, and too free an
use of wine and other spirituous liquors.
He thought bleeding and
purging could be counterproductive driving peccant humours further
into the extremities.
Sydenham recommended a light diet, plenty of
fluid, and regular doses of a digestive remedy he called bitters - distilled
alcohol infused with watercress, horseradish, wormwood, and angelica
1698 First patent medicine - Epson
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula
MgSO4X where 0≤x≤7.
It is often encountered as
the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite, commonly called Epsom salt.
The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was
2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.
1711 Sal Volitile patented.
Ammonium carbonate is a
salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
As it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon
heating, it is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling
1712 Richard Stoughton patents Stoughton's
The first patent medicines to appear in America came from
In the eighteenth century medical theorists believed that
disease could be driven from the body only by a substance as appalling as the
The worse a medicine tasted or smelled, the greater its
These foul-tasting, foul-smelling products had
ingredients that had an effect on the body, thus giving
illusion of a cure in action.
Cordial contained the sedative opium.
Hooper's Pills purged
the digestive system and induced menstruation.
Oil and Steer's
Opodeldoc were both liniments containing ammonia that irritated the
1858 Erasmus Bond
receives a patent for quinine
Quinine-laced Tonic Water is one outcome of three centuries of
military and medical efforts to overcome malaria.
The promotion of
patent medicines was one of the first major products heavily displayed in the
early advertising industry.
Numerous sales techniques were pioneered by
patent medicine promoters.
ingredients were promoted even though the effects came from common drugs
like opium, cannabis, cocaine, cloroform, chloral hydrate, bromides, sulphonal,
trional, veronal, coal tar, turpentine, strychnine, mercury, arsenic, atropine,
belladonna, hyoscyamus, coca, coffee, sulphur, quinine, paraldehyde and
Patent medicines, sold at high prices, were made of cheap
until 1835 David Hosack encourages the use of the root-based medicine as it
cure cases of liver, kidney and bladder troubles.
Legend suggets Dr.
Hosack gave his recipe to a number of his pupils, one of which saved the life
of a Mr .Hunt, a New York City resident, afflicted with Brights disease
(kidney malfunction) and Dropsy (excess water in body tissue).
bloated flesh was reduced and vigor restored after taking the
medicine for about a year.
Hunt began to manufacture and market it as
In 1908 a Kansas State Board of Health
Report described it as a brown solution of bitter vegetable drugs,
containing 17.2 per cent alcohol.
1880 Milk of
1881 The Proprietary
Association is founded by trade group of medicine producers along with a
press dependent on remedy advertising fight bitterly against any type of
1905 Vicks VapoRub,
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
is enacted requiring manufacturers to list their ingredients on packaging
labels and misleading advertising is restricted.
In 1938 manufacturers
start testing products for safety before marketing.
It is not until
1962 that clinical trials for effectiveness are legally
Unfortunately after that PHRMA turned to cooking the
Report written by Abraham Flexner is published under the aegis of the
This is the foundation of American allopathic
"The practice of the Negro doctor will be limited to his
own race, which in its turn will be cared for better by good Negro physicians
than by poor white ones.
physical well-being of
the Negro is not only of moment to the Negro.
Ten million of them live in
close contact with sixty million whites.
Not only does the Negro
himself suffer from hookworm and
he communicates them to
his white neighbors, precisely as
the ignorant and
unfortunate white contaminates him.
Self-protection not less than
humanity offers weighty counsel in this matter;
The Negro must be educated
not only for his sake, but for ours.
He is, as far as the human eye
can see, a permanent factor in the nation." - Abraham
Consequences of the Flexner
No medical school can teach without the permission of the
The size of existing medical schools is subject to
Each state branch of the American Medical
Association has oversight over the
allopathic medical schools located
within the state.
Medical training, in
theory, adheres closely to the scientific method and is thoroughly grounded in
human physiology and
biochemistry but is actually
learned through trial and error
Biochemistry, closely related to
molecular biology, is the
study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA
is able to result in the processes of life.
The Carnegie Foundation succeeds in creating a single model of
medical education based on molecular biology.
Even though the report is over 100 years old many of its
recommendations are still active including those concerning the physician as a
"social instrument" whose
function is fast becoming social
and preventive, rather than individual and curative."
1911 General vaccination programs against
typhus begun in the US.
Typhoid vaccination produces significant impairments in several
measures of sleep continuity
Tunisia has been ruled by France since
1881 and neighboring Algeria has been ruled since the 1830 invasion of
Military conscription for Muslims in Algeria begins this
Under French rule French and Europeans are favored for advancement
over native Tunisians.
Civil disturbances are ignited by the Zaytuni
university students in Tunsia.
French soldiers fire in the Jellaz
Affair, a cemetary brawl after days of fighting in the streets, involving
Tunisians and newly arrived Italians 'settlers'.
"Far from quietly
assimilating into the French community in Tunisia, some Italian settlers
harboured nationalist feelings." - Gabriele Montalbano1
French declare martial law blaming political
1912 First whooping cough
(pertussis) vaccine amalgamated by two French bacteriologists, Jules Bordet and
Octave Gengou, for use in Tunisia.
After they grow
Pertussis bacteria in large pots,
they kill it with heat, mix it with formaldehyde (used to embalm bodies)
and inject it into children.
Demonstrations in Tunsia lead to the popular
Tram Boycott which begins after a tram driven by an Italian knocks down and
kills an eight-year-old Tunisian Arab child at Bab Saadoun.
82 years 1,556 Algerian Muslims have been granted French
American Society for the Control of Cancer founded by 10 physicians with
5 investors capital stake.
From the very beginning the idea is to find a
way to control cancer.
No one seems concerned about
1914 Dr. C. Killick Millard, Medical Officer of Health
(Leicester, England) publishes The Vaccination Question.
city of Leicester, with a population of around 300,000 at the time, had for 30
years abandoned infantile vaccination and yet "miraculously" experienced an
"enormous decline" in smallpox
Millard is originally pro-vaccine.
experience with the population of the city of Leicester causes him to modify
The striking fact is that in Leicester, without infantile
vaccination, the decline has been greater than in most places.
Throughout the country smallpox continues to
decrease due to the reduction in vaccination.
"If it can be
shown that "sanitation", thoroughly carried out, is alone sufficient for the
effective control of smallpox in this country (as in Leicester), why inflict
universal vaccination with all its inseparable drawbacks?
there be any longer for compulsion?
It cannot be denied that
vaccination causes, in the amalgamation, very considerable injury to health,
most of it only temporary, but some permanent." - Dr. C. Killick
"One of the medical profession's greatest boasts is that it
eradicated smallpox through the use of the
believed this claim for many years.
But it simply isn't true.
One of the worst smallpox
epidemics of all time took place in England between 1870 and 1872
nearly two decades after compulsory vaccination was introduced.
this evidence that smallpox vaccination didn't work the people of Leicester in
the English midlands refused to have the vaccine any more.
next smallpox epidemic struck in the early 1890s the people of Leicester relied
upon good sanitation and
a system of quarantine.
There was only one death from smallpox in Leicester during that
In contrast the citizens of other towns (who had been
vaccinated) died in vast numbers.
drug companies may not like
it but the truth is that surveillance,
quarantine and better living
conditions got rid of smallpox not the smallpox vaccine." Dr.
The report of Dr. William Farr, (1807 1883),
Compiler of Statistics of the Registrar General of London and considered
to be the first developer of vital statistics, stated:
attained its maximum mortality after vaccination was introduced.
mean annual mortality for 10,000 population from 1850 to 1869 was at the rate
of 2.04, whereas after compulsory vaccination,
in 1871 the death rate was 10.24.
In 1872 the death rate was 8.33 and
this after the most laudable efforts to extend vaccination by legislative
The compulsory vaccination law was repealed in 1907.
By 1919, England and Wales had become one of the least vaccinated
countries and had only 28 deaths
from smallpox out of a population of 37.8 million people.
official figures of the Registrar General of England, 109 children under five
years in England and Wales died of smallpox between 1910 and
In that same
period 270 died from vaccination.
Between 1934 and 1961 not one
smallpox death was recorded but 115 children under five years died from
The 1918 Spanish Influenza is a vaccine induced disease caused by extreme body
poisoning from the amalgamation of many
Althoug this epidemic is attributed to widespread
use of vaccines this information is suppressed.
After the World War I,
vaccine makers have an excess supply of vaccines (originally intended for
soldiers to treat yellow fever), as a result of the relatively unexpected short
duration of the war.
A huge vaccination campaign is drummed up to
vaccinate the population against "foreign illnesses".
lethargica, an atypical form of encephalitis, reaches epidemic proportions from
1918 to 1930.
Spanish Flu Caused By Vaccinations
Military Experimental Vaccine Kills 50-100 Million People
[My uncle, Patrick
Hasty lost both his parents to the "Spanish Flu".]
Calmette-Guerin tuberculosis vaccine developed.
1922 British government appoints a committee to inquire into
"vaccine lymph", as it is noticed that the "glycerinated
calf lymph" used in
vaccinations cause death from "sleepy sickness"
"The vaccine material is
always collected on the sixth day.
The vaccinated area is washed with
warm water, and dried with clean soft cloths.
Each vesicle is now
clamped separately and the crust first removed with a lancet.
vesicle is then thoroughly scraped with the edge of a somewhat blunt lancet,
and the resultant mixture of lymph, epithelial tissue (skin), and blood is
transferred to a small nickel crucible set in a wide wooden stand on a table
close to the operator.
To the pultaceous (gruelly) mass contained in
the crucible there is added about an equal quantity of glycerine.
mixture of pulp and glycerine is triturated in a mixing machine driven by a
small electric motor.
The mixture, having thus been rendered thin and
homogeneous, is received in a clean sterilized nickel crucible placed beneath
With a view of
still further improving its
appearance and of removing any extraneous matters, such as hairs, it is
afterwards pressed through a small brass-wire sieve consisting of extremely
fine gauze into an agate mortar.
This is done by means of a bone spoon,
leaving on the surface of the gauze nothing but a very small quantity of
epithelial tissue together with a few hairs.
The mixture is further
triturated in the mortar with an agate pestle, and is then ready for filling
into the tubes in which it is distributed."
Epithelial pulp - 1 part ( 6.70%)
Glycerine - 7 parts
Boiled water - 7 parts" (46.65%)
1924 A Markush structure is a representation of chemical
structure used to indicate a group of related chemical
Markush structures are named after Eugene A. Markush, founder
of the Pharma Chemical Corporation in New Jersey.
Eugene filed US
Application 611,637 on January 9, 1923.
Markush was awarded the first
chemical patent from the US Patent Office for Pyrazolone Dye and
Process of Making the Same on August 26, 1924.
speaking the legal requirements to obtain a patent for a Markush structure is
essentially the same as obtaining
a patent in the mechanical
Patents on pharmaceuticals were considered unethical by the
medical profession during most of the nineteenth-century.
terms in the US were extended from 17 to 20 years in 1994.
1925 General vaccine programs against
tuberculosis began in
1928 Cases of
post-vaccination encephalitis force
creation of two Committees of Investigation in Britain.
1930 Max Theiler develops a yellow fever vaccine.
1932 Research (Young) indicates that neuritis is commonly
precipitated following vaccination with anti-tetanus, anti-pneumococcal, and
1933 Danish researcher Thorvald Madsen
discovers the ability of the Pertussis vaccine to
kill infants without warning
He reports two babies
vaccinated immediately after birth died in a few minutes.
researchers report that children react to Pertussis vaccine with fever,
convulsions and collapse.
Vaccination programs against yellow fever
begin in the US.
Compulsory immunization instituted in Geneva.
1962 Immunologist George Williamson Auchinvole
Dick speaks out at the British Medical Association annual meeting
against the smallpox vaccination program enjoined by the Minister of
Health, Enoch Powell.
"He (Enoch Powell) is asking for a sacrifice
of at least 20 babies a year." - George Dick
1963 American researcher
John Enders creates a measles vaccine.
Mass innoculations begin.
Vaccinated children develop
Atypical Measles Syndrome (AMS).
response to the "wild"
measles virus is "altered".
symptoms lead to encephalopathy (brain damage.)
measles syndrome in adults: still around
measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, immunologic
1. The Italian community
of Tunisia: From Libyan Colonial Ambitions to the First World War; The
First World War from Tripoli to Addis Ababa (1911-1924) | Shiferaw Bekele ,
Uoldelul Chelati Dirar , Alessandro Volterra , et al.
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