"There are biological
differences between the sexes, including average body size and upper body
strength, and aspects of reproductive physiology.
There is a range of
gendered differences in behavior and perception in social structure
But there are more biological similarities than
differences, and more gender overlaps than discontinuities.
and similarities shape roles in performance on specific tasks by individuals
and by classes of individuals.
We actually know quite a bit about human
evolution and the patterns and processes that our ancestors faced.
made the tools?
We have no evidence of any sort that there were any sex
or gender differences in the creation and use of stone, wood, bone or other
Evidence in bones for gender differences show up with
emergence of specialization, domestication and sedentism.
Men hunted and
fought one another?
For the vast majority of human evolution there is
strong likelihood that both sexes participated in hunting.
humans where substantially more robust than today.
interpersonal violence is minimal.
When we do start to see more robust
evidence for war-like events the distribution of injuries and evidence of
participation is not biased by sex until quite recently.
There are no
clear biases in regards to gender representation in hunting and violence until
recently." - Agustin Fuentes,
of Evolutionary Processes
Massacre is defined as
the wholesale slaughter of one group of people by an opposing group of
1215 Waldensian teachings come into
conflict with the Catholic Church and the Waldensians are declared heretical.
1487 Pope Innocent VIII issues a package leaflet
for the extermination of the Waldensians.
1541 The Parlement of Provence issued the "Arrêt de
After a series of appeals Francis I of France orders the Waldensians of the
village of Mérindol to be punished for dissident religious
In April, Maynier raised an army of Provençal troops,
who were joined by forces from the Papal Comtat Venaissin against the
Waldensians of Mérindol and Cabrières.
The leaders were
Jean Maynier d'Oppède, First President of the Parlement of
Provence, and Antoine Escalin des Aimars, returning from the Italian Wars
with 2,000 veterans, the Bandes de Piémont.
In total, they
destroyed between 22 and 28 villages.
Hundreds of men were
impressed into forced
labour in the French galleys.
1650 The New
Council of Propagation of the Faith and the Extermination of Heresy
(Concilium Novum de Propaganda Fide et Extirpandis Haereticis), an institution
of the Roman Catholic Church that regularly convened in the palace of the
Archbishop of Turin exerts constant pressure to exterminate the
Edict of 15 May 1650 abrogates Waldensian religious
1655 Edict of 25 January 1655
is an expulsion order.
"That every head of a family, with the
individuals of that family, of the reformed religion, of what rank, degree, or
condition soever, none excepted inhabiting and possessing estates in Lucerne,
St. Giovanni, Bibiana, Campiglione, St. Secondo, Lucernetta, La Torre, Fenile,
and Bricherassio, should, within three days after the publication thereof,
withdraw and depart, and be withdrawn out of the said places, and translated
into the places and limits tolerated by his highness during his pleasure;
particularly Bobbio, Angrogne, Vilario, Rorata, and the county of Bonetti. And
all this to be done on pain of death, and confiscation of house and goods,
unless within the limited time they turned Roman Catholics."
Piedmontese Easter is a series of massacres on Waldensians by Savoyard
troops in the Duchy of Savoy.
The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the
killing of between 460 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese
Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, a predominantly Christian
Lebanese right-wing party, in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila
refugee camp in Beirut,
l838 General Winfield Scott arrived
at Calhoun, Tennessee in command of 7,000 soldiers to forcible remove l6,000
Cherokee to the West.
25 stockades were established in North Carolina,
Tennessee, Georgia and Alabama to be used as "holding pens" for the Cherokee
until they could be marched to Rattlesnake Springs.
From there, they
would begin the forced march under armed escort known as the Trail of
Tsali farmed a small hillside plot and hunted to provide for his
Tsalis brother-in-law came to Tsalis cabin: General
Winfield Scott said all Cherokee people must begin the long march west before
the next new moon.
Soldiers arrived at Tsalis cabin and told him
that he and his family must go to the stockade at Bushnell, down the Little
Tennessee River from Tsalis cabin
Second Lieutenant Andrew Jackson
Smith, accompanied by three soldiers, march five men, seven women and some
Four United States military personal, carrying rifles, one on
horseback were overcome with only Second Lieutenant Andrew Jackson Smith
General Scott gave orders to Colonel William S. Foster to
hunt down and shoot the "murderers."
Chief Drowning Bear and Will Thomas
Thomas was the white adopted son of Chief Drowning Bear of
Colonel Foster entered the upper Little Tennessee country
with nine companies of the US Fourth Infantry but fail to find
Thomas convinced the Quallatown Cherokee if they would help catch
Tsali and the other "murderers," they would be allowed to stay in North
Oconaluftee Cherokee provide a total force of about sixty
Soon the Oconaluftee turn over to Tsalis oldest son,
Nantayalee Jake, and Tsalis brother-in-law, Nantayalee George, whom
Foster claimed were the "principal actors in the murder."
wife and the wife of Nantayalee George and her small daughter had also been
brought in by the Oconaluftee Cherokee.
The adult males are executed by
a six man the Oconaluftee firing squad.
At noon on the next day, Tsali
is tied to a tree and shot.
Opelousas: 300 Blacks killed over Right to Vote
July 29, 1910
Convenient Amnesia in Texas
Rangers Killed Hundreds of Latinos
Texas Rangers Killed Hundreds of Hispanic
September 30, 1919
June 1, 1921
"While working at the Israel State Archives in Jerusalem, I came across highly
classified material from Israels 1982 War in Lebanon that had just been
opened to researchers.
This access was in line with the thirty-year
rule of declassification governing the release of documents in Israel.
Sifting through Foreign Ministry files, I stumbled upon the minutes of
a September 17 meeting between Israeli and American officials that took place
in the midst of the Sabra and Shatila massacre.
The startling verbatim
exchange between Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon and US diplomat Morris
Draper demonstrated how the slaughter of civilians in the Palestinian refugee
camps of south Beirut was prolonged.
Sharon sued Time for libel
over its coverage of his role in the massacre.
Cravath, Swaine &
Moore obtained classified material from the appendix of the official Israeli
report into the massacre, known as the Kahan Commission
Between 16 and 18 September
1982, while the camps were under the guard of the Israeli Defence Force,
Palestinian refugees were massacred by Christian Lebanese Phalangists
(Ḥizb al-Katā'ib al-Lubnānīya).
The al-Kata'ib party,
formed in 1936 as a Maronite paramilitary youth organization by Pierre Gemayel,
modeled the party after Falange
Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista &
No Gun Ri In the
chaotic early days of the Korean
War, groups of refugees fleeing a
North Korean advance
attempted to cross American lines despite warning shots.
Up to 400
refuges, mostly women and children, were shot in one incident.
soldiers suspected the group contained Communist gunmen.
30 survivors from
South Korea and
relatives of victims file a lawsuit that
describes a three-day period of killing, claiming American planes strafed
hundreds of refugees fleeing North
Korean troops, leaving 100 people dead.
The survivors fled under the
bridge, where they were pinned by American troops who shoot and kill almost all
April 2007 A document
found in the National Archives notes that the army had a policy of
shooting approaching civilians.
A memo, dated July 25, 1950, from the
United States Fifth Air Force regarding "Policy on Strafing Civilian
Targets", written by USAF Colonel Turner C. Rogers recalls that, "the army
has requested that we strafe all civilian refugee parties that are noted
approaching our positions," and that, "to date, we have complied with the army
request in this regard."
The soldiers found no
insurgents in the
village of My Lai on the
morning of March 16,
One platoon led by Lt. William
Calley, killed hundreds of civilians - primarily old men, women, children, and
Some were tortured or raped.
Dozens were herded into a
ditch and executed with automatic firearms.
Survivors of the My Lai
massacre, are "accidently" slaughtered by "friendly" airstrikes and artillery
Vietnam War Crimes Working
The archives of the Vietnam
War Crimes Working Group, made up of staff members assigned to General
William C. Westmoreland, filed at the National Archives in College Park,
Maryland substantiated 300 atrocities which included:
from 1967 through 1971 in which at least 137 civilians died; seventy-eight
other attacks on noncombatants in which at least 57 were killed, 56 wounded and
15 sexually assaulted;
one hundred forty-one instances in which
American soldiers tortured civilian detainees or prisoners of war with fists, sticks, bats,
water or electric shock.
Members of a reconnaissance platoon swept
through the Que Son Valley, burning homes, slaughtering animals and killing
Members of the platoon killed:
an unarmed boy
standing outside a cluster of huts;
three women and three children in a
executed an elderly woman and a baby;
raped a woman and a
young girl and then executed civilian detainees.
The unit reported the
victims as enemy killed in action.
On the same day as the massacre at
My Lai, American soldiers from the same division killed an undetermined number
of women and children in neighboring My Khe.
American soldiers tossed
grenades into shelters and shot women, and children as they ran for cover or
tried to flee.
Over the next three days, members
of the unit burned three hamlets to the ground and
tortured detainees with electric shocks.
The unit reported 39 enemy
combatants killed but recovered no weapons and suffered no casualties.
An American helicopter
"hunter-killer" team attacked a village in Cambodia with rockets and machine
gun fire, killing eight civilians, including two children, and wounding 15.
After the attack, an American captain landed with a platoon of South
No enemy weapons or
other war materiel were found.
The troops provided no medical
treatment to the wounded.
The American captain returned to the aircraft
with a motorcycle and the Vietnamese troops made off with large quantities of
civilian property, including tobacco, poultry, and radios.
The documents, archives of the Vietnam War Crimes
Working Group have now been reclassified "secret" and removed from the
US Bombed Cambodia Secretly After Invasion in
"Haditha holds a mirror up not just to American
troops in the field but to our whole society. Witness' to the
slaying of Iraqi civilians by American Marines in the village of Haditha say
the American Marines shot men, women and children at close range in retaliation
for the death of a Marine in a roadside bombing.
Not just to the liars in
government but to those that believe them too easily.
It is past time
for Americans to summon the civil courage to face what is being done in their
name and refuse to be accomplices." - Daniel Ellsberg
Aws Fahmi, a Haditha
resident watched and
American Marines went
from house to house killing members of three families.
heard Younis Salim Khafif plead in English for his life and the lives of his
"I heard Younis speaking to the American Marines,
saying: 'I am friend. I
am good,' they killed him, his wife and daughters."- Aws Fahmi
girls killed inside Younis Salim Khafif's
house are ages 14, 10, 5, 3 and
Abdul Hamid Hassan Ali, 76; Khamisa Tuma Ali, 66 (wife); Iman, 8;
Abdul Rahman, 5; Abdullah, 4; were killed in the house next door.
Khafif, 43; Aeda Yasin Ahmed, 41; a son, 8 and five young daughters and
an infant were killed in the third house.
Only 13-year-old Safa Younis lived - saved by her
mother's blood spilling onto
her making her look dead.
One marine claimed that in a pistol fire
fight while unloading his pistol he shot three Iraqs in the head. (Trained by
assassinated the family that was here" -
airstrikes, dropping 500 lb bombs on more than one house to cover up the
"In addition to the American Marines' individual actions,
"jets dropped 500 lb bombs". The buck for the "total breakdown in morality and leadership"
doesn't stop with a single unit of stressed out,
third tour of duty American Marines.
It stops at the very top, with George Walker Bush." - Jess
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