American troops participate in operations to
protect foreign lives during the Boxer rebellion, particularly at
Peking. For many years after this a permanent legation guard is maintained in
Peking, and is strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
Colombia (State of Panama)
protect American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open during
serious revolutionary disturbances.
US forces protect American lives
and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.
US places armed guards on all trains crossing
the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides
of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
protect the American consulate and
the steamship wharf at
Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.
A detachment of marines ias landed
to insure European creditors would not seize the island and hold it until
Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux debts are paid off under the leagl authority of
the Roosevelt Corollary
to the Monroe Doctrine.
protect the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising is
were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiates a
US forces protect
American interests and lives during and following the revolution for
independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief
intermissions, US Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903,
to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.
guard of Marines is sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the
American and British naval forces established an area in which no
fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and
Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.
US forces protect American lives and property at
Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
US forces seek
to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after
serious revolutionary activity.
US takes control of Dominican customs, then the chief
source of income for the Dominican government.
Troops are stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba,
Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma To protect American interests
during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua.
protected American interests at Bluefields.
Marines are deployed in November to
guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces are sent for protection in
Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
American naval detachments lands to protect American lives and
interests during a civil war in Honduras.
forces guard the American legation at Constantinople during a Balkan
Disorders begins with the
overthrow of the dynasty during the Kuomintang rebellion which was redirected
by the invasion of China by Japan.This led to demonstrations and landing
parties for the protection of US interests in China continuously and at many
points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and along the route to the sea
was maintained until 1941.
forces protect American interests during an attempted revolution.
US forces protect American interests on the
Province of Oriente, and in Havana.
A small force lands to
prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto
Troops, on request of both
political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.
at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the
Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.
Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed
the Dolphin affair and Pancho Villa's raids These include the capture of Vera
Cruz and, later, Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.
During a revolutionary movement, US
naval forces stop bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintain
Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.
US forces occupy Haiti during a period of chronic
political instability from July 28, 1915, to August 15, 1934.
American forces landed to quell a
riot taking place on
American property in Nanking.
American naval forces occupy the island after the
default on foreign debt from May 1916 to September 1924.
Leonidas Trujillo Molina, "El Jefe," is installed by the Americans. Trujillo
and family amassed enormous wealth controlling and monopolizing cattle lands
for domestic meat and milk production, salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and the
lottery. At the 1938 Evian Conference the Dominican Republic was the only
country willing to accept 100,000 Jews.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina
ruled the Domican Republic with an iron fist killing an estimated 30,000 people
in the process. "The 44", under its leader Miguel Angel Paulino
drove through the streets in their
red Packard death car (carro de
la muerte). Later imprisonments and killings were handled by the SIM, the
secret police, organized by Johnny Abbes. Churches were required to post the
slogan, "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in Heaven, Trujillo on Earth).
In what is termed the Parsley Massacre Trujillo ordered
an attack on the border areas were
Haitians had crossed over and taken up residence. Tens of thousands of Haitians
were slaughtered as they tried to escape.
disappeared. The Marabel sisters - Argentina Minerva, Antonia María
Teresa and Patria Mercedes - also known as the "Butterflies" (Las Mariposas)
were ruthlessly beaten to death in a sugarcane field on the orders of Rafael
Leonidas Trujillo Molina.
On April 6
the US declares war with Germany.
On December 7 the US declares war
US forces protect American interests during an
insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the US armed forces
leave by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February
American troops land at
Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.
the United States Invaded Russia: Woodrow Wilson's Siberian
Woodrow Wilson officially
recognizes Korea as territory of the
refuses to receive delegations from Korea and Vietnam demanding restoration of
The delegations proclaimed before both houses of Congress,
as an addendum to his "Fourteen Points" of
a day earlier:
"National aspirations must be
respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent.
Self determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of
. that peoples and provinces are not to be bartered about from
sovereignty to sovereignty as if they were mere chattels and
pawns in a game, even the great
game, now forever discredited, of the balance of power; but that all
well-defined national aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction
that can be accorded them."
The promise of "Fourteen Points" become
known in the third world as an infamous, cruel and preposterous lie (the
Japanese occupiers were deadly in punishing all those involved in the
country-wide March 1st Korean Independence Movement).
American and Mexican troops fight at Nogales.
After withdrawal of the Pershing expedition, US troops entered Mexico in
pursuit of bandits at least three times in 1918 and six times in 1919.
land 7,000 men at Vladivostok to protect the American consulate and other
points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which
had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency
government and neutrality is issued by the American, Japanese, British, French,
and Czech commanders.
5,000 American troops join the allied intervention
force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in
response to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and are partly supported by
Tsarist or Kerensky elements.
forces are used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui,
during election disturbances and
US forces land at Trau at the request of Italian
authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.
Marines from the US$ Arizona land to guard
the US Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
A landing force is sent ashore to maintain order
in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to
protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
US forces protected the American Legation and
other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of
fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
A Marine guard is sent to protect the US
radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.
Panama - Costa
American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of
the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
A landing force is sent ashore with consent of both
Greek and Türkish authorities,
to protect American lives and property when the Türkish Nationalists
Marines are landed six times to protect Americans
during periods of unrest.
protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.
Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in
Shanghai brings the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in
the CRS-14 International Settlement.
US forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.
Strikes and rent riots led to the
landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American
Nicaragua The coup d'etat of General Chamorro arouses
revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect
the interests of the US. US forces come and go intermittently until January 3,
Nationalist attack on Hankow bring the landing of American
naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard is maintained at the
consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were
withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces
captured Kiukiang, naval forces are landed for the protection of foreigners.
1927 to 1934
US has 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval
vessels in its waters. American naval forces and marines increase due to
fighting at Shanghai . In March a naval guard is stationed at the American
consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and
British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other
foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels are
stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin. In 1932 American forces
land to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
In 1933 US has 3,027 armed men
ashore. In 1934 Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American
Hirohito, appointed his brother Prince Chichibu, to head Golden Lily,
established in November 1937 before Japan's infamous Rape of Nanking, to
accompany and follow the military.
The Golden Lily operation carried
out massive plunder throughout Asia and includes an army of jewelers, financial
experts and smelters which beacme known as Yamashita's Treasure.
Billions of dollars worth of gold and other plundered treasures are
stockpiled in underground caverns, some of which were discovered by
Edward G. Lansdale, McNamara's special
assistant on the 5412 Committee, who directed the recovery of some of the
A tiny portion becomes the source of
Ferdinand Marcos' vast wealth.
order to maintain secrecy Washington officials claim the Japanese have not
engaged in plunder.
A Filipino treasure hunter named Rogelio Roxas and
the Golden Budha Corporation files a lawsuit against the former president of
the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos and his wife Imelda Marcos for theft and
human rights abuses.
that in Baguio City in 1961 he met the son of a former member of the Japanese
army who mapped for him the location of the legendary Yamashita
Roxas claimed, that President Ferdinand Marcos learned of
Roxas' discovery and ordered him arrested, beaten, and
the treasure seized.
Golden Budha Corporation, which now holds exclusive ownership rights to the
treasure, obtains a final judgment against Imelda Marcos to the extent of her
interest in the Marcos estate in the principal amount of $13,275,848.37
Roxas' estate obtains a $6 million judgment on the claim for human
United States Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal to summarize
the allegations leading to Roxas' final judgment as follows:
Yamashita Treasure was found by Roxas and stolen from Roxas by Marcos'
remains speculation that much of the treasure was used to fund Project
Hammer along with other covert "anti-communist operations".
1940 Troops were sent to guard air
and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great Britain in Newfoundland,
Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana.
These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.
Greenland is taken under protection of the US in
American troops occupy
Dutch Guiana by agreement with the Netherlands government in
coöperates to protect aluminum ore supply from the
bauxite mines in Surinam.
Iceland is taken under the
protection of the US, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.
In the spring the President
ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July US warships were
convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the
Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect US military aid to Britain.
declares war against Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
Germany under Hitler declares a war
against the US.
Italy under Mussolini
declares a war against the US.
The US declares war against Italy and
Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania declare war against the
The US declares war against Bulgaria, Hungary and
US Marines assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating
the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This
is in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end
of World War II.
State Department officials, arrive
in Korea with the US Army, disband the government of the Korean People's
Republic formed when Japan announce their intention to surrender.
Without Korean authorization they immediately
cut Korea into two parts to be occupied by US and Soviet troops and establish a
military government, flying in from Washington DC (in General MacArthur's
private plane), Singman Rhee. Persecution of members of the disallowed Korean
Peoples Republic, communists, socialists, unionists and anyone against the the
partition and demanding an independent Korea begins in earnest. Rhee's special
forces and secret police take the lives of some 200,000 men, women and children
as recently documented by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission set up
by the National Assembly of the Republic of (South) Korea. On the Island of
Cheju alone, within a year, as many as 60,000 of its 300,000 residents are
murdered, while another 40,000 flee by sea to nearby Japan some two years
before the Koreans from the north invade the South.
March 10, 1945 Operation Meetinghouse 325 B29 bombers drop
nearly 500,000 cylinders of napalm and petroleum jelly on the most densely
populated areas of Tokyo killing 100,000 killed.
hundreds of metres high and fuelled by strong winds, quickly turned 40 square
kilometres of Tokyo into an inferno.
Over one million are made homeless.
267,171 buildings are destroyed.
proclaims its independence from a combined Frence and Japanese
Truman orders the augmentation of US troops along
the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces in northern Italy
after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport plane flying over
Venezia Giulia. Earlier US naval units had been dispatched to the scene.
A marine consular guard is sent to
Jerusalem to protect the US Consul General.
Soviet Union establishes
a land blockade of the US,
British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the US and its allies
airlift supplies to Berlin until the blockade is lifted in May 1949.
Marines are dispatched to Nanking to protect the
American Embassy when the city falls to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to
aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.
Arnold Leese: THE JEWISH ROTTING OF CHINA
June 25 1950:
US forces line up 400 Korean
refugees - men, women and children - and slaughter them.
responds to North Korean invasion of South
Korea. US forces deployed in Korea exceed 300,000 during the last year of the
conflict. Over 36,600 US
military are killed in action. The US attacks by, air, sea and land, aiming
at the southward invading army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(North), which nevertheless unifies the peninsula in five short weeks (except
for the US defended port city of Pusan); with little résistance from
South Korea ROK military as most of its soldiers either defect or go home; over
the next three years US will commit dozens of high death toll documented
atrocities as American planes level to the ground almost every city and town of
any appreciable size on the entire peninsula, north and south, and in the end
threatened to drop the atomic bomb while engaging in biological warfare.
Official report on US biowarfare in North
beginning of the Korean War, President Truman orders the US Seventh Fleet to
prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist
operations against mainland China.
A marine battalion evacuates US
nationals and other persons from
Alexandria during the
Marines land in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help
protect against threatened insurrection purportedly supported from outside. The
President's executive action is supported by
a Congressional resolution passed
in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.
Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect US nationals during the Cuban
3d Marine Expeditionary Unit landed on May 17, 1962 to support the
regime during the threat of Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the
5,000 marines had been withdrawn.
Kennedy institutes a "quarantine" on the shipment
of offensive missiles to Cuba from the
Soviet Union. He warns the
Soviet Union that the launching of
any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring
about US nuclear retaliation on the
Soviet Union. A negotiated
settlement is achieved a few days later.
Secret War in
A Village Made Out Of Bombs
US bombs Laos and gains control of
the Golden Triangle Heroin trade.
Missions Over Laos From 1965-1973
US sends four transport planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops
during a rebellion and to transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue foreigners.
US military advisers had been in
South Vietnam for a decade, and their numbers had been increased as the
military position of the Saigon government becomes weaker. After citing what he
termed were attacks on US destroyers in the
Tonkin Gulf, Lyndon
Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing US determination to
support freedom and protect peace in
Congress responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support
for "all necessary measures"
to repel armed attack against US forces and prevent further aggression.
Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a US
installation in central Vietnam, the US escalated its participation in the war
to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.
rural civilian villages, 1964
US intervenes to protect lives and
property during a Dominican revolt and sends more troops as fears grow that the
revolutionary forces are going to win.
U.S. Embassy Tracked Indonesia Mass Murder 1965
three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central
government with logistical support during a revolt.
US troops are ordered
into Cambodia to clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North
Vietnamese purportedly attack US and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam.
forces evacuated US civilians during hostilities between Türkish and Greek
July 22 and 23, helicopters from five US naval vessels evacuate approximately
250 Americans and Europeans from Lebanon
during fighting between mainly
Druze Christians aligned
against PLO Palestinians, Shi'a and
Sunni Muslims with secular communists and socialists switching
On April 3, 1975, Gerald Ford
sends US naval vessels, helicopters, and marines to assist in evacuation of
refugees and US nationals from Vietnam. On April 30, 1975, Gerald Ford reported
that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines have evacuated about
1,400 US citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and South Vietnamese from
landing zones near the US Embassy in Saigon and the Tan Son Nhut
12, 1975, Gerald Ford
orders US military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of US citizens
incident. On May 15, 1975, Gerald Ford orders military forces to retake the SS
Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en
route from Hong Kong to Thailand with a US citizen crew which was seized by
Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a
Dick with Don and
Additional forces were sent to
Korea after two American soldiers were killed by
North Korean soldiers in the
demilitarized zone between North and South Korea while cutting down a
US utilized military
transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and French rescue
operations in Zaire.
On April 26, 1980 six US transport
planes and eight helicopters are used in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue
American hostages being held in Iran.
a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional US
military advisers are sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately
55, to assist in training government forces in
December 11, 1981
Soldiers of the Salvadoran Army's
select, American-trained Atlacatl Battalion, massacre more than 1000 civilians
in El Mozote. Girls as young
as 10 were raped. El Mozote was largely Evangelical Protestant but many of its
neighbors were Roman Catholic and influenced by
El Salvador general admits army carried out El Mozote
PANAMA: TROUBLED PASSAGE FOR A US ALLY
On August 19 US planes based on the carrier US$
Nimitz shoot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the
Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The US periodically held
freedom of navigation
exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but
considered international waters by the US.
The deployment of military personnel and equipment
to participate in the Multinational Force of Observers in the Sinai.
Dispatch of 80 marines to serve
in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the
Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. Deployment of 1200 marines to serve in
a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese
disappearances of left-leaning union members, students and others began to
take place after Roberto Suazo Córdova takes office. Suazo relies on
United States support including controversial social and economic development
projects sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development.
Honduras becomes host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world.
After a Libyan plane purportedly bombs a city in
Sudan on March 18,
1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the US dispatched an AWACS
electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.
Libya denied any responsibility for the
attack, blaming it on rebels in the Sudan Air Force.
bomb Sudan? Answer may lie in the Sudanese rebellion
undertakes a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to
conflict with Nicaragua.
Chad Two AWACS electronic
surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground logistical support
forces are deployed to assist Chad against rebel forces.
Grenada occupied by Marines and Army airborne
troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of law and order and at
the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.
Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided
by intelligence from a US AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by
a United States KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian CRS-19 fighter planes over
an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as
a protected zone for shipping.
US Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner
and force it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the
Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the
helicopters and crewmen ferry Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel
US forces, while
engaged navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, are attacked by Libyan
missiles and the US responds with missiles. US air and naval forces had
conducted bombing strikes on military installations in Libya.
US Army personnel and aircraft assisted
Bolivia in anti-drug operations.
Iran-Iraq War results in
several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the US increased US joint
military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopts a policy of
reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf.
ships are 'fired upon' or have 'struck
mines' or taken other military action on multiple occasions.
Libya US Navy F-14
aircraft based on the US$ John F. Kennedy shoot down two Libyan jet fighters
over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The US pilots claim
the Libyan planes demonstrated hostile intentions.
Bush orders a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment
the estimated 11,000 US forces already in the area.
HW Bush announced that
military and law enforcement
assistance will be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and
Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers under the authroity of the
Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. By mid-September there were 50-100 US
military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the
use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to
train troops in the three countries.
"Panamanian strongman Manuel
Noriega was a highly paid CIA asset and
Noriega facilitated "guns-for-drugs" flights for the
Contras, providing protection and pilots, as well as safe havens for drug
cartel operatives, and discreet banking facilities.
The U.S. government
turned against Noriega, invaded Panama in December 1989 and
kidnapped the general once
they discovered he was providing intelligence and services to the Cubans and
Ironically drug trafficking through Panama increased after
the US invasion."
John Dinges, Our Man in Panama, Random House,
1991; National Security Archive Documentation Packet The Contras, Cocaine,
and Covert Operations
27,000 US troops invade the Panama to oust
Panamanian military leader General Manuel
Manuel Noriega was hoisted into power with US backing when
the previous Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos fell out of US favor (and then
fell out of the sky in a 1981 plane crash)
Manuel Noriega backing
attended the U.S. Army's notorious School of the Americas (also known as the
School of Assassins) and was a paid CIA operative in 1967.
helped set up the CIA's "drugs-for-guns" trade that used cocaine trafficking to
finance their secret Contra war against Nicaragua.
The poor working
class neighborhood of El Chorillo was totally destroyed because it was believed
to be Noriega's intelligence organs.
The University of Panama's
seismograph marked 442 major explosions in the first 12 hours of the invasion,
about one major bomb blast every two minutes.
Fires engulfed the mostly
wooden homes, destroying about 4,000 residences.
Some residents began
to call El Chorrillo "Guernica" or "little Hiroshima."
HW Bush orders US
military forces to despose General Manuel Noriega.
Invasion of Panama Explains the Current US Foreign Policy
fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines assist the Aquino
government in repeling a coup attempt.
100 marines are sent from the US
Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy in Manila.
Additional security is provide to the US
Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated US citizens from
substantial elements of the US armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to
ensure an adequate offensive military option after the August 2 invasion of
Kuwait by Iraq.
Unit of CIA Sent Ton of Cocaine to US
Iraq Operation Desert
Storm (17 January 1991 28 February 1991)
US armed forces to
commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military
targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in
conjunction with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council
George HW Bush states
on May 17 in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi repression of the
Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of US forces into
northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.
US Air Force C-141s transport 100 Belgian troops and
equipment into Kinshasa after widespread looting and rioting break out. US
planes also carry 300 French troops into the
Central African Republic and haul
back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside
US military planes evacuat Americans from
Sierra Leone, where military leaders have overthrown the government.
began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to
recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to
coöperate with UN inspection teams.
US participation in
the enforcement of a
prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and
aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi
compliance with the
armed forces are deployed to Somalia in response to
a humanitarian crisis
and a UN Security Council
Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to
international peace. US forces continued to participate in the successor United
Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the UN Security Council
authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of
US deploys a
battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the continuing US commitment to
Kuwaiti independence. US military action under the UN umbrella continues.
US naval forces launch missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence
Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to a purported unsuccessful
attempt to assassinate former George Bush in
US began an airdrop of relief
supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia. US forces
participate in a NATO air action to enforce a UN ban on all unauthorized
military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina
response to attacks against UN forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the US
Quick Reaction Force participates in military action to quell the
350 US soldiers are
deployed to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN
Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area.
US ships begin to
UN arms embargo against Haiti.
US expands its
participation in the conflict in former Yugoslavia. 60 US aircraft are
available for participation in the authorized
NATO missions. US planes patrolling
the "no-fly zone" in former Yugoslavia under the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
shoot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes. Warplanes under NATO command bomb Bosnian
Serb forces shelling the "safe" city of Gorazde. US aircraft under NATO attack
Bosnian Serb heavy weapons
in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone.
NATO veteran: I witnessed the genocide against Serbs in
US military forces
deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of
US citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where
widespread fighting has broken
Who was Behind the 1994 Rwanda Genocide?
US contingent in the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200
US naval forces
continue enforcement of the UN embargo in the waters
around Haiti and that 712 vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993.
1,500 troops are deployed to protect the regime. Troop level is subsequently
increased to 20,000.
combat-equipped US armed forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu,
Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II).
combat-equipped fighter aircraft and other aircraft contribute to the
enforcement of a NATO the no-fly zone in airspace over
Bosnia-Herzegovina. 500 US soldiers continued to
be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the UN
Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). NATO air strikes are used against Bosnian
Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the
U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde - "some 300 sorties
were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and
Mostar.""1,500 US military personnel" are deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Croatia as part of a NATO "enabling
force" to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the
NATO led Implementation Force
(IFOR)."3,000 other US military personnel are deployed to Hungary, Italy, and
Croatia to establish
infrastructure for the enabling force and IFOR.
On December 21,
1995, William Jefferson Clinton
reports to Congress that he had ordered the deployment of approximately 20,000
US military personnel to participate in the NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR) in the
Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 US military personnel
would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily in Croatia. In
addition, about 7,000 US support forces would be deployed to Hungary, Italy and
Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR's
A "phased reduction" in the number of United
States personnel assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) leaves
309 US personnel "equipped for combat."
US military forces are deployed if the need to
evacuate "private US citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken
refuge in the US Embassy compound...." should occur.
Central African Republic
US military personnel are
deployed to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from
that country of "private US citizens and certain US Government employees," and
to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."
US forces totaling about 17,000
occupy Bosnia "under NATO operational command and control" as part of the NATO
Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about 5,500 US military personnel
were deployed in Hungary, Italy and Croatia, and other regional states to
provide "logistical and other support to IFOR." 500 US soldiers remain in the
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the United Nations Preventive
Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). US participation in an IFOR follow-on force in
Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under
NATO command requires "about 8,500"
US military forces
to evacuate certain US Government employees and private US citizens from
Tirana, Albania, and enhance security for the
US Embassy in that city.
US military personnel had been deployed to
provide enhanced security for American private
citizens, government employees,
and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any
necessary evacuation operation.
US military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone,
to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain US government employees
and private US citizens.
military personnel involved in SFOR are in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800
US troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states
to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A US Army continent of about
500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the
U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger* is
National Security Advisor, under William Jefferson Clinton from
1997 to 2001.
Samuel Richard Berger formulated the foreign policy of
administration regarding the Khobar Towers bombing, Operation Desert Fox,
the NATO bombing campaign against Yugoslavia, responses to the terrorist
bombings of American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the administration's
policy of engagement with the People's Republic of China.
During a period of domestic conflict about 550
US military personnel are stationed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand. These
personnel were to be available for possible emergency evacuation operations in
Cambodia as deemed necessary.
An army mutiny in
Guinea-Bissau endangers the US Embassy, US government employees and citizens in
that country. US military personnel are deployed to Dakar, Senegal, to remove
such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of
Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were
Joint Task Force of US military personnel is
deployed to Nairobi, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related
to the bombings of the US Embassies in
Kenya and Tanzania. Teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in
Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the US
Embassies and citizens there.
200 US Marines
and 10 Navy SEALS are deployed to the US Embassy compound in Tirana, Albania,
to enhance security against reported threats against US personnel.
are made against camps and installations in Afghanistan and
Sudan used by
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden.
responsiblity for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the US Embassies in Kenya
Due to political
instability and civil disorder in Liberia 30 additional US military personnel ,
are deployed as a stand-by response and evacuation force of to augment the
security force at the US Embassy in Monrovia.
US and UK conduct a bombing campaign termed
Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi industrial facilities and against other
Iraqi military and security targets including a dry milk factory. Coalition
forces enforce the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conduct military operations
against the Iraqi air defense systems on numerous occasions in
response to potential
May 11, 1998
India detonates a nuclear
Pakistan detonates a nuclear
US military personnel participate are in the
NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia.
SFOR includes around
6,900 people, with about 2,300 US military personnel deployed to Hungary,
Croatia, Italy and other regional states. Also some 350 US military personnel
remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as part of
the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
2,200 personnel remain
in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to support the international
security presence in Kosovo (KFOR).
US military personnel provide security for the US embassy
and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the
American embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August
US military forces in
coalition with NATO allies commence air strikes against Yugoslavia in response
to the claims of a Yugoslav government campaign of violence and repression
against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo. Billy directs the deployment
of about "7,000 US military personnel as the US contribution to the
approximately 50,000-member, NATO led security force (KFOR)" currently being
assembled in Kosovo, including several thousand additional US Armed Forces
personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located
Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign in
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