American troops participate in operations to
protect foreign lives during the Boxer rebellion, particularly at
Peking. For many years after this a permanent legation guard is maintained in
Peking, and is strengthened at times as trouble threatened.
Colombia (State of Panama)
troops protect American property on the Isthmus and kept transit lines open
during serious revolutionary disturbances.
troops protect American lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a
armed guards on all trains crossing
the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open, and stationed ships on both sides
of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
troops protect the American consulate and
the steamship wharf at
Puerto Cortez during a period of revolutionary activity.
A detachment of marines lands to
insure European creditors can not seize the island and hold it until Ulises
'Lilís' Heureaux debts are paid off under the
leagl authority of the
Roosevelt Corollary to
the Monroe Doctrine.
troops protect the American consulate in Beirut when a local Moslem uprising is
were sent to Abyssinia to protect the US Consul General while he negotiates a
US forces protect
American interests and lives during and following the revolution for
independence from Colombia over construction of the Isthmian Canal. With brief
intermissions, US Marines were stationed on the Isthmus from November 4, 1903,
to January 21, 1914, to guard American interests.
guard of Marines is sent to protect the American legation in Seoul during the
American and British naval forces established an area in which no
fighting would be allowed and protected American interests in Puerto Plata and
Sosua and Santo Domingo City during revolutionary fighting.
US forces protect American lives and property at
Ancon at the time of a threatened insurrection.
US forces seek
to restore order, protect foreigners, and establish a stable government after
serious revolutionary activity.
US takes control of Dominican customs, then the chief
source of income for the Dominican government.
Troops are stationed in Trujillo, Ceiba,
Puerto Cortez, San Pedro, Laguna and Choloma To protect American interests
during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua.
protected American interests at Bluefields.
Marines are deployed in November to
guard the cable stations at Shanghai; landing forces are sent for protection in
Nanking, Chinkiang, Taku and elsewhere.
American naval detachments lands to protect American lives and
interests during a civil war in Honduras.
US forces guard the American legation at
Constantinople during a Balkan War.
Disorders begins with the overthrow of the dynasty during the Kuomintang
rebellion which was redirected by the invasion of China by Japan.This led to
demonstrations and landing parties for the protection of US interests in China
continuously and at many points from 1912 on to 1941. The guard at Peking and
along the route to the sea was maintained until 1941.
forces protect American interests during an attempted revolution.
US forces protect American interests on the
Province of Oriente, and in Havana.
A small force lands
to prevent seizure by the government of an American-owned railroad at Puerto
Troops, on request of both
political parties, supervised elections outside the Canal Zone.
at Ciaris Estero to aid in evacuating American citizens and others from the
Yaqui Valley, made dangerous for foreigners by civil strife.
Undeclared Mexican-American hostilities followed
the Dolphin affair and Pancho Villa's raids These include the capture of Vera
Cruz and, later, Pershing's expedition into northern Mexico.
During a revolutionary movement, US
naval forces stop bombardment of Puerto Plata, and by threat of force maintain
Santo Domingo City as a neutral zone.
forces occupy Haiti during a period of chronic political instability from July
28, 1915, to August 15, 1934.
forces landed to quell a riot taking place on
American property in Nanking.
American naval forces occupy the
island after the default on
foreign debt from May 1916 to September 1924.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo
Molina, "El Jefe," is installed by the Americans. Trujillo and family amassed
enormous wealth controlling and
monopolizing cattle lands for domestic meat and milk production,
salt, sugar, tobacco, lumber, and the lottery. At the 1938 Evian Conference the
Dominican Republic was the only country willing to accept 100,000
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina ruled the Domican Republic with
an iron fist killing an
estimated 30,000 people in the process. "The 44", under its leader Miguel
Angel Paulino drove through the
streets in their red Packard
death car (carro de la muerte). Later imprisonments and killings were
handled by the SIM, the secret police, organized by Johnny Abbes. Churches were
required to post the slogan, "Dios en cielo, Trujillo en tierra" (God in
Heaven, Trujillo on Earth).
In what is termed the Parsley Massacre
Trujillo ordered an attack on the
border areas were Haitians had crossed over and taken up residence. Tens of
thousands of Haitians were slaughtered as they tried to escape.
Political dissenters disappeared. The Marabel sisters - Argentina
Minerva, Antonia María Teresa and Patria Mercedes - also known as the
"Butterflies" (Las Mariposas) were ruthlessly beaten to death in a sugarcane
field on the orders of Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina.
On April 6
the US declares war with Germany.
On December 7 the US declares war
US forces protect American interests during an
insurrection and subsequent unsettled conditions. Most of the US armed forces
leave by August 1919, but two companies remained at Camaguey until February
American troops land at
Chungking to protect American lives during a political crisis.
the United States Invaded Russia: Woodrow Wilson's Siberian
Woodrow Wilson officially recognizes Korea as territory of
the Japanese Empire refusing to
receive delegations from Korea and Vietnam demanding restoration of
The delegations proclaimed before both houses of Congress,
as an addendum to his "Fourteen Points" of
a day earlier:
"National aspirations must be respected; people may now
be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not
a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action
. that peoples and
provinces are not to be bartered about from sovereignty to sovereignty as if
they were mere chattels and pawns in a game, even
the great game, now forever
discredited, of the balance of power; but that all well-defined national
aspirations shall be accorded the utmost satisfaction that can be accorded
The promise of "Fourteen Points" become known in the third world
as an infamous, cruel and preposterous lie (the Japanese occupiers were deadly
in punishing all those involved in the country-wide March 1st Korean
and Mexican troops fight at Nogales. After withdrawal of the Pershing
expedition, US troops entered Mexico in pursuit of bandits at least three times
in 1918 and six times in 1919.
land 7,000 men at Vladivostok to protect the American consulate and other
points in the fighting between the Bolshevik troops and the Czech Army which
had traversed Siberia from the western front. A joint proclamation of emergency
government and neutrality is issued by the American, Japanese, British, French,
and Czech commanders.
5,000 American troops join the allied intervention
force at Archangel and remained until June 1919. These operations were in
response to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia and are partly supported by
Tsarist or Kerensky elements.
forces are used for police duty according to treaty stipulations, at Chiriqui,
during election disturbances and
US forces land at Trau at the request of Italian
authorities to police order between the Italians and Serbs.
Marines from the US$ Arizona land to guard
the US Consulate during the Greek occupation of Constantinople.
A landing force is sent ashore to maintain order
in a neutral zone during an attempted revolution.
A landing force was sent ashore for a few hours to
protect lives during a disturbance at Kiukiang.
US forces protected the American Legation and
other American interests, such as the cable station, during a period of
fighting between Unionists and the Government of Guatemala.
A Marine guard is sent to protect the US
radio station and property on Russian Island, Bay of Vladivostok.
Panama - Costa
American naval squadrons demonstrated in April on both sides of
the Isthmus to prevent war between the two countries over a boundary dispute.
A landing force is sent ashore with consent of both
Greek and Türkish authorities,
to protect American lives and property when the Türkish Nationalists
landed six times to protect Americans during periods of unrest.
protected American lives and interests during election hostilities.
Fighting of Chinese factions accompanied by riots and demonstrations in
Shanghai brings the landing of American forces to protect lives and property in
the CRS-14 International Settlement.
US forces protected foreigners at La Ceiba during a political upheaval.
Strikes and rent riots led to the
landing of about 600 American troops to keep order and protect American
Nicaragua The coup d'etat of General Chamorro arouses
revolutionary activities leading to the landing of American marines to protect
the interests of the US. US forces come and go intermittently until January 3,
Nationalist attack on Hankow bring the landing of American
naval forces to protect American citizens. A small guard is maintained at the
consulate general even after September 16, when the rest of the forces were
withdrawn. Likewise, when Nationalist forces
captured Kiukiang, naval forces are landed for the protection of foreigners.
1927 to 1934
US has 5,670 troops ashore in China and 44 naval
vessels in its waters. American naval forces and marines increase due to
fighting at Shanghai . In March a naval guard is stationed at the American
consulate at Nanking after Nationalist forces captured the city. American and
British destroyers later used shell fire to protect Americans and other
foreigners. Subsequently additional forces of marines and naval vessels are
stationed in the vicinity of Shanghai and Tientsin. In 1932 American forces
land to protect American interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
In 1933 US has 3,027 armed men
ashore. In 1934 Marines landed at Foochow to protect the American
Hirohito, appointed his brother Prince Chichibu, to head Golden Lily,
established in November 1937 before Japan's infamous Rape of Nanking, to
accompany and follow the military.
The Golden Lily operation carried
out massive plunder throughout Asia and includes an army of jewelers, financial
experts and smelters which beacme known as Yamashita's Treasure.
Billions of dollars worth of gold and other plundered treasures are
stockpiled in underground caverns, some of which were discovered by
Edward G. Lansdale, McNamara's special
assistant on the 5412 Committee, who directed the recovery of some of the
A tiny portion becomes the source of
Ferdinand Marcos' vast
In order to maintain secrecy Washington officials claim the
Japanese have not engaged in plunder.
A Filipino treasure hunter named
Rogelio Roxas and the Golden Budha Corporation files a lawsuit against the
former president of the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos and his wife Imelda
Marcos for theft and
human rights abuses.
that in Baguio City in 1961 he met the son of a former member of the Japanese
army who mapped for him the location of the legendary Yamashita
Roxas claimed, that President Ferdinand Marcos learned of
Roxas' discovery and ordered him arrested, beaten, and
the treasure seized.
Golden Budha Corporation, which now holds exclusive ownership rights to the
treasure, obtains a final judgment against Imelda Marcos to the extent of her
interest in the Marcos estate in the principal amount of $13,275,848.37
Roxas' estate obtains a $6 million judgment on the claim for human
United States Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal to summarize
the allegations leading to Roxas' final judgment as follows:
Yamashita Treasure was found by Roxas and stolen from Roxas by Marcos'
remains speculation that much of the treasure was used to fund Project
Hammer along with other covert "anti-communist
Troops are sent to guard air and naval bases obtained by negotiation with Great
Britain in Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua,
Trinidad, and British Guiana. These were sometimes called lend-lease bases.
Greenland is taken under
protection of the US in April.
Netherlands (Dutch Guiana)
American troops occupy Dutch Guiana by agreement with the
Netherlands government in exile.
coöperates to protect aluminum ore supply from the
bauxite mines in Surinam.
Iceland is taken under the
protection of the US, with consent of its government, for strategic reasons.
In the spring the President
ordered the Navy to patrol ship lanes to Europe. By July US warships were
convoying and by September were attacking German submarines. In November, the
Neutrality Act was partly repealed to protect US military aid to Britain.
declares war against Japan after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
Germany under Hitler declares a war
against the US.
Italy under Mussolini
declares a war against the US.
The US declares war against Italy and
Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania declare war against the
The US declares war against Bulgaria, Hungary and
Marines assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating
the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This
is in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end
of World War II.
State Department officials,
arrive in Korea with the US Army, disband the government of the Korean People's
Republic formed when Japan announce their intention to surrender. Without
Korean authorization they immediately cut Korea into two parts to be occupied
by US and Soviet troops and establish a military government, flying in from
Washington DC (in General MacArthur's private plane), Singman Rhee. Persecution
of members of the disallowed Korean Peoples Republic,
socialists, unionists and
anyone against the the partition and demanding an independent Korea begins in
earnest. Rhee's special forces and secret police take the lives of some 200,000
men, women and children as recently documented by the Truth and
Reconciliation Commission set up by the National Assembly of the Republic
of (South) Korea. On the Island of Cheju alone, within a year, as many as
60,000 of its 300,000 residents are murdered, while another 40,000 flee by sea
to nearby Japan some two years before the Koreans from the north invade the
March 10, 1945 Operation Meetinghouse 325
B29 bombers drop nearly 500,000 cylinders of napalm and petroleum jelly on the
most densely populated areas of Tokyo killing 100,000 killed.
firestorm, hundreds of metres high and fuelled by strong winds, quickly turned
40 square kilometres of Tokyo into an inferno.
Over one million are made
homeless. 267,171 buildings are destroyed.
proclaims its independence from a combined Frence and Japanese
Truman orders the
augmentation of US
troops along the zonal occupation line and the reinforcement of air forces
in northern Italy after Yugoslav forces shot down an unarmed US Army transport
plane flying over Venezia Giulia. Earlier US naval units had been dispatched to
A marine consular guard is sent to
Jerusalem to protect the US Consul General.
Soviet Union establishes
a land blockade of the US,
British, and French sectors of Berlin on June 24, 1948, the US and its allies
airlift supplies to Berlin until the blockade is lifted in May 1949.
Marines are dispatched to Nanking to protect the
American Embassy when the city falls to Communist troops, and to Shanghai to
aid in the protection and evacuation of Americans.
Arnold Leese: THE JEWISH ROTTING OF CHINA
June 25 1950:
US forces line up 400 Korean
refugees - men, women and children - and slaughter them.
responds to North Korean invasion of
South Korea. US forces deployed in Korea exceed 300,000 during the last year of
the conflict. Over 36,600 US
military are killed in action. The US attacks by, air, sea and land, aiming
at the southward invading army of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(North), which nevertheless unifies the peninsula in five short weeks (except
for the US defended port city of Pusan); with little résistance from
South Korea ROK military as most of its soldiers either defect or go home; over
the next three years US will commit dozens of high death toll documented
atrocities as American planes level to the ground almost every city and town of
any appreciable size on the entire peninsula, north and south, and in the end
threatened to drop the atomic bomb while engaging in biological warfare.
Official report on US biowarfare in North
beginning of the Korean War, President Truman orders the US Seventh Fleet to
prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist
operations against mainland China.
A marine battalion evacuates US
nationals and other persons from
Alexandria during the
Marines land in Lebanon at the invitation of its government to help
protect against threatened insurrection purportedly supported from outside.
The President's executive action is supported
by a Congressional resolution
passed in 1957 that authorized such actions in that area of the world.
2d Marine Ground Task Force was deployed to protect US
nationals during the Cuban crisis.
3d Marine Expeditionary Unit
landed on May 17, 1962 to support the
regime during the threat of
Communist pressure from outside; by July 30 the 5,000 marines had been
Kennedy institutes a "quarantine" on the
shipment of offensive missiles to Cuba from the
Soviet Union. He warns the
Soviet Union that the launching of
any missile from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere would bring
about US nuclear retaliation on the
Soviet Union. A negotiated
settlement is achieved a few days later.
Secret War in
A Village Made Out Of Bombs
US bombs Laos and gains control of
the Golden Triangle Heroin trade.
Missions Over Laos From 1965-1973
US sends four transport
planes to provide airlift for Congolese troops during a rebellion and to
transport Belgian paratroopers to rescue Belgian nationals.
US military advisers had been in South Vietnam for a
decade, and their numbers had been increased as the military position of the
Saigon government becomes weaker.
After citing what he termed were
attacks on US destroyers in the
Tonkin Gulf, Lyndon
Johnson asked in August 1964 for a resolution expressing US determination to
support freedom and protect peace in Southeast Asia.
responded with the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, expressing support for "all necessary measures" to
repel armed attack against US forces and prevent further aggression.
Following this resolution, and following a Communist attack on a US
installation in central Vietnam, the US escalated its participation in the war
to a peak of 543,000 military personnel by April 1969.
rural civilian villages, 1964
US intervenes to protect lives and
property during a Dominican revolt and sends more troops as fears grow that the
revolutionary forces are going to win.
U.S. Embassy Tracked Indonesia Mass Murder 1965
three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central
government with logistical support during a revolt.
1968 Soviet Union leads
an invasion of Czechoslovakia
putting an end to a period of political liberalization known as the Prague
US troops are ordered into Cambodia to
clean out Communist sanctuaries from which Viet Cong and North Vietnamese
purportedly attack US and South Vietnamese forces in Vietnam.
US naval forces evacuated US civilians during
hostilities between Türkish and Greek Cypriot forces.
On July 22 and 23, helicopters from five US naval vessels evacuate
approximately 250 Americans and Europeans from
Lebanon during fighting between mainly
Druze Christians aligned
against PLO Palestinians, Shi'a and
Sunni Muslims with secular communists and
socialists switching sides.
3, 1975, Gerald Ford sends US naval vessels, helicopters, and marines to assist
in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam. On April 30, 1975,
Gerald Ford reported that a force of 70 evacuation helicopters and 865 marines
have evacuated about 1,400 US citizens and 5,500 third country nationals and
South Vietnamese from landing zones near the US Embassy in Saigon and the Tan
Son Nhut Airfield.
12, 1975, Gerald Ford
orders US military forces to proceed with the planned evacuation of US citizens
incident. On May 15, 1975, Gerald Ford orders military forces to retake the SS
Mayaguez, a merchant vessel en
route from Hong Kong to Thailand with a US citizen crew which was seized by
Cambodian naval patrol boats in international waters and forced to proceed to a
Additional forces were sent to Korea after two
American soldiers were killed by North
Korean soldiers in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea
while cutting down a tree.
utilized military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian
and French rescue operations in Zaire.
On April 26, 1980 six US transport
planes and eight helicopters are used in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue
American hostages being held in Iran.
a guerilla offensive against the government of El Salvador, additional US
military advisers are sent to El Salvador, bringing the total to approximately
55, to assist in training government forces in
December 11, 1981
Soldiers of the Salvadoran Army's
select, American-trained Atlacatl Battalion, massacre more than 1000 civilians
in El Mozote. Girls as young
as 10 were raped. El Mozote was largely Evangelical Protestant but many of its
neighbors were Roman Catholic and influenced by
El Salvador general admits army carried out El Mozote
PANAMA: TROUBLED PASSAGE FOR A US ALLY
On August 19 US planes based on the carrier US$
Nimitz shoot down two Libyan jets over the Gulf of Sidra after one of the
Libyan jets had fired a heat-seeking missile. The US periodically held
freedom of navigation
exercises in the Gulf of Sidra, claimed by Libya as territorial waters but
considered international waters by the US.
The deployment of military personnel and equipment
to participate in the Multinational Force of Observers in the Sinai.
Dispatch of 80 marines to serve
in the multinational force to assist in the withdrawal of members of the
Palestine Liberation force from Beirut. Deployment of 1200 marines to serve in
a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese
disappearances of left-leaning union members, students and others began to
take place after Roberto Suazo Córdova takes office. Suazo relies on
United States support including controversial social and economic development
projects sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development.
Honduras becomes host to the largest Peace Corps mission in the world.
After a Libyan plane purportedly bombs a city in
Sudan on March 18,
1983, and Sudan and Egypt appealed for assistance, the US dispatched an AWACS
electronic surveillance plane to Egypt.
Libya denied any responsibility for the
attack, blaming it on rebels in the Sudan Air Force.
bomb Sudan? Answer may lie in the Sudanese rebellion
undertakes a series of exercises in Honduras that some believed might lead to
conflict with Nicaragua.
AWACS electronic surveillance planes and eight F-15 fighter planes and ground
logistical support forces are deployed to assist Chad against rebel forces.
Grenada occupied by Marines and
Army airborne troops to protect lives and assist in the restoration of
law and order and at
the request of five members of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States.
Saudi Arabian jet fighter planes, aided
by intelligence from a US AWACS electronic surveillance aircraft and fueled by
a United States KC-10 tanker, shot down two Iranian CRS-19 fighter planes over
an area of the Persian Gulf proclaimed as
a protected zone for
US Navy pilots intercepted an Egyptian airliner
and force it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers of the
Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro who had killed an American citizen during the
helicopters and crewmen ferry Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border to repel
US forces, while
engaged navigation exercises around the Gulf of Sidra, are attacked by Libyan
missiles and the US responds with missiles. US air and naval forces had
conducted bombing strikes on military installations in Libya.
US Army personnel and aircraft assisted
Bolivia in anti-drug operations.
After the Iran-Iraq
War results in several military incidents in the Persian Gulf, the US
increased US joint military forces operations in the Persian Gulf and adopts a
policy of reflagging and escorting Kuwaiti oil tankers through the Gulf.
US Navy ships are 'fired upon' or have 'struck mines' or taken other military action
on multiple occasions.
military intelligence officers in Panama draft seven Spanish-language
They are based on School of the Americas lesson plans based in
part on older material dating back to the 1960s from "Project X," the US Army
Foreign Intelligence Assistance Program, which provided training not just to
Latin American nations but to US allies around the world.
are entitled, "Handling of Sources," "Counterintelligence," "Revolutionary War,
Guerillas and Communist Ideology," "Terrorism and the Urban Guerilla,"
"Interrogation," "Combat Intelligence," and "Analysis I."
materials had been retained in the files of the Army Intelligence School at
Fort Huachuca, Arizona.
Libya US Navy F-14
aircraft based on the US$ John F. Kennedy shoot down two Libyan jet fighters
over the Mediterranean Sea about 70 miles north of Libya. The US pilots claim
the Libyan planes demonstrated hostile intentions.
Bush orders a brigade-sized force of approximately 1,900 troops to augment
the estimated 11,000 US forces already in the area.
HW Bush announced
that military and law enforcement
assistance will be sent to help the Andean nations of Colombia, Bolivia, and
Peru combat illicit drug producers and traffickers under the authroity of the
Andean Initiative in War on Drugs. By mid-September there were 50-100 US
military advisers in Colombia in connection with transport and training in the
use of military equipment, plus seven Special Forces teams of 2-12 persons to
train troops in the three countries.
Project X the manuals were used at
the School of the Americas in military intelligence courses attended by
students from Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela.
"Panamanian strongman Manuel
Noriega was a highly paid CIA asset and
Noriega facilitated "guns-for-drugs" flights for the
Contras, providing protection and pilots, as well as safe havens for drug
cartel operatives, and discreet banking facilities.
The U.S. government
turned against Noriega, invaded Panama in December 1989 and
kidnapped the general once they
discovered he was providing intelligence and services to the Cubans and
Ironically drug trafficking through Panama
increased after the US
John Dinges, Our Man in Panama, Random House,
1991; National Security Archive Documentation Packet The Contras, Cocaine,
and Covert Operations
27,000 US troops invade the Panama to oust
Panamanian military leader General Manuel
Manuel Noriega was hoisted into power with US backing when
the previous Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos fell out of US favor (and then
fell out of the sky in a 1981 plane crash)
Manuel Noriega backing
attended the U.S. Army's notorious School of the Americas (also known as the
School of Assassins) and was a paid CIA operative in 1967.
helped set up the CIA's "drugs-for-guns" trade that used cocaine trafficking to
finance their secret Contra war against Nicaragua.
The poor working
class neighborhood of El Chorillo was totally destroyed because it was believed
to be Noriega's intelligence organs.
The University of Panama's
seismograph marked 442 major explosions in the first 12 hours of the invasion,
about one major bomb blast every two minutes.
Fires engulfed the mostly
wooden homes, destroying about 4,000 residences.
Some residents began
to call El Chorrillo "Guernica" or "little Hiroshima."
HW Bush orders US
military forces to despose General Manuel Noriega.
Invasion of Panama Explains the Current US Foreign Policy
fighter planes from Clark Air Base in the Philippines assist the Aquino
government in repeling a coup attempt.
100 marines are sent from the US
Navy base at Subic Bay to protect the US Embassy in Manila.
Additional security is provide to the US
Embassy in Monrovia, and that helicopter teams had evacuated US citizens from
substantial elements of the US armed forces into the Persian Gulf region to
ensure an adequate offensive military option after the
August 2 invasion
of Kuwait by Iraq.
Unit of CIA Sent Ton of Cocaine to US
Iraq Operation Desert
Storm (17 January 1991 28 February 1991)
US armed forces to
commence combat operations on January 16 against Iraqi forces and military
targets in Iraq and Kuwait, in
conjunction with a coalition of allies and UN Security Council
Bush states on May 17 in a status report to Congress that the Iraqi
repression of the Kurdish people had necessitated a limited introduction of US
forces into northern Iraq for emergency relief purposes.
US Air Force C-141s transport 100 Belgian troops and
equipment into Kinshasa after widespread looting and rioting break out. US
planes also carry 300 French troops into the
Central African Republic and haul
back American citizens and third country nationals from locations outside
US military planes evacuat Americans from
Sierra Leone, where military leaders have overthrown the government.
began a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to
recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations and refusal to
coöperate with UN inspection teams.
US participation in
the enforcement of a
prohibition against Iraqi flights in a specified zone in southern Iraq, and
aerial reconnaissance to monitor Iraqi
compliance with the
armed forces are deployed to Somalia in response to
a humanitarian crisis
and a UN Security Council
Resolution determining that the situation constituted a threat to
international peace. US forces continued to participate in the successor United
Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II), which the UN Security Council
authorized to assist Somalia in political reconciliation and restoration of
US deploys a
battalion task force to Kuwait to underline the continuing US commitment to
Kuwaiti independence. US military action under the UN umbrella continues.
US naval forces launch missiles against the Iraqi Intelligence
Service's headquarters in Baghdad in response to a purported unsuccessful
attempt to assassinate former George Bush in
US began an airdrop of relief
supplies aimed at Muslims surrounded by Serbian forces in Bosnia. US forces
participate in a NATO air action to enforce a UN ban on all unauthorized
military flights over Bosnia-Hercegovina
response to attacks against UN forces in Somalia by a factional leader, the US
Quick Reaction Force participates in military action to quell the
350 US soldiers are
deployed to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to participate in the UN
Protection Force to help maintain stability in the area.
US ships begin to
UN arms embargo against Haiti.
US expands its participation in the conflict in
former Yugoslavia. 60 US aircraft are available for participation in the
authorized NATO missions. US planes
patrolling the "no-fly zone" in former Yugoslavia under the
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
shoot down 4 Serbian Galeb planes. Warplanes under NATO command bomb Bosnian
Serb forces shelling the "safe" city of Gorazde. US aircraft under NATO attack
Bosnian Serb heavy weapons
in the Sarajevo heavy weapons exclusion zone.
NATO veteran: I witnessed the genocide against Serbs in
US military forces
deployed to Burundi to conduct possible non-combatant evacuation operations of
US citizens and other third-country nationals from Rwanda, where
widespread fighting has broken
Who was Behind the 1994 Rwanda Genocide?
US contingent in the former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia had been augmented by a reinforced company of 200
US naval forces
continue enforcement of the UN embargo in the waters
around Haiti and that 712 vessels had been boarded since October 20, 1993.
1,500 troops are deployed to protect the regime. Troop level is subsequently
increased to 20,000.
combat-equipped US armed forces personnel began deployment into Mogadishu,
Somalia, to assist in the withdrawal of U.N. forces assigned there to the
United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II).
combat-equipped fighter aircraft and other aircraft contribute to the
enforcement of a NATO the no-fly zone in airspace over
Bosnia-Herzegovina. 500 US soldiers continued to
be deployed in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the UN
Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). NATO air strikes are used against Bosnian
Serb Army (BSA) forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina that were threatening the
U.N.-declared safe areas of Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Gorazde - "some 300 sorties
were flown against 23 targets in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde and
Mostar.""1,500 US military personnel" are deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Croatia as part of a NATO "enabling
force" to lay the groundwork for the prompt and safe deployment of the
NATO led Implementation Force
(IFOR)."3,000 other US military personnel are deployed to Hungary, Italy, and
Croatia to establish
infrastructure for the enabling force and IFOR.
On December 21,
1995, William Jefferson Clinton
reports to Congress that he had ordered the deployment of approximately 20,000
US military personnel to participate in the NATO led Implementation Force
(IFOR) in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and approximately 5,000 US
military personnel would be deployed in other former Yugoslav states, primarily
in Croatia. In addition, about 7,000 US support forces would be deployed to
Hungary, Italy and Croatia and other regional states in support of IFOR's
A "phased reduction" in the number
of United States personnel assigned to the United Nations Mission in Haiti
(UNMIH) leaves 309 US personnel "equipped for combat."
US military forces are deployed if the need to
evacuate "private US citizens and certain third-country nationals who had taken
refuge in the US Embassy compound...." should occur.
Central African Republic
US military personnel are
deployed to Bangui, Central African Republic, to conduct the evacuation from
that country of "private US citizens and certain US Government employees," and
to provide "enhanced security for the American Embassy in Bangui."
US forces totaling about 17,000
occupy Bosnia "under NATO operational command and control" as part of the NATO
Implementation Force (IFOR). In addition, about 5,500 US military personnel
were deployed in Hungary, Italy and Croatia, and other regional states to
provide "logistical and other support to IFOR." 500 US soldiers remain in the
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the United Nations Preventive
Deployment Force (UNPREDEP). US participation in an IFOR follow-on force in
Bosnia, known as SFOR (Stabilization Force), under
NATO command requires "about 8,500"
US military forces
to evacuate certain US Government employees and private US citizens from
Tirana, Albania, and enhance security for the
US Embassy in that city.
US military personnel had been deployed to
provide enhanced security for American private
citizens, government employees,
and selected third country nationals in Zaire, and to be available for any
necessary evacuation operation.
US military personnel were deployed to Freetown, Sierra Leone,
to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain US government employees
and private US citizens.
military personnel involved in SFOR are in Bosnia, near Tuzla, and about 2,800
US troops were deployed in Hungary, Croatia, Italy, and other regional states
to provide logistics and other support to SFOR. A US Army continent of about
500 also remained in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as part of the
U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
Samuel Richard "Sandy" Berger* is
National Security Advisor, under William
Jefferson Clinton from 1997 to 2001.
Samuel Richard Berger
formulated the foreign policy of the
regarding the Khobar Towers bombing, Operation Desert Fox, the NATO bombing
campaign against Yugoslavia, responses to the terrorist bombings of American
embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and the administration's policy of engagement
with the People's Republic of China.
During a period of domestic conflict about 550
US military personnel are stationed at Utapao Air Base in Thailand. These
personnel were to be available for possible emergency evacuation operations in
Cambodia as deemed necessary.
An army mutiny in
Guinea-Bissau endangers the US Embassy, US government employees and citizens in
that country. US military personnel are deployed to Dakar, Senegal, to remove
such individuals, as well as selected third country nationals, from the city of
Bissau. The deployment continued until the necessary evacuations were
Joint Task Force of US military personnel is
deployed to Nairobi, to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related
to the bombings of the US Embassies
in Kenya and Tanzania. Teams of 50-100 security personnel had arrived in
Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to enhance the security of the US
Embassies and citizens there.
Marines and 10 Navy SEALS are deployed to the US Embassy compound in Tirana,
Albania, to enhance security against reported threats against US personnel.
Afghanistan and Sudan
Airstrikes are made
against camps and installations in Afghanistan and
Sudan used by
Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden.
responsiblity for the bombings, on August 7, 1998, of the US Embassies in Kenya
Due to political
instability and civil disorder in Liberia 30 additional US military personnel ,
are deployed as a stand-by response and evacuation force of to augment the
security force at the US Embassy in Monrovia.
US and UK conduct a bombing campaign termed
Operation Desert Fox, against Iraqi industrial facilities and against other
Iraqi military and security targets including a dry milk factory. Coalition
forces enforce the "no-fly" zones over Iraq, conduct military operations
against the Iraqi air defense systems on numerous occasions in
response to potential
May 11, 1998
India detonates a nuclear
Pakistan detonates a nuclear
US military personnel participate are in the
NATO led Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia.
SFOR includes around
6,900 people, with about 2,300 US military personnel deployed to Hungary,
Croatia, Italy and other regional states. Also some 350 US military personnel
remain deployed in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) as part of
the U.N. Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).
2,200 personnel remain
in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to support the international
security presence in Kosovo (KFOR).
US military personnel provide security for the US embassy
and American citizens in Nairobi, pending completion of renovations of the
American embassy facility in Nairobi, subject of a terrorist bombing in August
US military forces in
coalition with NATO allies commence air strikes against Yugoslavia in response
to the claims of a Yugoslav government campaign of violence and repression
against the ethnic Albanian population in Kosovo. Billy directs the deployment
of about "7,000 US military personnel as the US contribution to the
approximately 50,000-member, NATO led security force (KFOR)" currently being
assembled in Kosovo, including several thousand additional US Armed Forces
personnel to Albania in support of the deep strike force located
Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign in
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tenets of the Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out
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c☸rp☸rate media w☸rldwide, the global indus✈rial
mili✈ary en✈er✈ainmen✈ complex and is responsible for
the collapse of morals, the eg● w●rship and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
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American social mores and values have declined precipitously
over the last century as the internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel
has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive
the populace in general through c✡rp✡rate media by press☟ng
em☠ti☠nal butt☠ns which have been πreπrogrammed
into the πoπulation through prior c✡rp✡rate media
psych☣l☣gical ☣perati☣ns. The results have been the
destruction of the fami♙y and the destruction of s☠cial structures
that do not adhere to the corrupt internati☭nal elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distra¢tion and ¢oer¢ion the direction of
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