stacks



Arch of Aristotelain Logic

"Sentences are logical images of reality."

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein


Chinese charater for logic

"It has been known for some years that we cannot speak sense about man in the old language. Although Wittgenstein proved this point, he did not show
us the way out
. The way out is simple. We must form a new vocabulary."

Alfred Korzybski



Deductive logical reasoning is a basic form of valid logical reasoning.

Deductive logical reasoning, deduction, starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.

In deductive inference, we go from the general to the specific.

Inductive logical reasoning is the opposite of deductive logical reasoning.

Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations.

In inductive inference, we go from the specific to the general.

Inductive or deductive inference; observation until a pattern is discerned.

Now we infer a generalization as an explanation, hypothesis or theory.

Inference in logic is:

- a proposition reached by a process of inference from an assumption.

- the process of deriving logical consequences of that assumption.

- the process of deducing the fallacies of making such an assumption.



Brains works by pattern matching not logic.

( i knew i was in trouble when i was told repeatedly i was too logical ! )

Due to the truth of the preceding statement it is imperative that pattern matches be based on a logic accurate assessment of reality including an accurate unbiased understanding of the world outside of personal experience.

Subscription to a belief system disallows thinking in a rational logic manner.

Anyone who tries to convince you a belief system will save you is a snake.

Honest rational logical thought requires the sacrifice of SACRED COWS !!!





The Law of Non-Contradiction states that no statement
(proposition, assertion, etc.) can be both true and not true (false).

The Law of Excluded Middle is generally given as "A is B or A is not B;"
object (A) either has or lacks a given property (B).

An alternate formulation of this (with propositions instead of objects) is "p or not p" - but not both.

"There is nothing between asserting and denying." - Aristotle

The Law of Identity states that A equals A or "if any statement is true, then this statement is true."

The Law of Rational Inference monitors inferences between premises and conclusions.

If A equals B, and B equals C, then A equals C.

"The law of rational inference teaches if premise A and B are valid, then, by what Martin Luther called resistless logic, conclusion C follows." - Matthew




Logic is defined herein as:

A system of valid reasoning.

The branch of philosophy that analyzes inference.

The principles that guide reasoning within a given field or situation.

The nonarithmetic operations performed by a computer, such as sorting, comparing, and matching, that involve yes-no decisions.

A branch of philosophy that deals with the formal principles, methods and criteria of validity of inference, reasoning and knowledge.

Logic, concerned with the study of the principles of reasoning, examines the structure of a statement as distinguished from the content of a statement.

Logic attempts exact reasoning through formal thought systems.

Symbolic logic, a meta-language concerned with truth, represents logical expressions through the use of symbols and variables.

Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying propositions, statements or sentences to form more complex propositions, statements or sentences, as well as logical relationships and properties derived from joining.

Boolian logic deals with the basic operations of truth values: AND, OR, NOT and combinations thereof resulting in either a true or false answer.

Boolean logic is important for computer science because it fits nicely with the binary numbering system, in which each bit has a value of either 1 or 0.




Predicate logic contains the elements of propositional logic, propositional variables and constants, but adds predicates and quantifiers.

Symbols, typically used in place of nouns and pro-nouns, are combined into sentences by means of predicates.

The rules of natural deduction describe how we may proceed from valid premises to valid conclusions, where the premises and conclusions are expressions in predicate logic.

The syntax determines which collections of symbols are legal expressions while the semantics determine the meanings behind these expressions.

Predicate logic, first-order logic, is completely formal so that it can be mechanically determined whether a given expression is true or legal.



modal logic


Modal logic is a type of formal logic primarily developed in the 1960s that extends classical propositional and predicate logic to include operators expressing modality.

A modal is a word that expresses a modality which qualifies a statement.





This text will only be understood only by someone who can follow a thread.

This text deals with philosophy: the logic of language is misunderstood.

This text might be summed up in the following two sentences:

What can be said at all can be said clearly.

What we cannot talk about we must pass over in silence.

The aim of this text is to reveal limits to the expression of thought.


(Although what can be said may be stated clearly and succinctly
many times it is NOT in the interest of the speaker or writer to do so.

In the case of propaganda and deception - imperative.

To discern propaganda one must follow the logical thought thread of the proposition being presented.

This edited version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus is an attempt to show one logical thought thread in the Labyrinth of the Akashic Records.

All numbering and thoughts by Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Some dead ends of the logical thought thread of the Labyrinth of Ludwig, also known as rabbit holes, have been omitted for the sake of clearity and brevity.)



1

Reality is all that exists.

1.13

Substance that actually exists in logical space constitutes reality.

1.2 Reality is something that actually exists.


2

In logic nothing is accidental.

2.01

We are quite unable to imagine spatial objects outside space or temporal objects outside time.

2.03

In relationships objects are causually linked to one another like the links of a chain.

2.04

In relationships objects stand in a determinate relation to one another.

2.05

The totality of existing relationships of objects comprises reality.

2.12

An image is a model of reality - a snapshot of reality.

2.18


What any image, of whatever form, must have in common with reality, in order to be able to depict reality – correctly or incorrectly – in any way at all, is logical form, i.e. the form of reality.

2.19

Logical images can depict reality.



3

A thought is a logical image.

3.01

The totality of logical thought is an image of reality.

3.05


A priori knowledge that a thought is logical is possible only if truth is recognizable.

3.1

In a statement a thought finds an expression that can be perceived by the senses.

3.2

Archetypical truths can be explained by means of elucidations.

3.21

Elucidations are statements that stand on the true knowledge of archetypical truths.

3.3

An archetypical truth is what can be perceived of a conceptual symbol without new knowledge.

3.31

In order to recognize a symbol by its archetypical truth we must observe how it is used.

3.32

Once we know what each individual archetypical truth signifies the rules of logical syntax follow.

3.4

In geometry and logic alike a place in space is a possibility: something can exist in it.

3.41

A statement can determine only one place in logical space.

3.5

A propositional symbol, applied and thought out, is a thought.




4
A thought is a statement.

4.001
The totality of statements is language.


4.021














Man possesses the ability to construct languages capable of expressing materially related thoughts, without having any idea how each word has meaning or what its meaning is.

Everyday language is a part of the human organism and is no less complicated.

It is not humanly possible to grasp immediately the logic of a language.

Language disguises thought.

Outward form of language does not infer the form of the thought beneath
as its outward form is not designed to reveal the form of the thought.


4.003


Philosophers arise during a cultural wide logic failure.


4.01







A statement is an image of reality - a model of reality as we imagine it.

A gramophone record, the musical idea, the written notes, and the sound-waves, all stand in the same internal relation of depicting knowledge that holds between language and culture.

They are all constructed according to a common logical pattern.


4.02


















We understand the sense of a statement without it having been explained in detail through a commonly held logic of depiction.

A statement, an image of reality, restricts reality to two alternatives: true or false.

In order to do that, it must chronicle reality completely.

A statement constructs a reality with the help of a logical scaffolding, so that one can actually see from the statement how everything stands logically if the statement is true.

To recognize the truth of a true statement is to logically understand reality.

When translating one language into another, translators do not proceed by translating each statement of the one into a statement of the other, but merely by translating the constituents of statements. Therefore all translations will be corrupt.

The meanings of simple symbols (words) must be explained to us or defined for us if we are to fully understand them.


4.03






A statement must use common expressions to communicate situation.

Only in so far as a statement is logically articulated that it is an image of a situation.

A statement can be true or false only if it attempts to be an image of reality.


4.1

Statements represent the actuality of states of affairs.

4.11

Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts.

4.112




















Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity.

A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations.

Philosophy is the clarification of actual statements.

Without philosophy thoughts are cloudy and indistinct:

Sophia's task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries.

Philosophy defines the limits to the sphere of natural science.

Philosophy defines the limits to what can be thought and what cannot be thought.

Philosophy will verify what cannot be said, by presenting clearly what can be said.

Everything that can be thought at all can be thought clearly.

Everything that can be put into words can be put clearly into words.


4.12




Statements can represent reality, but they cannot represent the logical form of reality.

In order to be able to represent the logical form of reality with statements, we have to be able to station ourselves as observers somewhere outside logic, outside reality.


4.121







Statements do not represent the logical form of reality.

The logical form of reality is mirrored in statements.

Statements reveal the logical form of reality.


4.21







Elementary statement, asserts the existence of a state of affairs.

If a statement is elementary there can be no elementary statement contradicting it.

An elementary statement consists of names. It is a nexus, a concatenation, of names.

It is only in the nexus of an elementary statement that a name occurs in a statement.

If an elementary statement is true, the state of affairs exists.

If an elementary statement is false, the state of affairs does not exist.


4.46 Among the possible groups of truth-conditions of elementary statements there are two extreme cases.

If the statement is true for all the possibilities then truth-conditions are tautological.

If the statement is false for all the possibilities then truth-conditions are contradictory.

In the first case we call the statement a tautology; in the second, a contradiction.


4.461 Statements show what they say; tautologies and contradictions show that they say nothing.

A tautology is unconditionally true and a contradiction is true on no condition.

Tautologies and contradictions are part of the symbolism of language, much as '0' is part of the symbolism of arithmetic.

Tautologies and contradictions are not images of reality.

The former admit all possible situations, and latter none.

A tautology does not stand in any representational relation to reality

A tautology leaves open to reality the whole of logical space.

A contradiction fills the whole of logical space leaving no point in logical space for reality.

Tautologies and contradictions are thus unable to determine reality in any way.


4.464 A tautology's truth is certain, a statement's possible, a contradiction's impossible.

Certain, possible, impossible:

the first indication of a scale to be used in the theory of probability.


4.465 The logical product of a tautology and a statement says the same thing as the statement.

This product, therefore, is identical with the statement.

It is impossible to alter what is essential to a symbol without altering its essence.


4.5 What is essential in the most general propositional form must be included in its description.

The existence of a general propositional form is proven by the fact that there cannot be a statement whose form could not have been foreseen.

The general form of a statement is: This is how things stand.


4.51


If I possess a basic truthful understanding of all elementary statements then I can construct a definition of the limits of the language pattern's ability to define reality accurately.



5


A statement is a truth-function of elementary statements.
(An elementary statement is a truth-function of itself.)


5.01

Elementary statements are the truth-arguments of statements.

5.1

Truth-functions arranged in series is the foundation of the theory of probability.

5.123


If God forged a reality in which certain elementary statements were true, then by that very act God would have also forged a reality in which all the statements that follow from those elementary statements are true.

5.124

A statement affirms every statement that follows from it.

5.13

The truth of one statement following from the truth of others can be seen in the structure of the statement.

5.143







Contradiction is that common factor of statements which no statement has in common with another.

Tautology is the common factor of all statements that have nothing in common with one another.

Contradiction, one might say, vanishes outside all statements: tautology vanishes inside them.

Contradiction is the outer limit of statements: tautology is the unsubstantial point at their center.


5.153




In itself, a statement is neither probable nor improbable.

Either an event occurs or it does not: there is no middle way.


5.155


The minimal unit for a probability statement is this: The circumstances – of which I have no further knowledge – give such and such a degree of probability to the occurrence of a particular event.

5.156






It is in this way that probability is a generalization.

We use probability only in default of certainty – if our knowledge is incomplete.

A probability statement is derived from other statements.


5.45




If in primitive logical archetypical truths, any logic pattern fails to show clearly how those logical archetypical truths are placed relatively to one another to justify their existence will be seen as incorrect.


5.451


If logic has primitive logical archetypical truths, they must be independent of one another.

5.472

The most general propositional form is the description of the primitive archetypical truth in logic.


5.473




Logic must look after itself. If a archetypical truth is possible , then it is also capable of signifying.

Occam's Razor is justified by its success in practice as all-embracing logic mirrors reality.

It is self-evident that identity is not a relation between objects.

Contradictions arise when constituent elementary statements have been improperly conceptualized.


5.555






Clearly we have some concept of elementary statements apart from their logical forms.

We create symbols, the system is what is important for logic and not individual symbols.

We need to understand what makes it possible for us to create those symbols.


5.6

The limits of my language set the limits of my reality.

5.61


Logic pervades reality: the limits of reality are also the limits of logic.

We cannot think what we cannot think; so what we cannot think we cannot say either.


5.62

Reality is my world: this is manifest in that the limits of language are the limits of my world.



6.1

The statements of logic must be tautologies.

6.112

Statements of logic must be assigned a unique status among all statements.

Logical statements must be recognized as true immedialtely through the statement alone.

The truth or falsity of non-logical statements cannot be recognized from the statements alone.


6.12



It is clear that one could achieve the same purpose by using contradictions instead of tautologies.

The statements of logic describe the scaffolding of reality, or rather they represent it.


6.124



If we know the logical syntax of a language, then we have all the statements of logic.

Thus there can be no surprises in logic.

In logic process and result are equivalent. (Hence the absence of surprise.)

Proof in logic is merely to recognize tautologies in complicated cases.


6.13







Logic is not a body of doctrine, but a mirror-image of reality.

Logic is transcendental.

Mathematics is a logical method.


6.2










The statements of mathematics are equations, and therefore pseudo-statements.

We make use of mathematical statements as inferences or models of reality.

('What do we actually use this word or this statement for?' leads to valuable insights.)

The logic of reality, tautologies in statements of logic, appears in mathematical equations.

Mathematics arrives at equations through the method of symbol substitution.


6.3


The exploration of logic means the exploration of everything that is subject to law.

Outside logic, or law, everything is accidental.


6.31


The mathematical law of induction cannot possibly be a law of logic, since it is obviously a statement with sense. - Nor, therefore, can it be an a priori law.

6.32







The law of causality is not a law but the form of a law.

{"All actions are caused by entities. The nature of an action is caused and determined by the nature of the entities that act; a thing cannot act in contradiction to its nature."- Ayn Rand

"If one thing the same in nature at different times, or two things the same in nature, are to act in situations the same in their nature, they must act on both occasions in the same way."- HW B. Joseph}

6.33


We do not have an a priori understanding of the law of conservation, but rather a priori knowledge of the possibility of its logical form.

6.34


All such statements, including the principle of sufficient reason, the laws of continuity in nature and of least effort in nature - are a priori insights about the forms of the statements of science.

6.341

Newtonian mechanics, for example, imposes a unified form on the description of reality.

6.342


Describing reality by means of Newtonian mechanics tells us nothing about reality: what it does tell us about reality is the precise way it is possible to describe reality by these means.

6.36




A law of causality might be termed in the following way:

There are Laws of Nature.


6.362












The procedure of induction consists in accepting as true the simplest law that can be reconciled with our experiences. Occam's Razor suggests this.

Using Occam's Razor rentlessly has no logical justification, only a psychological one.

It is clear that there are no grounds for believing that the simplest eventuality will in fact be realized as a belief does not declare actuality.

We will see the sun will rise tomorrow? We do not know whether we will see it rise.

Will we be standing there alive to witness the sun emerging over the horizon?


6.375

If only logical necessity exists, then the only impossibility that exists is logical impossibility.

6.3751


For example, the simultaneous presence of two colors at the same place in the visual field is impossible, in fact logically impossible, since it is ruled out by the logical structure of color.

6.4

An understanding of reality must lie outside reality.

6.41

In reality everything is as it is, and everything happens as it does happen.

6.43

The reality of the happy man is a different one from the reality of the unhappy man.

Death is not an event in life: we do not live to experience death.

If we take eternity to mean timelessness, then eternal life belongs to those who live in the present.


6.44

It is not how things are in reality that is mystical, but that reality actually exists.

6.5

When the answer cannot be put into words, neither can the question be put into words.

6.51






Skepticism is not irrefutable, but obviously nonsensical, when it tries to raise doubts where no questions can be asked. For doubt can exist only where a question exists, a question only where an answer exists, and an answer only where something can be said.

Trendy Skepticism : The Badge of The Emotionally Unfit & Intellectually Bankrupt


6.52


Even when all possible scientific questions have been answered, the problems of life remain completely untouched. Of course there are then no questions left, and this itself is the answer.

6.521

The solution of the problem of life is seen in the vanishing of the problem.

6.522


Is not this the reason why those who have found after a long period of doubt that the sense of life became clear to them have then been unable to say what constituted that sense?

6.523




There are, indeed, things that cannot be put into words.

They make themselves manifest. They are what is mystical.


7

What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence.



Spock for President

The Logical Song



Weltanschauung is the concept that all ideologies or belief systems - variations on rational logical systems of thought - are limited and defined by the schemata of common linguistic understanding - they are conditional truths.

"There is no such thing as absolute truth in logic and mathmatics.

The best that one can do is talk of the truth of statements given a set of rules of reasoning.

It is quite possible to have statements that are true in one logical system but false in another." - John D. Barrow

"Mathematics is inadequate to describe the universe, since mathematics is an abstraction from natural phenomena." - Ludovico delle Colombe


thou shall not commit logical fallacies !


logical fallacies

an illustrated book of bad arguments

thou shall not commit logical fallacies






unique library index

This web site is not a commercial web site and is presented for educational purposes only.





This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

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