God first planted a garden.

Indeed it is the purest of human pleasures.

It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man.

Frances Bacon

cannabinoid receptors

Endocannabinoid System

Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System

Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System

Cannabinoids in medicine

Cannabidiol - CBD - Molecule

Guarding against fear, anxiety and stress

The Endocannabinoid System, Aggression, and the Violence of Synthetic Cannabinoid Use, Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Other Psychiatric Disorders

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered:
Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes

Visualization of the endocannabinoid signaling system

Stayin' Alive

"Up until the late 1980s, Cannabis research remained a rather esoteric feld involving a small number of scientists in the United States and abroad.

Their efforts were circumscribed by the politicized agenda of the National Institute of Drug Abuse, which subsidized studies designed to prove the deleterious effects of cannabis while blocking inquiry into its potential benefts.

Rather than discrediting cannabis, NIDA inadvertently facilitated a series of major discoveries about the workings of the human brain.

This breakthrough, the most exciting development in brain chemistry, spawned a revolution in medical science and a profound understanding of health and healing." - Martin A. Lee, The Discovery of the Endocannabinoid System

                      Drug Enforcement Administration 

  In The Matter Of                     ) 
                                       )              Docket No. 86-22 

                       Administrative LAW JUDGE. 

FRANCIS L. YOUNG, Administrative Law Judge 

DATED: SEP 6  1988 

FRANCIS L. YOUNG, Administrative Law Judge


Part VIII.


     With respect to whether or not there is "a lack of accepted safety 
for use of [marijuana] under medical supervision", the record shows the 
following facts to be uncontroverted.

Findings of Fact

Point 3. The most obvious concern when dealing with drug safety is the possibility of lethal effects. Can the drug cause death?

4. Nearly all medicines have toxic, potentially lethal effects. But marijuana is not such a substance. There is no record in the extensive medical literature describing a proven, documented cannabis-induced fatality.

5. This is a remarkable statement. First, the record on marijuana encompasses 5,000 years of human experience. Second, marijuana is now used daily by enormous numbers of people throughout the world. Estimates suggest that from twenty million to fifty million Americans routinely, albeit illegally, smoke marijuana without the benefit of direct medical supervision. Yet, despite this long history of use and the extraordinarily high numbers of social smokers, there are simply no credible medical reports to suggest that consuming marijuana has caused a single death.

6. By contrast aspirin, a commonly used, over-the-counter medicine, causes hundreds of deaths each year.

7. Drugs used in medicine are routinely given what is called an LD-50. The LD-50 rating indicates at what dosage fifty percent of test animals receiving a drug will die as a result of drug induced toxicity. A number of researchers have attempted to determine marijuana's LD-50 rating in test animals, without success. Simply stated, researchers have been unable to give animals enough marijuana to induce death.

8. At present it is estimated that marijuana's LD-50 is around 1:20,000 or 1:40,000. In layman terms this means that in order to induce death a marijuana smoker would have to consume 20,000 to 40,000 times as much marijuana as is contained in onemarijuana cigarette. NIDA-supplied marijuana cigarettes weigh approximately .9 grams. A smoker would theoretically have to consume nearly 1,500 pounds of marijuana within about fifteen minutes to induce a lethal response.

9. In practical terms, marijuana cannot induce a lethal response as a result of drug-related toxicity.

10. Another common medical way to determine drug safety is called the therapeutic ratio. This ratio defines the difference between a therapeutically effective dose and a dose which is capable of inducing adverse effects.

11. A commonly used over-the-counter product like aspirin has a therapeutic ratio of around 1:20. Two aspirins are the recommended dose for adult patients. Twenty times this dose, forty aspirins, may cause a lethal reaction in some patients, and will almost certainly cause gross injury to the digestive system, including extensive internal bleeding.

12. The therapeutic ratio for prescribed drugs is commonly around 1:10 or lower. Valium, a commonly used prescriptive drug, may cause very serious biological damage if patients use ten times the recommended (therapeutic) dose.

13. There are, of course, prescriptive drugs which have much lower therapeutic ratios. Many of the drugs used to treat patients with cancer, glaucoma and multiple sclerosis are highly toxic. The therapeutic ratio of some of the drugs used in antineoplastic therapies, for example, are regarded as extremely toxic poisons with therapeutic ratios that may fall below 1:1.5. These drugs also have very low LD-50 ratios and can result in toxic, even lethal reactions, while being properly employed.

14. By contrast, marijuana's therapeutic ratio, like its LD-50, is impossible to quantify because it is so high.

15. In strict medical terms marijuana is far safer than many foods we commonly consume. For example, eating ten raw potatoes can result in a toxic response. By comparison, it is physically impossible to eat enough marijuana to induce death.

16. Marijuana, in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man. By any measure of rational analysis marijuana can be safely used within a supervised routine of medical care."

endocannabinoid system

Visualization of the endo signaling system

Endocannabinoid System

Cannabis not a gateway drug

Is Marijuana Addictive?

THC for Huntington's Disease

Cannabis Prohibition Insults Humanity

Medical Marijuana Laws Decrease Opioid Use

Marijuana Component May Help Treat Heroin Addiction

Cannabis Backed By More Studies Than FDA Approved Drugs

The Endocannabinoid System: An Osteopathic Perspective

Cannabinoids naturally develop in breast milk

Details emerge on fateful French drug trial

The Trouble with CBD Oil

cannabis prohibition

14 Years After Decriminalizing All Drugs

Legalization Is Changing the Nature of Morality

Cannabis poses a threat to oil, alcohol, tobacco, chemical and PHRMA.

Utilizing marijuana for a vast array of commercial products would create a green economic revolution which would deprive these industries of income!

Cannabis ruderalis originated in the mountainous regions northwest of the Himalayas in central Asia.

Cannabis sativa grows wild in Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor.

Cannabis sativa introduced into American agriculture grows wild in Kentucky, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas as well as other many other states.

Cannabis indica grows wild in India, southeast Asia and the Himalayas.

Records of hemp farming date back 5000 years in China.

Hemp farming helped raise the Pharaohs monuments in ancient Egypt.

When Nomadic "Aryan" tribes from central Asia and Persia overran the entire Mediterranean spreading out over the Caucasus, west into Europe and southeast into the Indian subcontinent they brought cannabis.

2005 State Department estimates American cannabis cultivation was 10,000 metric tons or 22 million pounds.

2006 The cash value of the cannabis crop is estimated at $35.8 billion which exceedes the cash value of corn, soybeans and hay.

In California 1.7 million plants are uprooted in 447 raids in 34 counties.

2007 In California 1.8 million plants are uprooted.

2008 California 1.9 million plants, 70% grown on public land uprooted.

2009 In California 4.4 million plants, mostly grown by Mexican cartels, are uprooted.

Murder Mountain

cannabis jury nullification

November 8, 2016

California voters make recreational cannabis use legal.

Cannabinoids naturally occur in every living animal on the planet above hydra and mollusks, with the exception of insects.

Are you an insect?

Cannabinoids increase brain function and awareness.

Is cannabis actually good for you ?

Why is cannabis banned in competitive sports?

foods rich in cannabinoids other than cannabis


Endocannabinoids – Beyond the Brain

Splendor in the Grass?

Cannabis Helps Heal Broken Bones

Cannabis Doesn't Cause Schizophrenia

Tourette's syndrome successfully treated

Assessment of Cannabinoids as Anti-Cancer Agents

Main ingredient in cannabis nonaddictive and nontoxic

World Health Organisation: Cannabis Has No Health Risks

Cannabidiol Limits T Cell–Mediated Chronic Autoimmune Myocarditis

Cannabinoids in health and disease.

Conclusion: Numerous diseases, such as anorexia, emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease), epilepsy, glaucoma, osteoporosis, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, and metabolic syndrome-related disorders, to name just a few, are being treated or have the potential to be treated by cannabinoid agonists/antagonists/cannabinoid-related compounds.

*** In view of the very low toxicity and the generally benign side effects of this group of compounds, neglecting or denying their clinical potential is unacceptable. ***

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids.

Conclusion: Properties of cannabis that might be of therapeutic use include analgesia, muscle relaxation, immunosuppression, sedation, improvement of mood, stimulation of appetite, antiemesis, lowering of intraocular pressure, bronchodilation, neuroprotection and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells.

Endocannabinoids in the immune system and cancer.

Conclusion: The experimental evidence reviewed in this article argues in favor of the therapeutic potential of these compounds in immune disorders and cancer.

unique library index

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