with mental illnesses have a social stigma attached to them.
A mentally ill member implies a hereditary, disabling condition
in the bloodline threatening a familys identity as an
The ill were hidden by their families so the
community wouldnt believe the illness was a result of immoral
behavior by the individual and/or relatives.
Thus is the leper or
demon possessed cast out and shunned by the tribe.
BC Demonic possession is treated by chipping a hole, or
trephine, into the skull of the patient by which the evil
spirits are released, henceforth healing the patient.
400 BC Hippocrates studies the pathology of the brain and
suggestes mental illness stems from imbalances in the body.
imbalances are in the four essential fluids; blood, phlegm, bile,
and black bile which produce unique personalities of individuals.
In order to restore the bodys balance, the Greeks used techniques
such as phlebotomies, bloodletting, purging, and imposing diets on the
Hippocrates advocated changing the occupation and/or
environment of the patient.
1784 Benjamin Rush
described one of the earliest pharmacological treatments for chronic
drunkenness - the use of an emetic to create a conditioned aversion to alcohol.
1836 First recorded the use of psychiatry
to suppress dissent in Russia.
Why Anti-Authoritarians are Diagnosed as Mentally Ill
1838 Samuel Woodward pushed for the
medicalization of addiction by calling for
the creation of
specialized institutions to incarcerate the inebriate.
1857 Bénédict Morel published degeneration
theory Traité des dégénérescences
Morel includes images of twelve patients that demonstrat
the physical, mental, and moral traits as evidence of degeneration.
Some of these characteristics included altered ear shape, asymmetrical
faces, extra digits, and high-domed palates with psychological
Foundation of degeneration theory: psychological
disorders are genetic.
Bénédict Morel extends the causes
of degeneracy to some legitimate agents including poisoning by
ergot, and other toxic substances in the
1850 A new
way of thinking develops in German science, which
maintains that people are
similar to complex machines.
nothing to take into account the spiritual basis of man.
thinking becomes the basis for
psychology in order to
discover the nature of
people and how to condition and
Maximilian Wundt is the primary source of these ideas.
American elite begin to go to Germany
to study his way of thinking.
Creek Sanitarium is founded on the health principles advocated by the
Seventh-Day Adventist Church.
1876 to 1943 Battle Creek is managed
by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg.
Kellogg engages in questionable medical
practices by offering hydropathy, electropathy, mechanotherapy and radium
Electrotherapy included phototherapy and thermotherapy 'light
bath' using solar and electric light, with the latter used chiefly during
utilized both hot and cold water to produce vasodilation and vasoconstriction
by using douches, sitz baths, cold mitten frictions, salt glows, towel rubs,
wet sheet rubs, wet and dry packings, compresses, "full baths of various sorts,
including Nauheim baths, electro-hydric baths, shallow and neutral
Mechanotherapy is the original term for therapeutic
Kellogg advocated low calorie diets and developed
peanut butter, granola, and toasted
Kellogg opposed all sexual activity from
1880 The German
psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin develops a statistical manual of psychiatric
diseases that becomes the foundation of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
He was tasked with creating productive humans from
the thousands of 'Kriegsneurotiker' (war neuroses, shell shocked or
The intention was not to restore sanity, but rather to get them
back to the front or the weapons factory.
The victory of the German
nation, the 'Deutsche Volk', destined to rule, was more important than
the fate of a
psychologically wounded patient.
Degeneration of the German race
had to be stopped, reason enough for Kraepelin to align with extreme right-wing
and eugenic organizations.
Beginning of a 20 year period where elite
American students of Wundt return from Germany and become heads of psychology
departments at Harvard, University of Pennsylvania, Cornell and
When the Robber Barons set up their
Foundations these men and their disciples are enlisted.
James McKeen Cattell establish the formal study of
Cattell, the eldest child of a wealthy prominent family,
is influenced by the emerging 'science' in
Cattell uses mental tests to measure
Cattell moves to Columbia University, the battery of
tests became compulsory for all freshmen.
British psychologist Charles
Samuel Myers coins the term 'shell shocked' in World War I to describe post
traumatic stress disorder.
1897 Sigmund Freud writes that "masturbation is the prime
habit and this addiction
is replaced by addiction to alcohol,
neglects to mention his addiction to
eternally chasing the cocaine
monkey, was eternally sexually frustrated
by impotence, and these demons were
projected into a form advancing the sexually
dependent theories taken up by psychiatry.
1898 J.R. Ewald, professor of physiology at Strassbourg
University in Germany begins experiments implanting electrodes
into the brain.
1901 Clark Wissler, a
student of Cattell, demonstrates that there is no statistical relationship
between scores on Cattell's tests and academic performance.
Freud pens "Introduction to Psychoanalysis".
1922 A study by Samuel Torrey Orton connects
emotional disturbance with
This insight is buried
after World War II when
and psychoanalysis became
popular with social
Emotional disturbances caused
by vaccines became financial fodder for
the new psych-industries.
With the causes suppressed, a
new industry is born.
Medical Society for Psychotherapy founded in Germany.
awards $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm
Institute, later to become the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Among the leading psychiatrists at the German
Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rüdin, who became director and
eventually an architect of Hitler's
1929 Rockefeller grant of
$317,000 allows the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research to construct a
major building and take center stage in German race biology. Ernst Rüdin
Austrian psychiatrist Menfred Sakel develops
insulin shock (insulin coma treatment, ICT).
Patients are overdosed with
insulin, which induces a coma.
The problem is:
How do you incapicitate the
1928 Discovery of brain waves and development of the
the EEG machine.
The First EEG Machine
Drs. Chaffee and Light publish a manuscript labeled "A Method for
Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System".
Ladislas J. Meduna introduced the indcution of chemically induced grand
mal epileptic seizures as a treatment for schizophrenia.
high doses of pentylenetetrazol, a circulatory and respiratory stimulant,
The mechanism of pentylenetetrazol is still not well
Many GABA-A ligands are effective anticonvulsants, such as
the sedatives diazepam and phenobarbital, but presumably pentylenetetrazol has
the opposite effect when it binds to the GABA-A receptor.
A 1987 study
found that pentylenetetrazol increases calcium influx and sodium influx, both
of which depolarize the neuron.
As these effects were antagonized by
calcium channel blockers, it was concluded that pentylenetetrazol acts at
calcium channels, and it causes calcium channels to lose selectivity and
conduct sodium ions as well.
Lobotomy is introduced
in the US.
100,000 brains are mutilated over the next 30 years in
University of Mississippi Medical Center Dr. Orlando J. Andy applies
lobotomy to six-year-old unruly children who become docile.
hospitals in Germany use ICT.
1938 Ugo Cerletti becomes the first to use
in fascist Italy.
A 39 year old engineer found wandering on a train without a ticket is
the first victim.
Present at this event is Lothar Kalinowsky, who goes
on to become a member of the American
Psychiatric Association and
an avid promoter of
the United States.
Practitioners Law (Heilpraktikergesetz) is put into practice in Germany.
This allows psychotherapists to advance claims within the field of
health and medicine during the Third Reich.
The law ends
the 'freedom to cure' that has existed in Germany since 1870.
'freedom to cure' gave personal and professional access to all aspects of
healing instead of narrowly defined allopathic
In the future, the government would
supervise all training of medical
personnel and officially approve health
Brandenburg Germany begin operation of gas chambers to kill intractable mental
patients in the same manner the death penalty was applied to in America.
Pentylenetetrazol is replaced by electroconvulsive therapy, FDA
approval is revoked in 1982.
Federation on Mental Health founded.
The World Federation of
Mental Health continues to support
mind control and other similar
It employs many who were involved in such practices in Nazi
1947 Dorothy Dieffenwierth undergoes
shock treatment at the VA hospital in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
1948 Dorothy Dieffenwierth is given a lobotomy for
A surgeon cut holes on both sides of her head and
inserted a rotating tool to sever neural fibers connecting the frontal lobe to
the rest of the brain.
The doctor then repositioned bone in the
William Sargant at St Thomas teaching hospital and
Belmont Hospital subject patients to up to three months' combined
electroconvulsive therapy, continuous narcosis, insulin coma therapy and
One man who consulted Sargant at his Harley Street private
practice for depression in the 1960s later recalled "Will" with affection and
Visiting Sargant for a brief consultation every six months, he
was given large doses of drugs and had a course of electroconvulsive therapy;
he remembered his relief at being told that his depression was caused by
chemical and hereditary factors and could not be resisted by an effort of
"Many patients unable to tolerate a long course of ECT,
can do so when anxiety is relieved by narcosis. What is so valuable is that
they generally have no memory about the actual length of the treatment or the
numbers of ECT used. After 3 or 4 treatments they may ask for ECT to be
discontinued because of an increasing dread of further treatments. Combining
sleep with ECT avoids this." - William Sargant
1950 A social worker reports to Dorothy Dieffenwierths
father that she has continued to improve.
We are very
happy that she is able to begin writing letters at this stage of her adjustment
period, the social worker wrote.
She has cooperated with
ward personnel, has been obedient, easily directed.
Five women in
Stockton State Hospital recieve clitoridectomies for unladylike
1951 Tuscaloosa VA social workers send
Dorothy home with a pamplet written for lobotomized veterans' relatives warning
the patient would be returning home more child than adult.
1953 Roman Tritz is lobotomized by the VA in Tomah,
Harold Blauer, a tennis professional, dies five hours after a
doctor carrying out research for the DoD at the New York State Psychiatric
Institute injects him with a hallucinogenic
1957 Examination of the 1957
directory of the American Psychiatric
Association shows that an enormous percentage of individuals listed are
foreign-born, mostly German Ashkenazi.
Allan H. Frey publishes an article in Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol
17 July 1962 labeled "Human Auditory System Response to Modulated
Frey discusses that even deaf people can
pick up transmitted RF sound patterns and speech, as the brain is a receiver.
In one experiment, Frey uses
pulsed microwaves to stop the heart
of a frog.
Frey discovers microwaves passing through the
hypothalamus have powerful effects on
This brain region motivates us to violently
1965 Advance Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) sets up a laboratory at Walter Reed Army Institute
of Research in Washington DC to further study
This research reveals
system effects of microwaves.
Americans discover Soviet microwave bombardment of the American Embassy
Department keeps the discovery a secret and begins a program studying the
embassy employees for effects, which included
lymphoma and bleeding from the eyes.
1968 "Dr. Gottlieb continued to preside over his
empire of scientists who still prowled the backwaters of the world seeking new
roots and leaves which could be crushed and mixed in the search for lethal ways
In their behavior laboratories, the psychiatrists and
psychologists continued experimenting. Once more they had turned to an earlier
line of research: implanting electrodes in the brain.
In a closed off
compound at Bien Hoa Hospital, the Agency team set to work.
Vietcong prisoners had beel selected by the local station.
How or why
they were chosen would remain uncertain.
In turn each man was
anaesthetized and, after he had hinged back a flap in their skulls, the
neurosurgeon implanted tiny electrodes in each brain.
prisoners regained consciousness they were placed in a room and given knives.
Pressing the control buttons on their handsets, the behaviorists tried
to rouse their subjects to violence.
whole week the doctors tried to make the men attack each other.
at their lack of success, the team flew back to Washington.
previously arranged in case of failure, while the physicians were still in the
air the prisoners were shot by Green Beret troopers and
their bodies burned." - Stephen
Kinzer, Poisoner in Chief
Second International Conference on Psychosurgery draws 100
participants and 41 papers from around the world.
Honorary president of
the Conference is Dr. Walter Freeman, left
hand man of Ewen Cameron, performs no
less than 4,000 frontal lobotomies, often on people suffering only mild
Freeman goes on to become a respected San Francisco "brain
1972 British Journal of
Psychiatry #120 reveals that "psychotic disorders may be caused by viral
FDA categorizes electroshock "therapy" (ECT) machines as Class III
"demonstrates an unreasonable risk of injury or illness".
American Psychiatric Association has the decision reversed.
FDA recategorizes ECT machines as Class II "safe and effective".
FDA receives hundreds of letters from outraged ECT survivors testifying to the
damage done to them by the ECT machines.
Electroshock survivor: Shock therapy put me in a
Patient Satisfaction After ECT is Simply Junk Science
FDA Looks to Expand Electroshock Use Despite Significant
1985 Study by the
World Congress of Biological Psychiatry finds that in a study of 321
violent individuals, most of them white and middle class, 95% of them showed
evidence of brain dysfunction and
Consensus Conference on Electroconvulsive
Therapy is held by the National Institutes of
Mental Health (NIMH) and
National Institutes of
At the conference, psychologist and attorney
Edward Opton presents evidence that ECT patients show little or no improvement
None of the assembled ECT doctors
contradictory evidence, so his conclusions are published in the October 18,
comments, however, are excluded from the Proceedings of the Conference
published by NIMH.
His comments are also omitted from the APA task
1988 Medical Tribune
publishes article "Brain Autoantibodies in 33% of Schizophrenics" which
indicates that 33% of schizophrenia
cases appear to be autoimmune in
1990 APA claims ECT is "virtually
harmless" classifing the machines as safe (Class II) for depression, but not
for other disorders.
ECT may be used
as long as the patient is "diagnosed as depressed".
1998 "Dear Rodrigo
Munoz, President APA,
After nearly three decades as a member it is with
a mixture of pleasure and
disappointment that I
submit this letter of resignation to the APA.
The major reason for this
action is my belief that
I am actually
resigning from the American Psychopharmacological Association.
Our guild organization provides a rationale, by its
tunnel vision, for keeping our distance from
the molecule amalgamations we have come to
define as patients.
We condone and promote
the widespread overuse and misuse of toxic chemicals that we know have serious
long term effects: tardive dyskinesia, tardive
dementia and serious withdrawal syndromes.
Sincerely, Loren R. Mosher M. D.
December 4 1998
BrainsWay receives first ever FDA clearance for deep
transcranial magnetic stimulation
BrainsWay Announces Shipment of 100th Deep Transcranial Magnetic
Stimulation Helmet for the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive
Studies in Cognition: The Problems Solved and Created by
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Most neuroimaging methods
"correlate," with varying degrees of spatial and temporal accuracy, a network
of brain areas to a cognitive task.
However, the relationship between a
behavioral impairment and the site of damage is at best uncertain.
Behavioral changes following an insult reflect the capacity of the rest
of the brain to compensate.
Hence, no simple relationship can be
implied between a brain area and an aspect of behavior.
the inherent plasticity of the brain causes behavioral impairments to evolve
In exchange for a single problem, we now have many
distinct problems each requiring a solution.
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author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
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American social mores and values
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