Endocannabinoid signaling: therapeutics for alcoholism

Characterization of fecal microbial communities in patients with liver cirrhosis

"A man may take to drink as he feels himself a failure,

and then fail all the more completely because he drinks."

George Orwell


Pass That Bottle

The Bottle Let Me Down

"I gave up my room on 34th St. because I had too many young callers who were unwelcome. For this reason please don't tell them where I am." - Horatio Alger Jr.

Wasted Days And Wasted Nights

How Alcohol Changes Your Brain

Alcohol Industry Bankrolls Fight Against Cannabis

Signs of chronic fatigue found in gut bacteria

How gut bacteria thrive on beer and bread

"From the time kids are old enough to turn on the television, public airwaves encourage teens watching television to drink alcohol." - Gary Cifra

"When corporate media forces job candidates to submit to drug tests, it is a conspirator in a culture war that should have ended with the Vietnam War.

Drug tests are essentially lifestyle tests.

Despite a short lived high, cannabis is the ONLY substance that stays in the human body long enough to make urinalysis a deterrent.

Petrochemicals are water soluble and exit the body quickly.

If you think drug users do not know this, think again.

Anyone capable of running a search on the Internet can find out how to thwart a drug test.

The most commonly abused drug, and the one most closely associated with violence, is almost impossible to detect with urinalysis.

Alcohol takes far more lives each year than all illegal drugs combined.

Hangovers do not contribute to workplace safety, and counterproductive drug tests do absolutely nothing to discourage the #1 drug problem - alcohol." - Robert Sharpe

1784 Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body catalogues the consequence of chronic drunkenness.

Benjamin Rush argues this condition is a disease physicians should be treating.

Rush’s writing marks the beginning of the American Temperance Movement.

Benjamin Rush describes one of the earliest pharmacological treatments for chronic drunkenness - the use of an emetic to create a conditioned aversion to alcohol.

1826 Lyman Beecher publishes six sermons on intemperance.

"No sin has fewer apologies than intemperance." - Lyman Beecher

Lyman Beecher, father of 13 children, wore out Roxana, Harriet and Lydia.

1857 Home for the Fallen is opened in Boston – marking the foundation of the 19th century inebriate home.

1864 New York State Inebriate Asylum begins admitting patients.

1879 Keeley Institute, known for its Keeley Cure or Gold Cure, is a commercial medical operation that offered treatment to alcoholics.

1898 Prince Edward Island bans the importation of alcohol.

1906 "Denaturing" process is required for manufacturers that want to avoid taxes levied on potable spirits.

1914 War Measures Act limits the freedom of Canadians.

1915 Saskatchewan bans the importation of alcohol.

1916 Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario ban the importation of alcohol.

1917 British Columbia and New Brunswick ban the importation of alcohol.

April 1, 1918 Any alcohol of more than 2.5 per cent is banned from importation into Canada.

In addition, there was no inter-provincial fair trade of alcohol.

The ban, lasting two years, was the first and last time national prohibition would be instituted in Canada.

Sam Bronfman, with his brothers Abe, Harry and Alan ('Bronfman' is liquor-man in Yiddish) have a modest hotel and prostitution chain.

Bronfmans immediately enter the pharmacy business, selling via mail order, whiskey, labeling on bottles such as "Rock-A-Bye Cough Cure" and "Dandy Bracer–Liver and Kidney Cure."

Their "health tonics" contained sugar, molasses, bluestone(?), 36 percent alcohol, and tobacco.

October 28, 1919 Congress passed the Volstead Act.

Sam and Harry opened export houses along the Saskatchewan-North Dakota border.

They reduced 65-over proof white alcohol, mixing it with water, a little real whiskey and a touch of burnt sugar.

A shot of sulfuric acid simulated the aging process.

They charged $24 per barrel - it sold for up to $140.

"Sam and his brothers cut distribution deals with a fine cast of businessmen such as Arnold Rothstein, Meyer Lansky, Charles "Lucky" Luciano, and Arthur ‘Dutch Schultz,’ Flegenheimer.

In Detroit, the "little Jewish Navy" under Morris Dalit ferried the Bronfman liquor into the US.

In Chicago, James "Big Jim" Colosimo annoyed Sam Bronfman by showing no interest in buying his liquor, preferring to focus on his already profitable businesses of drugs, prostitution, and loan-sharking.

But Big Jim passed away suddenly. His nephew, John Torrio, took over, and wisely chose to help Bronfman usher his liquor into Chicago.

Torrio’s lieutenant, a gent by the name of Al Capone, led the operations of bringing Bronfman’s liquor from Saskatchewan to Minneapolis, then to Chicago, using cars, trucks and the Soo line.

Another gent by the name of Benjamin "Bugs" Siegel – and Meyer Lansky – were in charge of protecting Bronfman liquor shipments across the border against hijackers.

To meet the growing demand, Sam bought up farmland along the border and built an underground pipeline to pump his liquor – nicknamed, "Seagram Chickencock," a mixture of pure alcohol, sulfuric acid, caramel, water and aged rye whiskey – into the USA. Between 1920 and 1930, 34,000 Americans died from alcohol poisoning." - Frank Parlato

2020 "I am troubled by evidence suggesting that Ms. Bronfman repeatedly and consistently leveraged her wealth and social status as a means of intimidating, controlling and punishing Nxivm’s enemies." - Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis, Federal District Court in Brooklyn

Nxivm (pronounced NEX-ee-um), which was headquartered near Albany, became known as a "sex cult" after trial testimony showed that Mr. Raniere had groomed a group of women in the group to be his sexual partners.

During a secret ritual, the women were branded with his initials near their pelvis while saying, "Master, please brand me, it would be an honor."

Clare Bronfman Is Sentenced to 81 Months in Nxivm ‘Sex Cult’ Case

Transformative Program for Intellectually Curious Jewish 11th-Graders

mid-1920s Treasury Department estimates 60 million gallons of industrial ethanol are being stolen annually.

"The Prohibition Era in the United States is often used as an example of how banning recreational substances not only increases their popularity but also causes a boom in criminal activity. Indeed, it was Prohibition that greatly increased the strength of the American Mafia, as the top crime lords of the day grew rich through the clandestine trade and sale of alcohol in addition to gambling and other activities." - Whitney Webb

Hidden in Plain Sight

1926 Calvin Coolidge turns to chemistry as an enforcement tool.

Some 70 denaturing formulas exist.

denature: de·na·ture [dee-ney-cher] verb (used with object), de·na·tured, de·na·tur·ing.

1. to deprive (something) of its natural character, properties, etc.

2. to render (any of various alcohols) unfit for drinking by adding an unwholesome substance that does not alter usefulness for other purposes.

3. Biochemistry - to treat (a protein or the like) by chemical or physical means so as to alter its original state.

4. to make (fissionable material) unsuitable for use in an atomic weapon by mixing it with unfissionable material.

Most simply add methyl alcohol into the mix.

Others used bitter-tasting compounds that were less lethal, designed to make the alcohol taste so awful that it became undrinkable.

To sell the stolen industrial alcohol, the liquor syndicates employed alchemists to "renature" the products, returning them to a drinkable state.

Stolen redistilled alcohol becomes the primary source of liquor.

Mr. Bojangles

Alcohol Activates Cellular Changes That Make Tumor Cells Spread

Treasury Department officials demand 10%
methanol be added to all ethanol manufactured.

Christmas Eve 1926

Streets aglitter with snow and lights a man afraid of Santa Claus stumbles into the emergency room at New York City's Bellevue Hospital. He is flushed, gasping with fear: Santa Claus, he tells the nurses, is chasing him with a baseball bat.

The toxin-induced hallucination - a paroxysm of death - tallied up more than 60 people made desperately ill from methanol poisoning - eight dead.

Within the next two days, another 23 people died.

In New York City, 1,200 are sickened by methanol; 400 die.

Doctors see methanol toxicity regularly during Prohibition.

The bootlegged whiskies and so-called gins often made people sick.

The liquor produced in hidden stills frequently came tainted with methanol.

This outbreak was bizarrely different.

The deaths came courtesy of the Treasury Department.

"The government knows it is not stopping drinking by putting poison in alcohol." - New York City medical examiner Charles Norris

Leaky Gut: Is it Becoming an Epidemic?

Liver Disease Linked to Gut Bacteria and Leaky Gut

Leaky Gut: The missing piece in many Autoimmune Diseases

1927 Deaths in New York City climb to 700.

By this time denaturing formulas included notable poisons - kerosene and brucine (a plant alkaloid closely related to strychnine), gasoline, benzene, cadmium, iodine, zinc, mercury salts, nicotine, ether, formaldehyde, chloroform, camphor, carbolic acid, quinine, and acetone.

"Normally, no government would engage in such business. It is only in the curious fanaticism of Prohibition that any means, however barbarous, are considered justified." - Chicago Tribune editorial 1927

"Must Uncle Sam guarantee safety first for souses?" - Omaha Bee

1928 "Practically all the liquor that is sold in New York today is toxic!" - Charles Norris

Charles Norris assigns his toxicologist, Alexander Gettler, to analyze confiscated whiskey for poisons and publicized every death by alcohol poisoning.

Charles Norris points out that most of those sickened and dying are those "who cannot afford expensive protection and deal in low grade stuff."

Anti-Prohibition legislation pushes for a halt in the use of lethal chemistry.

"Only one possessing the instincts of a wild beast would desire to kill or make blind the man who takes a drink of liquor, even if he purchased it from one violating the Prohibition statutes." - Sen. James Reed of Missouri

1933 End of Prohibition: Estimates of at least 10,000 people from "denaturing".

"Our national experiment in extermination." - Charles Norris, the chief medical examiner of New York City during the 1920s

Denaturing program ends only once the 18th Amendment is repealed in December 1933.

1935 Joseph P. Kennedy, the father of John F. Kennedy, has multiplied his fortune 25x from 4 million dollars to over 100 million dollars smuggling scotch whiskey during prohibition.

1970s DEA sprays cannabis fields in Mexico with Paraquat, a herbicide, primarily intended to destroy crops.

Government officials insist awareness of the toxin will deter marijuana users.

A half century later they echo the official mantra of the 1920s - if some citizens ended up poisoned, well, they'd brought it upon themselves.

Booze makes these neurons crave more booze

unique library index

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