"I gave up my room on 34th St. because I had too
many young callers who were unwelcome. For this reason please don't tell them
where I am." - Horatio Alger Jr.
"From the time
kids are old enough to
turn on the television, public airwaves encourage teens watching television
to drink alcohol." - Gary Cifra
1784 Inquiry into
the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Human Mind and Body catalogues the
consequence of chronic drunkenness.
Benjamin Rush argues this condition
is a disease physicians should treat.
This marks the beginning of the
American Temperance Movement.
Benjamin Rush describes one of the
earliest pharmacological treatments for chronic drunkenness - the use of an
emetic to create a conditioned aversion to alcohol.
1826 Lyman Beecher publishes six sermons on
"No sin has fewer apologies than intemperance." - Lyman
Lyman Beecher, father of 13 children, wore out Roxana, Harriet
1857 Home for
the Fallen is opened in Boston
marking the foundation of the 19th century inebriate home.
1864 New York State Inebriate Asylum begins admitting
1879 Keeley Institute, known for
its Keeley Cure or Gold Cure, is a commercial medical operation
that offered treatment to alcoholics.
1885 A Whiskey Trust monopolizes manufacture and sale
of distilled liquors in America.
1891 Vladimir Shukhov, a Russian engineer, invents and patents
the first thermal cracking of petroleum.
Cracking is the process whereby
complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are
broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking
of carbon-carbon bonds in the feed stock.
The rate of cracking and the end
products are strongly dependent on the temperature and presence of catalysts.
Cracking is the breakdown of a large alkane into smaller, more useful
An overall process of disproportionation can be observed, where
"light", hydrogen-rich products are formed at the expense of heavier molecules
which condense and are depleted of hydrogen.
The actual reaction is
known as homolytic fission and produces alkenes, which are the basis for the
economically important production of polymers.
1898 Prince Edward Island bans the importation of
1908 American engineers William Merriam
Burton and Robert E. Humphreys independently develop and patent a similar
William Merriam Burton's thermal cracking processes operating
at 700750 °F (370400 °C) and an absolute pressure of 90 psi
Modern high-pressure thermal cracking operates at absolute
pressures of about 7,000 kPa.
"Denaturing" process is required for
manufacturers that want to avoid taxes levied on potable spirits.
1914 War Measures Act limits the freedom of
1915 Saskatchewan bans the importation
1916 Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario
ban the importation of alcohol.
Columbia and New Brunswick ban the importation of alcohol.
April 1, 1918
Any alcohol of more than 2.5 per cent is banned from importation into Canada.
In addition, there was no inter-provincial
fair trade of
The ban, lasting two years, was the first and last time
national prohibition would be instituted in Canada.
Sam Bronfman, with
his brothers Abe, Harry and Alan ('Bronfman' is liquor-man in Yiddish) have a
modest hotel and prostitution chain.
Bronfman immediately enter the
pharmacy business, selling via mail order, whiskey, labeling on bottles such as
"Rock-A-Bye Cough Cure" and "Dandy BracerLiver and Kidney
Their "health tonics" contained sugar, molasses, bluestone(?), 36
percent alcohol, and tobacco.
October 28, 1919 Congress passed the Volstead
Sam and Harry opened export
houses along the Saskatchewan-North Dakota border.
65-over proof white alcohol, mixing it with water, a little real whiskey and a
touch of burnt sugar.
A shot of sulfuric acid
simulated the aging process.
They charged $24 per barrel - it sold
for up to $140.
"Sam and his brothers cut distribution deals with a fine
cast of businessmen such as Arnold Rothstein, Meyer Lansky, Charles "Lucky"
Luciano, and Arthur 'Dutch Schultz,' Flegenheimer.
In Detroit, the
"little Jewish Navy" under Morris Dalit ferried the Bronfman liquor into the
Chicago, James "Big Jim"
Colosimo annoyed Sam Bronfman by showing no interest in buying his liquor,
preferring to focus on his already profitable businesses of drugs,
prostitution, and loan-sharking.
But Big Jim passed away suddenly. His
nephew, John Torrio, took over, and wisely chose to help Bronfman usher his
liquor into Chicago.
Torrio's lieutenant, a gent by the name of Al Capone, led the
operations of bringing Bronfman's liquor from Saskatchewan to Minneapolis, then
to Chicago, using cars,
trucks and the Soo line.
Another gent by the name of Benjamin "Bugs"
Siegel and Meyer Lansky were in charge of protecting Bronfman
liquor shipments across the border against hijackers.
To meet the growing demand, Sam bought up farmland along the
border and built an underground pipeline to pump his liquor nicknamed,
"Seagram Chickencock," a mixture of pure alcohol,
sulfuric acid, caramel, water
and aged rye whiskey into the USA. Between 1920 and 1930, 34,000
Americans died from alcohol poisoning." - Frank Parlato
by which alcohol induces neuronal oxidative damage are not known and could
potentially include acetaldehyde-derived alkaloidal metabolite generation or
Oxidative stress and cytotoxic edema have both
been shown to be involved in such neurotoxicity, whereas N-methyl-D-aspartate
(NMDA) receptor activity has been implicated in alcohol withdrawal and
Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously shown in vitro to
prevent glutamate toxicity
through its ability to reduce oxidative stress, we evaluated CBD as a
neuroprotectant in a rat binge ethanol model.
TNFa, a potent cytokine
inducer of neutrophil infiltration and generator of oxidative species in
microglia and macrophages, has a prominent role in alcohol-induced liver
disease, but its role in alcohol-induced neurotoxicity is unknown.
has been shown to decrease TNFa release in a murine collagen-induced arthritis
model (Malfait et al., 2000), and BHT can block TNFa activation of nuclear
factor-KB (Zou and Crews, 2005), demonstrating that antioxidants can
Oxidative stress and inflammation are linked and
difficult to tease
mid-1920s Treasury Department estimates 60 million
gallons of industrial ethanol
are being stolen annually.
"The Prohibition Era in the United States is
often used as an example of how banning recreational substances not only
increases their popularity but also causes
a boom in criminal activity.
Indeed, it was Prohibition that greatly increased the strength of the
American Mafia, as the
top crime lords of the day grew rich through the clandestine trade and sale of
alcohol in addition to gambling and other activities." - Whitney Webb
riot of adulteration and chicanery ensued, with whisky being made in many
saloon cellars and the dangerous secrets of synthetic booze-making being
peddled abroad among the customers of the trust." - The Dearborn
Independent, December 17, 1921
How Jews Gained American Liquor Control
Hidden in Plain Sight
Calvin Coolidge turns to
chemistry as an enforcement tool.
Some 70 denaturing formulas exist.
denature: de·na·ture [dee-ney-cher] verb (used with
object), de·na·tured, de·na·tur·ing.
1. to deprive (something) of its natural character, properties, etc.
2. to render (any of various alcohols) unfit for drinking by adding an
unwholesome substance that does not alter usefulness for other purposes.
3. Biochemistry - to treat (a
the like) by chemical or physical means so as to alter its original state.
4. to make (fissionable material) unsuitable for use in an atomic
weapon by mixing it with unfissionable material.
Most simply add methyl
alcohol into the mix.
that were less lethal, designed to make the alcohol taste so awful that it
To sell the stolen industrial alcohol, the liquor
syndicates employed alchemists to "renature" the
products, returning them to a drinkable state.
alcohol becomes the primary source of liquor.
officials demand 10% methanol (CH4O) be added to all manufactured
Christmas Eve 1926
with snow and lights a man
afraid of Santa Claus stumbles into the
emergency room at New York City Bellevue Hospital.
flushed, gasping with fear: Santa Claus, he tells the
nurses, is chasing him with a baseball bat.
- a paroxysm of death -
tallied up more than 60 people made desperately ill from
methanol poisoning - eight
Within the next two days, another 23 people died.
York City, 1,200 are sickened by
Doctors see methanol toxicity
regularly during Prohibition.
The bootlegged whiskies and so-called
gins often made people sick.
The liquor produced in hidden stills
frequently came tainted with methanol.
This outbreak was bizarrely
The deaths came courtesy of the
government knows it is not stopping drinking by putting poison in alcohol." -
New York City medical examiner Charles Norris
1927 Deaths in New York City climb to 700.
time denaturing formulas included notable poisons -
kerosene and brucine (a plant
alkaloid closely related to strychnine),
zinc, mercury salts,
government would engage in such business. It is only in the curious fanaticism
of Prohibition that any
means, however barbarous, are considered justified." - Chicago Tribune editorial 1927
"Must Uncle Sam guarantee safety first for souses?" - Omaha
1928 "Practically all the liquor that is sold
in New York today is toxic!" - Charles Norris
Charles Norris assigns
his toxicologist, Alexander Gettler, to
whiskey for poisons and publicized every death by alcohol
Charles Norris points out that most of those sickened and
dying are those "who cannot afford expensive protection and deal in low grade
Anti-Prohibition legislation pushes for a halt in the use of
"Only one possessing the
instincts of a wild beast would desire to kill or
make blind the man who takes a drink of
liquor, even if he purchased it from one violating the Prohibition
statutes." - Sen. James Reed of Missouri
End of Prohibition: Estimates of at least 10,000 people from "denaturing".
"Our national experiment in
extermination." - Charles Norris, the chief
medical examiner of New York City during the 1920s
ends only once the 18th Amendment is repealed in December 1933.
1935 Joseph P.
Kennedy, the father of John F. Kennedy, has multiplied his fortune 25x from 4
million dollars to over 100 million dollars smuggling scotch
whiskey during prohibition.
turns a colonial mansion in Seattle into the Shadel Sanatorium.
Gastroenterologist Walter Voegtlin
and psychiatrist Fred Lemere create a medical practice that exclusively treats
chronic alcoholism through Pavlovian
conditioned reflex aversion
Aversion Treatment of Alcoholism: some
1970s DEA sprays cannabis
fields in Mexico with Paraquat, a herbicide, primarily intended to
Government officials insist awareness of the toxin will
deter marijuana users.
A half century later they echo the official mantra of the 1920s - if
some citizens end up
poisoned, well, they brought it upon themselves.
am troubled by evidence suggesting that
Ms. Bronfman repeatedly and
consistently leveraged her wealth and social status as a means of intimidating,
controlling and punishing Nxivm's enemies." - Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis,
Federal District Court in Brooklyn
Nxivm (pronounced NEX-ee-um), which
was headquartered near Albany, became known as a "sex cult" after trial
testimony showed that Mr. Raniere had groomed a group of women in the group to
be his sexual partners.
a secret ritual,
the women were branded with his initials near their pelvis while saying,
"Master, please brand me, it would be an honor."
Clare Bronfman Is Sentenced to 81 Months in Nxivm 'Sex Cult'
Program for Intellectually Curious Jewish 11th-Graders
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