"The spirit of the depths took my understanding
and all my knowledge and placed them at the service of the inexplicable and the
paradoxical." - Carl Jung
Paradox is defined
a self-contradictory and false proposition.
opinion or statement contrary to commonly accepted opinion.
contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true.
any person, thing, or
situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature.
"In all affairs it's a healthy thing now and then
to hang a question mark
on the things you have long taken for
Bertrand Arthur William
Persistent contradictory opposites create
popular hypocritical deception.
repression, oppression and lack
of possession of sufficient contrary
skepticism regarding complex analytical intricacies allows intimidation and
ingratiation of an individual by the politician through
conscious intervention designed to
con-vince the individual of the
truth or falsity of the reality presented as fact.
congruent social systems allow for a measure of problematic proportion to be
assigned to each individual of a subcultural ideology.
"They that approve a private opinion,
an opinion; but they that mislike it, heresy:
and yet heresy signifies no
more than private opinion."
- Thomas Hobbs
"When I told them to shun hypocrisy, they
all agreed with me.
But they did not know that when I said "truth",
knew that they did not know what truth was,
and that therefore both they
and I were then being hypocrites.
They did not know that when I told them
not to be hypocrites
they were being hypocrites in not asking me the
They did not know that I was being a hypocrite in merely saying
:'Do not be hypocrites',
because words do not convey the message by
They respected me, therefore, when I was acting hypocritically.
They had been taught to do this.
They respected themselves while they
were thinking hypocritically;
for it is hypocrisy to think that one is
being improved simply by thinking that it is bad to be a hypocrite,
Path leads beyond: to the Practice and the understanding where there can be
no hypocrisy, where honesty is there and not something which is man's aim." -
Saadi of Shiraz
Liar Paradox shows
us that popular belief about truth and falsity actually lead to a
Sentences can be constructed that cannot consistently
be assigned a truth value even though they are completely in accord with
grammar and semantic rules.
Consider the simplest version of the
paradox, the sentence;
This statement is false.
suppose that the statement is true, everything asserted in it must be true.
However, because the statement asserts that it is itself false, it must be false.
So the hypothesis that it is true
leads to the contradiction that it is both true and false.
cannot conclude that the sentence is false for that
hypothesis also leads to
contradiction. If the statement is
false, then what it says about itself is not true. It says that it is false, so
that must not be true. Hence, it is true.
hypothesis, we end up concluding that
the statement is both true and false. But it has to be either true or false (or
so our intuition lead us to think), hence
there seems to be a contradiction
at the core of our beliefs about truth and falsity.
Since the Liar Sentence can be shown to be
true if it is false and false if it is true it is neither true or
To solve the riddle of the Liar Paradox one must reject a
common myth about truth and falsity - the
claim that every statement has to be either true or false.
This is called the Principle of
A strengthened version of the Liar Paradox counters the proposal
that the statement is neither true or false.
This statement is not
If it is not true or false, then it is not true, which is
what it says; hence it is true which is not what it says.
The truth is
every statement includes an implicit assertion of its own
For example, the statement
"It is true that two plus two equals
four" contains no more information than the statement "two plus two
is four", because the phrase "it is true that..." is always implicitly there.
Thus the statement;
This statement is false.
is said to be equivalent to;
This statement is true and this statement is false.
latter is a simple contradiction
of the form "A and not A", and hence is false.
There is no
paradox because the claim that this statement is false
does not lead to a contradiction.
This analysis does not provide
a solution to versions of the Liar Paradox that do not use direct
self-reference, such as the two-sentence version:
The next sentence
The preceding sentence is
Neither of these is by
itself contradictory, but there is no way to assign
truth values to them consistently, so we still
have a paradox.
A series of sentences becomes paradoxical or congruent
upon contingent facts.
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author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
created a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious
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and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
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social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as
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