"America will never be destroyed from
If we falter and lose our
freedoms, it will be because we
We the people are
the rightful masters of
Congress and the Courts, not to overthrow the Constitution but to
overthrow the men who pervert
I have the Confederacy before me and the bankers
behind me, and for America I fear the bankers most." - Abraham
"The division of the US into federations
of equal force was decided long before the
Civil War by
the high financial powers
These bankers were afraid that the US, if they remained
in one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial
independence, which would upset
their financial domination over the world.
The voice of the Rothschilds
they sent their
emissaries into the field to exploit the question of
slavery and to open an abyss
between the two sections of the Union." - German chancellor
When Abraham Lincoln is
assassinated there is speculation he is preparing to
finance and set up an American
central bank with the ability to issue
currency controlled by Americans.
John Wilkes Booth, is
a pawn of foreign finacial
Abraham Lincoln's desire for
government control of the Confederated States of America directly caused
the deaths of nearly a million people.
Abraham Lincoln initial idea of
freeing the slaves was meant to
hasten the collapse of the Confederated States of America.
the early weeks of the Civil War, thousands of fugitive slaves or
"contrabands" flee to Washington, DC.
The federal government responded
by crowding the Black
men, women, and
hastily prepared contraband
camps that supplied insufficient food and clothing, had little or no
sanitation, and were
breeding grounds for
Abraham Lincoln formulated a plan to repatriate the
enslaved Blacks back to
plan is abandoned as unfeasibly
Jay Cooke, a Philadelphia banker
and financier, is a close friend and advisor of
Salmon P. Chase to Abraham
Lincoln, New York, April 15, 1864
My dear Sir,
Debt can not be
increased indefinitely by selling US treasury bonds & issuing promissary
notes; and the time has come when
taxation and retrenchment
must play their parts.
taxation and retrenchment
a uniform national currency is
This can be accomplished only through the passage
of the National Banking Law now before Congress.
Government will need to pay interest on debt, current expences, and, as long as
the war lasts, its
extraordinary expences, vast sums from taxes.
Duties on imports are
the only exclusive resource of the Nation as distinguished from the States.
Why should not the National Banks & their property and franchises
The National Banking bill should be followed by the bill to
tax local bank circulation & prohibit after some fixed period its further
These two bills will give us what we must have, if success is
wanted, a national currency.
Yours truly SP Chase
Henderson to Abraham Lincoln, April 27, 1864
Chase's management of the finances of the nation is contrary to the dictates of
sound policy or common
The sudden decline in stocks in the first week of September
1863, and the rise in the premium of Gold from 127 to 157 in 5 weeks, because
Mr. Chase's friends were short of stocks, should have had its effect upon you
to dismiss such a Secretary of the Treasury.
Mr. Chase benefitted his
friends by asking the National Bank of New York, National Bank of Boston and
National Bank of Philadelphia to loan 50 million, when they are already choked
with US treasury bonds.
The disturbance to the money market from this
loan resulted in a panic, which put stocks down 25% and a rise the premium of
Gold of 30% in 5 weeks.
The value of US treasury bonds were injured by
the means Chase used, and the US currency depreciated 15 to 20%, which it has
Chase was then induced to sell 5 or 6 millions of US
Gold, - laid apart, as Congress directed, to pay the interest on the National
This is a breach of faith, which you will find will injure the US
treasury bond value.
Six million of US Gold was obtained from the Govt
at about 165 when the price in the market was from 170 to 180.
sold on Thursday, Friday & Saturday 14th, 15th & 16th 8 million US Gold
from 166 to 185 and two million US Sterling from 5 to 12% under normal exchange
To keep the cheques for several
millions, say 6 or 7 millions Dollars, & present them to
City Bank all at once
& demand Greenbacks or legal tender money. He had previously made this
money scarce, temporarily, for God knows there is enough of it, by selling
Duties for paper money against [Cost?]; & then he & his friend
predicted that the State Banks must fail.
US treasury bonds went down
10% frightened at such abominable action of Chase.
The Banks are aroused
to the unprincipled action of Chase's stock-jobbing friends and will resist the
The Gold Market only went down till Chase stopped
How will Chase get back this Gold?
By paying 200 or
over for it. Why?
Nearly every US treasury bonds will come back from
Yours -- James Henderson
"In 1862 several Minnesota Dakota Sioux tribes of
Native Americans revolted against the US. General John Pope was sent to quell
General John Pope initiated military tribunals and
sentenced 303 warriors
to be executed by hanging.
Some trials lasted less than 5 minutes.
Abraham Lincoln, needing the vote in Minnesota, selected 38 individuals who
were promptly hanged.
Abraham Lincoln carried Minnesota in the next
election and is the only president to order a mass hanging." - Robert
The Cherokee people
lived in southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and parts of
western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia before they were forcibly
Cherokee language is a Southern Iroquoian language and part
of the Iroquoian language family.
1710 to 1715
Cherokee and Chickasaw ally with the British.
1721 Cherokee cede lands in South Carolina.
1738 and 1739 Smallpox
epidemics break out among the Cherokee.
Half their population is
dead within a year.
Hundreds of other Cherokee committed
suicide due to their losses
and disfigurement from the disease.
Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets
1786 Before the forcible relocation to Oklahoma many Cherokees relocate
to Arkansas, Missouri and Texas. The Cherokee, along with people of other
nations such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw, began settling along the Arkansas
and Red Rivers.
The Dakota are first recorded to have resided at the
source of the Mississippi River during the seventeenth century.
mentioned is the radical shift in life style that allows the Native Americans
to tame the wide open spaces of the plains - the horse.
The survivers of
the decimated East Coast and Southern tribes followed the rivers onto the
plains mingled with other tribes and became the Sioux.
1862 Great Sioux Nation, Oceti Sakowin or Seven Council Fires,
stretched from the Big Woods of Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains. There were
seven Sioux tribes, including three western tribes, collectively called the
Lakota, and four eastern tribes living in Minnesota and the eastern Dakotas
called the Dakota.
1862 US breaks the treaty with the Dakota Sioux after a few Santee men
murder a white farmer and his family and begins proceedings to remove the
Dakota entirely from Minnesota.
A bounty of $25 per scalp is paid.
"At the onset of the Dakota War, Sarah Wakefield's husband decided
that she should travel with her children to Fort Ridgely. George Gleason, a
clerk at the Lower Agency warehouse, drove Wakefield, 33, and her children -- a
baby daughter, Lucy, and a 4-year-old son, James.
Their journey was
interrupted by two Indians: Hapa, the man who would antagonize Wakefield
throughout her captivity, and Chaska, the man who became Wakefield's savior.
After stopping Gleason and Wakefield, Hapa wishes to kill both of them. Hapa
"I begged Hapa to spare me," Wakefield wrote, "put out my
hands towards him, but he struck them down. I thought then
my doom was sealed
and if it had not been for Chaska, my bones would now be bleaching on that
prairie, and my children with Little Crow."
Chaska persuaded Hapa to
spare Wakefield, and she was taken as a war captive. Wakefield spent six weeks
living among the Mdewakanton Dakota, often in danger from a few Dakota who felt
captives should be killed. Chaska and his family intervened. Wakefield was
still nursing her daughter.
Weak and unaccustomed to living
outdoors Wakefield describes various ways that Chaska and his family
protected her from murder,
starvation and sexual assault. When he felt it was safe, Chaska brought
Wakefield and her children to General Henry Sibley and his troops.
Wakefield spoke out for Chaska's good deeds maintaining that Chaska had
been her protector and had not killed George Gleason.
There were 392
trials for alleged war crimes committed by Dakota during the
Three hundred and three
Dakota men were sentenced to hang, while their families were brought to a
prison camp near Fort Snelling, according to "The War in Words" by Katheryn
After pardoning many of the accused,
President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution of 38 Dakota men.
Despite his innocence, and
despite Wakefield's attempts to intervene, Chaska was convicted of killing
He was sentenced to hang on Dec. 26, 1862, in
"As a final cry for justice, Wakefield published her work,
"Six Weeks in the Sioux Tepees: A Narrative of Indian Captivity," in
1863 and 1864 in Minnesota. Through her
challenged not only her
role as a submissive, subordinate woman, but also the government-endorsed, or
accepted, version of the Dakota War. Vindicating both herself and the
Dakota, Wakefield describes the
exploitation of the
Dakota people and the wrongful
hanging of an innocent man, Chaska, her protector." - Corey
No Hero to Native Americans
Oct 20, 1862 First Presidential Executive
Executive Order Establishing a Provisional Court in
Winter of 18621863
Dakota Sioux are held in a fortified camp on Pike Island below Fort
1864 Battle of Killdeer
The Sioux, a deeply spiritual people, share Wakan Tanka or the
Religious visions are
cultivated and people commune with the spirit realm through
November 29 A 675-man force of
the Third Colorado Cavalry led by US Volunteers Colonel John Chivington attack
and destroy a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado Territory, killing
and mutilating an estimated 163 Native Americans, about two-thirds women and
Chivington was a Methodist preacher, Freemason and an opponent
"Jis' to think of that dog Chivington and his dirty hounds, up
thar at Sand Creek. His men shot down squaws, and blew the brains out of little
innocent children. You call sich soldiers Christians, do ye? And Indians
savages? What der yer s'pose our Heavenly Father, who made both them and us,
thinks of these things?" - Kit Carson to Col. James Rusling
Chivington's men were drunk and many of the soldier casualties were due to
Chivington and his men dressed their weapons, hats and
gear with scalps and other body parts, including human fetuses and male and
They publicly display these in the Denver Apollo
Theater and area saloons.
The massacre disrupted the traditional
Cheyenne power structure, due to the deaths of eight members of the Council of
White Antelope, One Eye, Yellow Wolf, Big Man, Bear Man, War
Bonnet, Spotted Crow, and Bear Robe were all killed, as were the headmen of
some of the Cheyenne military societies.
Once the details of the
massacre became widely known the US sent a blue ribbon commission and the
Treaty of the Little Arkansas is signed in 1865.
18661868 Red Cloud's War
1868 The Sioux consider the Black Hills to be
US Fort Laramie Treaty, exempting the Black Hills from all white
Lieutenant Colonel George Crook and the 5th Cavalry attack the Yavapai and
Apache stronghold of Skeleton Cave, located in Salt River Canyon,
75 Yavapai and Apache warriors are killed, including Chief
Nanni-chaddi, while another 34 were captured the Battle of Salt River Canyon or
the Skeleton Cave Massacre..
1874 Gold is
discovered in the Black Hills.
Grant administration advertises gold in
the Black Hills to relieve the pressure of the
1875 Gold Rush starts in the Black
Commissioner of Indian Affairs declares non-reservation tribes of
Sioux subject to
June 15, 1876
Little Big Horn
The 7th Cavalry, a veteran organization
combined after the Civil
War, under General George A. Custer is requested to force the Lakota Sioux
bands onto the newly
delineated tribal reservation.
Thousands of miners in the
Black Hills make it the most densely populated part of Dakota
1890 US adjusts the Great Sioux
Reservation of South Dakota, the majority of the state, into five smaller
reservations to accommodate homesteaders and in accordance with the "policy of
breaking up tribal relationships" and "conforming Indians to the
white man's ways, peaceably
if they will, or forcibly if they must."
Tribes are separated into
family units on 320 acre plots, forced
to farm, raise livestock, and send their
children to boarding schools that forbade any inclusion of
Native American traditional
culture and language.
"Our communal sin is the bald lie that we all
live and perpetuate from moment to moment, year upon year, from our past to the
days ahead: the misbegotten belief
that we are a peaceful people." - Randall Amster
December 15, 1890 Fearing the spread of the
Ghost Dance movement the US orders
the arrest of Sitting Bull at Standing Rock.
Sitting Bull and eight
of warriors are shot dead at the Standing Rock reservation by agency
December 23 350 people leave Miniconjou
village concealed by darkness to begin their 150 mile trek through the frozen
Badlands to the Pine Ridge Agency.
Troops of Major Samuel M. Whitside and the Seventh Calvary (General George
Custer) drive Red Cloud and Big Foot to the bank of Wounded Knee Creek.
Interrogated sleeplessly throughout the night soldiers drink and revel
all night in celebration of the capture of Big Foot.
Forsyth arrives with reinforcements taking command of the situation and
stationing four Hotchkiss revolving cannon firing two pound explosive shells at
a rate of fifty per minute on the ridge above.
A rumor panics the
Indians - they are to be deported to Indian Territory (Oklahoma), reputed for
worse living conditions than any prison.
Soldiers begin stripping the
Indians of weapons, further agitating tensions.
While soldiers search,
some Indians began singing Ghost Dance songs, and one (possibly the medicine
man Yellow Bird) throws dirt in a ceremonial gesture.
A gun discharges.
Although no one is injured, the soldiers immediately spray the now
unarmed Indians with the four Hotchkiss revolving cannon from the ridge
Most of the Indian fatalities occurred during the initial ten to
twenty minutes, but sporadic firing lasted for several hours as cavalrymen
Twenty-nine soldiers among the Sioux perish from
Indian survivors remarked that the soldiers cried out
"Remember the Little Bighorn" as they hunted human prey - they believed the
massacre to be revenge for Custers annihilation at the Battle of the
Little Bighorn in 1876 (Santee Sioux, Sid Byrd, from oral histories of several
29 Twenty-three soldiers from the Seventh Calvary, said to be drinking,
receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for slaying defenseless Indians with
overwhelming firepower from the four Hotchkiss revolving cannon.
the rain of ammunition
ceased, over 300 Lakota people lay dead from gunfire,
cannon fire, or manual
butchering within the encampment and within adjacent ravines up to two miles
The dead were Lakota men who had been disarmed before the weapons
fire began, women, many with babes in arms or waiting to be born, and
The soldiers walked away from their crime against humanity and
left the dead where they lay. That night, the sky cried snow and the warm winter
wind of peace was supplanted by the cold
winter wind of
Four days later the
soldiers came and loaded the dead like cordwood in wagons, and hauled their
loads to hastily dug mass graves, where the dead were thrown in - the bodies of
men, women, and children whose spirits walked the encampment
and ravines, wailing.
Medals of Honor for "bravery" were awarded to the soldiers who participated
in that heinous murder for
their parts in fighting the
allegedly hostile "war parties" attacking them that day." - Wanbli
Supreme Court rules that the
Black Hills were illegally taken.
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encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
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American social mores and values
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