"Sentences may be not only true or
false but meaningless simply because of
inconsistent uses of language
patterns." - Bertrand Arthur
Sentences may be neither true or false.
Sentences designed to decieve
use doubletalk or
Sentences may be designed to be
Sentences designed to be purposely
meaningless may have been designed to be that way for
psycholinguistic purposes to drive
Liar Paradox shows the common
understanding of the essence of tautologies and fallacies actually leads to
Sentences can be
constructed completely in accord with grammar and semantic rules that
cannot consistently be assigned a
simplest version of the paradox, the sentence;
This statement is false.
If we suppose the statement is true,
everything asserted in it must
However, because the
statement asserts that it is itself false,
it must be false.
The hypothesis it is true
leads to the contradiction as it is both true and false.
the sentence is false also
leads to a
If the statement
is false, then what it says
about itself is not true.
It says that it is false,
so that must not be
true. Hence, it
hypothesis, the statement
is both true and false.
We feel the statement
must be either true or false.
This points to a
contradiction in the way we abstractly visualize reality.
Liar Sentence can be shown to
be true if it is false and
false if it is true
the Liar Sentence can
be neither true or false as it is simply nonsense.
solve the riddle of the Liar Paradox
one must reject a common
myth about truth and falsity -
the claim every statement
has to be true or false.
This is called the Principle of
A strengthened version of the Liar Paradox counters the
proposal that the statement is neither true or false.
This statement is not
statement is not true, then it is false -
which is not what it
includes an implicit assertion of its own truth.
For example the
statement "It is true that two plus two equals
four" does not actually need the words "It is true" as this is
implicit in all statements.
Thus the statement;
This statement is false.
Is logically equivalent to;
This statement is true and this statement is
This is a
simple contradiction of the form "A and not A".
This statement is
false is a logical
This analysis does not provide a solution
to versions of the Liar Paradox that do not use direct self-reference,
such as the two-sentence version:
The next sentence is false.
The preceding sentence is true.
Neither of these is by
itself contradictory, but there is no way to assign
truth values to them
consistently, so we still have a
sentences are paradoxical
or congruent upon contingent facts.
I've been one rotten
Some son, some pride and some joy
But I'll get over these
Messin' up, screwin' up times
You'll see, ma, now
comes the better part
Someone's gonna make good
cross his heart
Make good and finally make you
Proud of your boy
me that I've been a louse and
You won't get
a fight here, no, ma'am
Say I'm a goldbrick, a goof-off, no
But that couldn't be all that I am
Water flows under the bridge, let it
good reason you should believe me,
not yet I know, but
someday and soon
I'll make you proud of your boy
Though I can't make myself taller
I'll do my best, what else
can I do?
Since I wasn't
born perfect like dad or you
Mom, I will try to try hard to make
Proud of your boy
"When one watches some
tired political hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar
phrases -- bestial
tyranny, free peoples of the
world, stand shoulder to
shoulder - one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching
a live human being but some kind
of golem: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the
light catches the
speaker' spectacles and turns them into blank discs.
This is not
altogether fanciful as a speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has
gone some distance
toward turning himself into a machine.
The appropriate noises are coming out of his
larynx, but his brain is not involved as it would be if he were choosing his words
If the speech he is making is one that he is
accustomed to make over and over again,
he may be almost unconscious of
the script he is repeating.
This reduced state of
consciousness is required for political conformity.
Political speech is
largely the defense
of the indefensible.
Things like the continuance of British
rule in India, the Russian
purges and deportations, the
dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but
only by arguments which are too
brutal for most people to face, and which
do not square with the
professed aims of the political parties.
Political language has to
consist largely of euphemism, question begging and
sheer cloudy vagueness to fool
the two wings of political thought.
Defenseless villages are bombarded
from the air, cattle machine
gunned, huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called
Millions of peasants are robbed
of farms and sent trudging along roads with what they can carry: this is
transfer of population or
imprisoned for years,
shot in the back or sent to die of
scurvy in Arctic lumber
camps: elimination of
unreliable elements." - George Orwell
Critical thinking is
Critical thinking questions are
used to explore mental models.
Critical thinking is a process for
actively exploring situational reality.
Critical thinking involves
identifying ambiguities and
deciding whether a
definition is adequate;
examining the logic leading to a
judging whether a statement is
critiquing the application of
principles and concepts;
determining whether a
statement made by authority is relevant.
"Thinking isn't rewarded because
it isn't wanted.
The idea of creating the need to
gain admission to an elite
university is to make sure bright students channel their energies in
Their study is just a test of
If a student puts up with such
study she/he will do whatever it takes.
expected result of such
Pavlovian training is the ideal
One who will
only along approved
lines, going along with whatever is
demanded of him to get along. "- Raymond J. Rostan
Ockham, a Franciscan, taught at Oxford from 1309 to
William taught Jesus and Francis of Assisi exemplary lives
perfection could be achieved only through
renunciation of worldly goods.
William of Ockham
branded the Pope
John XXII a
heretic as the office of
Pope, declaring authority over
all things, temporal and spirtual, was bought.
his views was forced to flee to exile in Bavaria.
William of Ockham
believed that the law
of freedom at the core of the biblical gospel meant that individuals will
find liberation from
ignorance in faith in patnership with the Creator which alone can bring inner
William of Ockham stands at the
beginning of a long modern tradition
where the human mind in its struggle with the contingent order of being
seeks to overcome the gap
between itself and reality.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
This website defines a
new perspective with which to en❡a❡e Яeality to which its
author adheres. The author feels that the faλsification of reaλity
outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern
pr☠paganda from Яeality and that this has been done purposefully by
an internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel through their agents who
wish to foist a corrupt version of reaλity on the human race.
Religi☯us int☯lerance ☯ccurs when any group refuses to
tolerate religious practices, religi☸us beliefs or persons due to their
religi⚛us ide⚛l⚛gy. This web site marks the founding of a
system of philºsºphy nªmed The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie - a ra☨ional gnos☨ic mys☨ery
re☦igion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no
tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every
individual is encouraged to develop a pers∞nal relati∞n with
Æ∞n through the pursuit of the knowλedge of reaλity in
the hope of curing the spiritual c✡rrupti✡n that has enveloped
the human spirit. The tenets of The Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière
Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Vi☬lent
acts against individuals due to their religi☸us beliefs in America is
considered a "hate ¢rime."
This web site in no way
c☬nd☬nes vi☬lence. To the contrary the intent here is to
reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the internati☣nal
c☣rp☣rate cartels desire to c✡ntr✡l the human race.
The internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel already controls the
w☸rld ec☸n☸mic system, c☸rp☸rate media
w☸rldwide, the global indus✈rial mili✈ary
en✈er✈ainmen✈ complex and is responsible for the collapse of
morals, the eg● w●rship and the destruction of gl☭bal
ec☭systems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
with bi☣hazards of a gun.
American social mores and values have
declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the p☠pulace in general through c✡rp✡rate media by
pressing emotional buttons which have been πreπrogrammed into the
πoπulation through prior mass media psych☣l☣gical
☣perati☣ns. The results have been the destruction of the family and
the destruction of s☠cial structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
internati☭nal elites vision of a
perfect world. Through distra¢tion and coercion the dir⇼ction of
th✡ught of the bulk of the p☠pulati☠n has been
direc⇶ed ⇶oward s↺luti↻ns proposed by the corrupt
internati☭nal elite that further con$olidate$ their p☣wer and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular ☨hough☨. All factual information presented
on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as
originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally
presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and ☨hough☨s have been
adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and
re-corrected as nearly all opinion and ☨hough☨ has been throughout
time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent
of making his or her ☨hough☨s and opinions clearer and relevant to
the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of ¢riminal justi¢e, human
rightϩ, political, politi¢al, e¢onomi¢,
demo¢rati¢, s¢ientifi¢, and so¢ial justi¢e
iϩϩueϩ, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any
such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site
is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for rėsėarch and ėducational
purposės. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved