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Socrates questioned everything and everyone, offending the Archons.    He was found quilty of heresy as charged and sentenced to drink hemlock which cost him his life.

"Kronos, we owe a cock to Aesculapius."

(proper hermeneutics)


What Socrates Understood about Justice, Truth, and Power


"The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything - and this is what stands in the way of my being a politician. "




desire to know truth

"False words infect the soul with evil."

Socrates


i can not teach anybody anything, i can only make them think

"American colleges and universities are in the

business of strengthening unexamined prejudices.

Most of the colleges and universities in

America have become enforcers of orthodoxy.

This is not what Socrates had in mind." - Fred White


Socratic method

What is Philosophy?: Crash Course Philosophy #1

How to Argue - Philosophical Reasoning: Crash Course Philosophy #2

How to Argue - Induction & Abduction: Crash Course Philosophy #3


"The truth is that I have no regular disciples:

if anyone wants to listen while I am pursuing my quest, whether he be young or old, he may freely come.

I must tell the truth - the result of my quest revealed:

I found that the men most in repute were foolish;
and that 'inferior' men were really wiser and better."

Socrates




Plato's cave

THE CAVE

Plato's Command-and-Control Utopia


Hollywood promotes war
for the Pentagon, CIA and NSA


KUBA = CUBICAL, SMALL ROOM

A true philosopher's goal of wisdom
is gained through thought process' designed to discover the eternal immutable essence of all things.

Plato



"Ever since Plato first perceived that the inquiry into the nature of the good life of the individual was necessarily associated with a converging (and not parallel) inquiry into the nature of the good community, a close and continuing association has persisted between political philosophy and philosophy in general.

Not only have most of the eminent philosophers contributed generously to the main stock of our political ideas, but they have given the political theorist many of his methods of analysis and criteria of judgment.

Historically, the main difference between philosophy and political philosophy has been a matter of specialization rather than one of method or temper.

By virtue of this alliance, political theorists accepted as needed the basic quest of the philosopher for systematic knowledge." - Sheldon S. Wolin, Politics and Vision


The Cave you Fear to enter contains your Soul.

Introduce your consciousness stream to your Soul.

The Soul of Man is defined as:

The heart of one's essence.

An individual's emotional or moral nature.

The disembodied spirit of a dead human.

The central or integral part; the vital core.

A spark of God's soul embedded in human flesh.

The essence of an individual that holds conscience.

The seat of real life or vitality; source of action; animating essential part.

A personification as the perfect embodiment of an intangible quality.

Noble manifestation of the heart or moral nature; inherent power or goodness.

The spiritual nature of humans, sometimes regarded as immortal, separable from the body at death; susceptible to happiness or misery in a future state.

The animating and vital principle in humans, credited with the faculties of thought, action, and emotion and often conceptualized as an immaterial entity.

The spiritual, rational, and immortal part in man which enables him to think.

There is some disagreement as to what exactly the Soul may be.





622 BC Landed aristocracy rules Athens.

The economy depended on surrounding farms, especially the large estates owned by rich noble families, the aristocracy.

Nearly all government decisions and operations are in the hands of a half-dozen leaders called archons and lesser officials called magistrates.

Indebtedness magnified the hatred of the commoners towards the aristocrats.

A poor farmer had to borrow seed from a rich landowner to plant his crops.

In share cropping the farmer pay his debt with a share of the harvest.

Those without land had to work as tenants by renting farm plots.

Draco carves his laws on an oak column.

According to Aristotle, one of the few ancient sources we have for Draconian Law, these magik runes are stained with human blood, not ink.

Draconian laws severely punished lawbreakers.

594 BC Seeing disaster looming, both the aristocracy and common people of Athens support the election of Solon as primary archon.

Athenians grant Solon, age 35, nearly unlimited powers to write new laws.

The Athenians chose Solon to mediate their crisis for several reasons.

The aristocrats approve that he is of noble birth.

The commoners truste him as a merchant who trades for a living.

Solon suggested that all the citizens of Athens were responsible for the common good - not just the ruling archons and magistrates.

Solon attempted to make the court system fair to the lower classes.

"To the people I have given such honor as is sufficient, neither taking away nor granting them more.

For those who had power and were great in riches, I greatly cared that they should suffer nothing wrong.

Thus I stood, holding my strong shield over both, and I did not allow either side to prevail against justice." - Solon

He made it possible for any citizen to step forward and seek justice.

Before only the actual victim of wrongdoing could make a complaint.

The powerful could easily threaten victims to discourage complaints.

Solon's law code is based on two fundamental principles.

The first is laws are fixed and not easily changed.

The second is laws must apply equally to everyone, aristocrats and commoners alike.

Solon's code of law covered virtually every aspect of life—theft, treason, taxation, vagrancy, adoption, boundaries, loans, and religion, among many others.

Solon rejected all but one Draconian law — the homicide law.

Solon's laws differed greatly from Draco's code.

He made it a crime to publicly speak evil of either the living or the dead.

Solon allowed a husband to kill an adulterer caught in the act.

A theft committed at night or in a public place carried a weighter penalty.

Solon's laws focused on compensating victims and preventing future conflicts.

404 BC Spartan imposes an oligarchy that rules Athens after the Peloponnesian War.

Thirty commissioners are appointed to the oligarchy led by Critias.

The oppressive regime fosters a bloody purge, in which perhaps 1,500 residents are killed.

Moderates flee the city; gather a force, they returned to defeat the tyrants' forces in a battle at Piraeus in 403.




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