Enûma Elish has
about a thousand lines and is recorded in the
Akkadian language on seven clay tablets.
Enûma Elish has
existed in various versions and copies since 1700 BC.
generations of gods whose creations parallel the days of creation in
Genesis, followed by a
In the Enûma Elish and
Genesis, the creation proceeds
in the same order, beginning with the
prevalent light and
ending with mankind.
Enûma Elish names three primeval gods:
fresh water, Tiamat,
the saltwater, and their son
Apsû is the aquifer in Sumerian
Tiamat is a combination of the Sumerian words ti = life
and ama = mother meaning "the mother
of all life."
Tiamat controlled the nutrients in the
In ancient Sumerian, the word mummu
translates to "the one who has
The ancient empire of Sumeria, modern day
Iraq, collapsed when the soil at the site of
ancient Sumer on the central flood plain of the
became laden with salt due to
unsustainable irrigation practices.
Was it on the flood plain of the
Euphrates river the myth
of Noah's Ark swam?
Incantation of Nudimmud:
"On that day when
there is no snake, no scorpion, no hyena, no lion nor wolf, there is thus
neither fear nor trembling, man has no
At such a time, may the lands of Cubur
and Hamazi, the many-tongued, and Sumer, the great mountain of magnificence,
and Akkad, the land possessing all that is befitting, and the Martu land -- may
they all address Enlil together in a single
For at that time, for the ambitious lords, for the ambitious
princes, for the ambitious kings -- Enkidu, the lord of abundance and of
steadfast decisions, the wise and knowing Lord of the Land, chosen for wisdom,
shall change the speech in their mouths so the speech of mankind is truly one."
6000 BC Ugarit foundations are laid in the Neolithic
1800 BC Ebla and Ugarit are under
The population of Ugarit is roughly 7635
"Recent archeological digs have provided evidence that
Jerusalem was a big and
fortified city already in 1800 BC.
Findings show that the
sophisticated water system heretofor attributed to the followers of
Akhenaten the Heretic pre-dated them by
eight centuries and was even more sophisticated than imagined.
Ronny Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli Shuikrun, said the
entire system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in the Middle Bronze
Period, around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31,
1450 to 1220
BC The people of Ugarit were the Canaanites, precursors to the
speech consisted of only a finite number of sounds they devised 30 symbols
from which alphabets of
phonetic languages are derived.
The style of writing at Ugarit is
alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic script, like Hebrew,
and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
mythology parallel that of Enûma Elish can be found in the Baal cycle
recovered in the Canaanite city of Ugarit which include "Legend of
Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of
Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of Baal".
Ugaritic literature is composed in
metre, bi and tri colas, and all of the poetic tools found in the
Septuagint are found in
Ugarit is at its height politically, religiously and
1175 BC Hittite, Mycenaean and
Mitanni civilizations collapse.
Sea Peoples may have been involved with the end of the
Greek Age of
The Sherden, the Shekelesh, the Peleset
BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the
southern Levant, which today encompasses
Israel, the West Bank and
Gaza, Jordan, and the
southern portions of Syria
names have been given to this area including Palestine,
Eretz-Israel, Bilad es-Shem,
the Holy Land and Djahy.
The earliest known name for this area was "Canaan."
Lord your God has cut off the nations whose land the Lord your God is giving
you, and you dispossess them and dwell in their cities and in their houses." -
When the Cult
of Yahweh informed tribes defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they
simply took over preexisting infrastructure.
"I have given you a land
for which you did not labor and cities which you did not build, and you dwell
in them; you eat of the vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" -
There was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered
the existing cities.
El was the chief god at Ugarit.
El is called the "Father of
Men", "Creator", and "Creator of the Creation".
worshiped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith.
tribe of Abraham worshiped
these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes instead of,
This biblical denunciation
of the Canaanite gods in understandable in the light of the Ugaritic texts, for
at Ugarit these were the very
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns
to El which were adopted by the followers of Abraham, much like the American
National Anthem was set to a beer hall
tune with lyrics by Francis Scott Key.
In Psalms and the Ugaritic
texts acclaim Yahweh for the
attributes of El.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit,
Yahweh was viewed as a son of
The names of
El Shaddai, El Elyon, and
El Berith are applied to Yahweh by the
writers of the
The Hebrew theologians adopted the titles of Canaanite
gods and attributed them to Yahweh in an effort to assimilate and synthesize
culture in a manner no different than the
Babylonians and the
The most important
of the Canaanite lesser gods were;
Asherah; Yam, the god of the
sea, and Mot, the god of death.
In the Cult of Yaweh,
Hohkma is the female
counterpart of Yahweh.
"When they did evolve, when the ancient
Hebrew tribes put together their notion of Yahweh by combining YHVH and the
Elohim gods ("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other religions, they put
together a Yahweh from which, in some important ways,
we are still
Biblical scholars are clear Yahweh evolved from a tribal
chief, and has always kept much of the authoritarian character of that ancient
covenant between Yahweh and his people was
based on an earlier Hittite social
contract between a ruler and his subjects.
"I'll be your ruler and you will be my
I'll protect you
if you obey, and punish you
if you disobey."
the attitude that still lets
Western believers move way too effortlessly to
persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug Yahweh off as irrelevant,
because its followers will kill you -
as martyrs throughout history
have discovered the hard way." - Davidson Loehr
1213 BC Merneptah Stele discovered in 1896 by Flinders Petrie
and first translated by Wilhelm Spiegelberg.
The bulk of the inscription
deals with Merneptah's victory over the Libyans except:
"Canaan has been
plundered into every sort of woe:
Gezer has been captured;
Yano'am is made
Israel is laid waste and his seed is
Septuagint Baal is named 76 times.
protested constantly against the worship of Baal, God of
Yahweh as a warrior god of the
desert; when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to adopt
Baal, God of Fertility.
The central Ugaritic myth is the legend of
Baal's enthronement as
In the story, Baal is killed by Mot in the Fall and remains
dead until the Spring of the year when he is
reborn and re-enthroned
The Septuagint celebrates the enthronement of
As in the Ugaritic myth, the purpose of enthronement is to
overcomes death by continuously acting to bestow life.
metaphorical subconscious difference between the Ugaritic myth and the biblical
hymns is that the kingship of Yahweh is
eternal while the kingship of
Baal is interrupted every year
by his death in the Fall.
the God of Fertility dies in the Fall, the vegetation dies; and then the
vegetation is reborn in the Spring to replenish Earth.
Ugarit both practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the
"scapegoats"; one for god
and one for a demon.
The Cult of Yaweh sent a
goat into the wilderness for Azazel, a
demon, and a goat into the wilderness
This rite is known as a "eliminatory" rite; that is,
corruption, in this case communal
sin, is placed on the head of the goat and it is sent away.
the communal sin is removed from the community.
"Aaron is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat
and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the
Israelites - all their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send
the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The
goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall
release it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was
performed at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman priest
was involved in the ritual as well.
The rituals performed in Ugaritic
worship involved a great deal of
entheogens and sexual
Magically performing the
reenactment of fertilization the worshipers were
demonstrating to Baal how to
send rain for the cannabis crops.
of the same essence,
both produced fruit.
fertility religions typically behaved in this manner.
Cult of Yaweh priests were
forbidden to partake of
entheogens while performing rituals and females were barred from the precincts of the
temple, a patriarchal
approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed to
matriarchal approach of communal passion as in
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