Radiation causing mutations 1960

Trawsfynydd and cancer: nuclear power kills

The effects of radiation on our health

Child leukaemia doubles near French nuclear plants

Radioactive spikes from nuclear plants - a likely cause of childhood leukaemia

Nuclear radiation, Kierkegaard, and the philosophy of denial

Radiation Exposure Debate Rages Inside EPA

Leuren Moret: Global nuclear coverup

FDA suppressed imaging safety concerns

FDA Ignored Radiation Warnings

Dr. Strangelove


"The power of an aroused public is unbeatable."

Dr. Helen Caldicott

radiation dose damage

Fatal Birth Defects Surge in the US Due to Radiation Exposure

Two Ways Ionizing Radiation Damages DNA

How Radiation Affects DNA

Herman Joseph Muller wins the Nobel Prize in Medicine.

The effects of radiation are thought of in terms of effects on living cells.

A typical CT scan equals 400 chest X-rays.

Cancer Risk from CT Scan Radiation

The surprising dangers of CT scans and X-rays

Cell Damage Occurs When People Have CT Scans

Equal doses of different types or energies of radiation cause different amounts of biological damage to living cells.

The units used to measure ionizing radiation are rather complex.

The ionizing effects of radiation are measured by units of exposure.

The coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) is the SI unit of ionizing radiation exposure, and measures the amount of radiation required to create 1 coulomb of charge of each polarity in 1 kilogram of matter.

The roentgen (R) is an older traditional unit that is almost out of use, which represented the amount of radiation required to liberate 1 esu of charge of each polarity in 1 cubic centimeter of dry air.

1 Roentgen = 2.58×10-4 C/kg.

However, the amount of damage done to matter (especially living tissue) by ionizing radiation is more closely related to the amount of energy deposited rather than the charge.

This is called the absorbed dose.

The gray (Gy), with units J/kg, is the SI unit of absorbed dose, which represents the amount of radiation required to deposit 1 joule of energy in 1 kilogram of any kind of matter.

The rad (Roentgen absorbed dose), is the corresponding traditional unit which is 0.01 J deposited per kg. 100 rad = 1 Gy.

1 Gy of alpha radiation causes about 20 times as much damage as 1 Gy of x-rays.

The equivalent dose is defined to give an approximate measure of the biological effect of radiation.

It is calculated by multiplying the absorbed dose by a weighting factor WR which is different for each type of radiation (see above table).

The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose.

Although it has the same units as grays, J/kg, it measures something different.

It is the dose of any type of radiation in Gy that has the same biological effect on a human as 1 Gy of x-rays or gamma radiation.

The rem (Roentgen equivalent man) is the traditional unit of equivalent dose.

1 sievert = 100 rem.

Because the rem is a relatively large unit, typical equivalent dose is measured in millirem (mrem), 10-3 rem, or in microsievert (µSv), 10-6 Sv. 1 mrem = 10 µSv.

For low levels of radiation, the biological effects are so small they may not be detected in epidemiological studies.

The body repairs many types of radiation and chemical damage.

Biological effects of radiation on living cells may result in a variety of outcomes, including:

Cells experience DNA damage are able to detect and repair the damage.

Cells experience DNA damage are unable to repair the damage.

Cells may go through the process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, thus eliminating the potential genetic damage from the larger tissue.

Cells experiencing nonlethal DNA mutations pass them along.

This mutation may contribute to the formation of a cancer.

Other observations at the tissue level are more complicated.

These include:

In some cases, a small radiation dose reduces the impact of a subsequent, larger radiation dose.

This has been termed an 'adaptive response' and is related to hypothetical mechanisms of hormesis.

Radiation hormesis is the unproven and strange theory that a low level of ionizing radiation helps "immunize" cells against DNA damage from other causes thus decreasing the risk of cancer.

The theory proposes that such low levels activate the body's DNA repair mechanisms, causing higher levels of cellular DNA repair proteins to be present in the body, improving the body's ability to repair DNA damage.

This allopathic theory is similar to the theory of vaccination immunization.

This assertion is very difficult to prove (using, for example, statistical cancer studies) because the effects of very low ionizing radiation levels are too small to be statistically measured amid the "noise" of normal cancer rates.

The idea of radiation hormesis is considered unproven by regulatory bodies, which generally use the standard "linear, no threshold" (LNT) model - the risk of cancer is directly proportional to the dose level of ionizing radiation.

The LNT model is safer for regulatory purposes because it assumes worst-case damage due to ionizing radiation; therefore, if regulations are based on it, workers might be over-protected, but they will never be under-protected.

In biology, radiation is mainly used for sterilization and as a mutagen.

The 'background' dose of natural radiation is ~ 3 mSv (300 mrem) per year.

The lethal dose of radiation for a human is around 4 - 5 Sv (400 - 500 rem).

radiation milkl

The Forgotten Story Of The Radium Girls

Deadly Glow: The Radium Dial Worker Tragedy

Breast cancer and nuclear power - statistics reveal the link 'they' wanted to hide

1898   Marie and Pierre Curie distill radium from pitchblende.

1907   James Douglas, a scientist and mining engineer, daughter Naomi is diagnosed with breast cancer.

Doctors operate on her five separate times but the cancer returns.

In a final effort, Douglas takes her to Europe to be treated with radium.

1910   Douglas devotes his life to the promotion of radium therapy for cancer treatment.

1911   Douglas dreams of a method to more cheaply produce radium.

He directs research lab chemist George Van Arsdale to experiment with various processes to extract radium from carnotite.

Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.

The water content can vary and small amounts of calcium, barium, magnesium, iron, and sodium are often present.

1912   Douglas gives $100,000 to General Memorial Hospital for the endowment of ten beds for clinical trials, and the equipment for an X-ray plant and clinical laboratory.

1913   With a US government grant, Douglas forms the National Radium Institute, to mine radium from uranium ores recently discovered in Colorado.

Douglas donates a half million dollars of radium, three grams, to Johns Hopkins University.

1915   Douglas, working with Dr. James Ewing, establishes a radium department and lay the foundation in the United States for radiation therapy.

1917   Douglas gives his entire share of the National Radium Institute to Memorial Hospital along with the stipulation that the hospital should return to its original mandate of serving as a cancer hospital.

The second is that radiation would be studied and used to treat cancer.

1918   Grace Fryer starts work as a dial painter at the United States Radium Corporation (USRC) in Orange, New Jersey.

Dial painting was "the elite job for the poor working girls".

It pays three times the average factory job, and those lucky enough to land a position ranked in the top 5% of female workers nationally, giving the women financial freedom in a time of burgeoning female empowerment.

Radium's luminosity is part of its allure, and the dial painters soon became known as the "ghost girls" - because by the time they finished their shifts, they themselves glow in the dark.

Radium is beneficial to health, just as arsenic was in the Victorian era.

People drank radium water as a tonic, like they drink monster drinks now; one could buy cosmetics, butter, milk, and toothpaste laced with radium.

Newspapers reported its use would "add years to our lives!"

1946   Herman Joseph Muller, American, concludes low dose exposure, and therefore even natural background radiation, is mutagenic.

There is no harmless dose range for heritable effects or cancer induction.

1947   Colonel EE Kirkpatrick of the US Atomic Energy Commission issues a secret document (Document 07075001, January 8, 1947) stating the agency will administer intravenous doses of radioactive substances to humans.

Observers inject 4.7 micrograms of plutonium into American soldiers at the Oak Ridge facility.

Plutonium Trojan Horse in the Body

Observers give a total of 200 doses of iodine-131, a radioactive tracer that concentrates almost immediately in the thyroid gland, to 85 healthy Eskimos and 17 Athapascan Indians living in Alaska.

Laboratory workers at the University of Minnesota and University of Chicago inject human guinea pigs with phosphorus-32.

University of Rochester radiologist Colonel Stafford Warren injects plutonium into human at the teaching hospital, Strong Memorial.

University of Rochester researchers inject four male and two female human guinea pigs with uranium-234 and uranium-235 in dosages ranging from 6.4 to 70.7 micrograms per one kilogram of body weight in order to study how much uranium they could tolerate before their kidneys fail.

Six male employees of a Chicago metallurgical laboratory are given water contaminated with plutonium-239 to drink so that observers can learn how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract.

Human guinea pigs are given one to four injections of arsenic-76 at the University of Chicago Department of Medicine.

The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) sponsors iodine studies at the University of Iowa.

In the first study, researchers give pregnant women 100 to 200 microcuries of iodine-131 and then study the women's aborted embryos in order to learn at what stage and to what extent radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier.

In the second study, researchers give 12 male and 13 female newborns under 36 hours old and weighing between 5.5 and 8.5 lb iodine-131 either orally or via intramuscular injection, later measuring the concentration of iodine in the newborns' thyroid glands.

Observers feed 28 healthy infants at the University of Nebraska College of Medicine iodine-131 through a gastric tube and then test concentration of iodine in the infants' thyroid glands.

At the University of Tennessee, researchers inject healthy two-to three-day-old newborns with approximately 60 rads of iodine-131.

Observers at Harper Hospital in Detroit give oral doses of iodine-131 to 65 premature and full-term infants weighing between 2.1 and 5.5 lb.

Eleven patients at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston are injected with uranium.

Observers inject a genetic compound called radioactive thymidine into the testicles of more than 100 Oregon State Penitentiary inmates to learn whether sperm production is affected by exposure to steroid hormones.

October 1950 Windscale Pile No. 1 becomes operational.

June 1951 Windscale Pile No. 2 becomes operational.

October 10, 1957

In Sellafield, Cumbria the worst nuclear accident in Britain takes place.

At the time of the incident, no one was evacuated from the surrounding area, but milk from about 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi) of the nearby countryside was diluted and destroyed for about a month due.

The UK government played down the events at the time, and reports on the fire were subject to heavy censorship, as Prime Minister Harold Macmillan feared the incident would harm British-American nuclear relations.

The event was not an isolated incident; there had been a series of radioactive discharges from the piles in the years leading up to the accident.

In the spring of 1957, only months before the fire, there was a leak of radioactive material in which strontium-90 isotopes were released into the environment.

The radioactive isotope iodine-131, which may lead to cancer of the thyroid, was of particular concern at the time.

Small but significant amounts of the highly dangerous radioactive isotope polonium-210 were also released.

Windscale Britains Biggest Nuclear Disaster

1958   The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) drops radioactive materials over Point Hope, Alaska, home to the Inupiats, in a field test known under the codename "Project Chariot."

The Dark Secret of the MIT Science Club

1986   Six documented accidents occur when a high-current electron beam generated in X-ray mode is delivered directly to patients.

Two software faults are to blame.

One, when the operator incorrectly selected X-ray mode before quickly changing to electron mode, which allowed the electron beam to be set for X-ray mode without the X-ray target being in place.

A second fault allowed the electron beam to activate during field-light mode, during which no beam scanner was active or target was in place.

Killed By A Machine: The Therac-25

Cancer, Chemo, and Crony Capitalism

30-day mortality after systemic anticancer treatment

Phony peer review: The more we look, the more we find

Chemotherapy warning as hundreds die from oncology drugs

Chemotherapy may spread cancer and trigger aggressive tumors

Publisher retracts over a 100 studies from cancer journal over fake peer reviews

The Secret History Of The War On Cancer


A Very Open Letter from an Oncologist

Cancer docs profit from chemotherapy drugs

Some cancer docs say their income tied to treatments

Cancer drug choices tied to drugmaker payouts to doctors

"Breast cancer is the most common indication for chemotherapy among women in the United States, and chemotherapy drugs are the leading cause of serious drug-related adverse reactions among women with breast cancer."

Michael J. Hassett, A. James O'Malley, Juliana R. Pakes, Joseph P. Newhouse, and Craig C. Earle

Overdiagnosis and Overtreatment in Cancer

Cancer Can Be Prevented - Even Cured - Through Diet

People Die of Chemotherapy in Terrible Pain

Mustard Gas disaster in Bari harbour

1942   Two pharmacologists from the Yale School of Medicine, Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, are recruited by the DoD to create a less volatile mustard gas.

They exchanged a nitrogen molecule for sulfur creating a more stable compound in nitrogen mustard.

1943   A German air raid in Bari, Italy leads to the exposure of more than a thousand people to a secret cargo of mustard gas bombs on the SS John Harvey.

Autopsies of the victims suggest that profound lymphoid and myeloid suppression occurred after exposure.

Dr. Stewart Francis Alexander theorizes that since mustard gas all but ceased the division of certain types of somatic cells whose nature was to divide fast, it could also potentially be put to use in helping to suppress the division of certain types of cancerous cells.

The British and US governments cover up the presence of mustard gas.

"Oncologists take for granted response to therapy prolongs survival, an opinion based on fallacy and not supported by clinical trials." - Ulrich Abel

chemothearpy or radiation ?

29% of cancer studies report conflict of interest

More Doctors Confess to Making Cancer Diagnoses Just for Profit

Prominent Michigan Cancer Doctor Pleads Guilty:
'I Knew That It Was Medically Unnecessary'

carmustine, cisplatin, cytarabine

Carmustine is a mustard gas-related compound;

Carmustine, also called BCNU (1,3[bis]-2-chloroethyl-nitrosourea), decomposes spontaneously into a chloroethyl hydroxide that can alkylate the DNA and into an isocyanide molecule, which may produce carbamylation of proteins. Cytotoxicity is caused by DNA cross-links.
Cisplatin is a platinum-based compound;

Cisplatin, mode of action has been linked to its ability to crosslink with the purine bases on the DNA; interfering with DNA repair mechanisms, causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA with immunosuppressant properties.

Cytarabine is metabolized intracellularly into its active triphosphate form (cytosine arabinoside triphosphate). Cytosine arabinoside interferes with the synthesis of DNA. Its mode of action is due to its rapid conversion into cytosine arabinoside triphosphate, which damages DNA when the cell cycle holds in the S phase (synthesis of DNA). Rapidly dividing cells, which require DNA replication for mitosis, are therefore most affected. Cytosine arabinoside also inhibits both DNA and RNA polymerases and nucleotide reductase enzymes needed for DNA synthesis.

Cancer Treatment-Induced Neurotoxicity

Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment Regimens

Cancer therapy selection, dosing, administration, and the management of related adverse reactions can be a complex process that should be handled by an experienced health care team. Clinicians must choose and verify treatment options based on the individual patient; drug dose modifications and supportive care interventions should be administered accordingly. The cancer treatment regimens below may include both U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved and unapproved indications/regimens. These regimens are provided only to supplement the latest treatment strategies. These Guidelines are a work in progress that may be refined as often as new significant data become available. The NCCN Guidelines® are a consensus statement of its authors regarding their views of currently accepted approaches to treatment. Any clinician seeking to apply or consult any NCCN Guidelines® is expected to use independent medical judgment in the context of individual clinical circumstances to determine any patient's care or treatment. The NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use, or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way.

Ocular side effects of systemically administered chemotherapy

Tables of Possible Side Effects for Commonly-Used Oncology Drugs

"The overall contribution of curative and adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy to 5-year survival in adults was estimated to be 2.1% in the USA . It is clear that cytotoxic chemotherapy only makes a minor contribution to cancer survival." - Graeme Morgan, Robyn Ward, and Michael Barton

2006 Chemotherapy impairs the brain, killing crucial neural cells and causing key parts of the brain to shrink.

New findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the mental fuzziness, memory loss and cognitive impairment often reported by cancer patients but often dismissed by oncologists - is a serious problem.

Key areas of the brain including the prefrontal, parahippocampus and cingulate gyri shrink during and after chemotherapy for several months.

MRI scans show cause of chemobrain

"Chemotherapy patients experience short term problems with memory .

About 15% suffer permenant medically induced cognitive impairment.

The symptoms are consistent: a mental fogginess that may include problems with memory, word retrieval, concentration, processing numbers, following instructions, multitasking and setting priorities." - Jane E. Brody

"Those of us on the front lines have known this for a long time, now we have neuropathological evidence that what we are seeing involves an anatomic change." - Dr. Stewart Fleishman*, director of cancer supportive services at Beth Israel Medical Center and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center

unique library index

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