Forests and jungles of southern
Vietnam have been devastated and denuded.
If they ever grow back it
will take 50 to 200 years to regenerate.
Animals that inhabited the
forests and jungles are extinct.
The rivers and underground water are
desertification contribute to global
Children are born without brains, deformed limbs and
14 parts per trillion in
breast milk can cause
severe deformities in fetuses.
Up to 1450 PPT are found in breast milk in Vietnam.
Monsanto knew that Agent Orange, when produced rapidly at high temperatures,
would contain large quantities of dioxin.
Bionetics Study, commissioned
in 1963, showed that even low
levels of dioxin produced
significant deformities in unborn offspring of laboratory animals.
Study is suppressed;
spraying continues in Vietnam with Agent Orange.
In 1969 the study is
leaked and spraying of Agent Orange is discontinued.
"When we initiated
the herbicide program in the 1960s we were well aware of the potential for
damage due to dioxin contamination in the herbicide.
We were even aware
that the military formulation had a higher dioxin concentration than the
civilian version, due to the lower cost and the speed of manufacture. However,
because the material was to be used on the enemy, none of us were overly
concerned." - Air Force scientist James Clary
When the Vietnamese
victims of Agent Orange sued the chemical companies in federal court, US
District Judge Jack Weinstein dismissed the lawsuit, concluding that Agent
Orange did not constitute a chemical weapon.
US soldiers who have served
in Vietnam sue Dow and Monsanto.
The case settles out of court for $180
US veterans then win a legislative victory for compensation
They receive $1.52 billion per year in
George Mizo served in the US Army in Vietnam in 1967.
George Mizo consumed contaminated food and drink.
refused to serve after being wounded a third time; court martialed, sentenced
to 2-1/2 years in prison, given a dishonorable discharge.
dies from conditions related to his exposure to Agent Orange.
are absorbed through dietary intake of fat, where they accumulate.
humans, the highly chlorinated dioxins are stored in fatty tissues and are
neither readily metabolized nor excreted.
The estimated elimination
half-life for highly chlorinated dioxins (4-8
chlorine atoms) in humans
ranges from 7.8 to 132 years.
Exposure to high levels of dioxins in
humans causes a severe form of persistent acne, known as chloracne.
A case-control study has shown an elevated risk of
sarcoma associated with
low-level exposure (4.2 fg/m3) to dioxins from incineration
High levels of exposures to dioxins have been shown by
epidemiological studies to lead to an increased risk of tumors at all sites.
Other effects in people include:
developmental abnormalities in
the enamel of children's teeth;
and peripheral nervous system pathology;
damage to the immune
the ratio of male to female births
in a population.
Dioxins bioaccumulate in food chains as do other
Plunkett, finds a tank of gaseous tetrafluoroethylene
(C2F4) has polymerized
into a white powder.
PFOA is essential in the making of stick-resistant
Teflon, which is used in cook-ware, clothing, bedding and an array of other
PFOA was present in the blood of nearly all the
1,500 people tested in the US in the late 1990s, including young children.
Perfluorooctanoic acid is transferred
to fetuses in the
Animal tests have shown that high doses of the PFOA causes
liver cancer, immune
suppression and developmental
PFOA exposure may increase
levels in people.
Toxicologists have reported that levels found in
some children are as high as those found in chemical plant workers and approach
those that caused developmental problems in rats.
PFOA persists in the
environment indefintely; now found in polar bears.
DuPont develops applications
for Teflon in commercial bread and cookie-making; however the incorporation
avoids the market for consumer cookware due to potential problems associated
with release of toxic gases if stove-top pans are overheated in
The pyrolysis of PTFE, detectable at 200 °C (392
°F), evolves several fluorocarbon gases and a sublimate.
documented birds having been
killed by these decomposition products at 202 °C (396 °F), with
unconfirmed reports of bird deaths as a result of non-stick cookware heated to
as little as 163 °C (325 °F).
Meat is usually fried between 204 and
232 °C (399 and 450 °F).
When pans are overheated beyond
approximately 350 °C (660 °F) the PTFE coating begins to dissociate,
releasing byproducts (PFOA) which can cause polymer fume fever in humans and
can be lethal to
DuPont internal memos indicated
that DuPont is aware of a
study that shows PFOA is harmful to newborn rats, killing some and causing some
to be born with eye and face defects.
moves female employees out of
PFOA areas at the plant suggesting they consult a physician before getting
(Local physicians must have been notified, to be shared only
Pertluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA, poses a "substantial risk of injury to human
health and the environment," including
a risk of congenital
The research is conducted by scientists for 3M, which is
the main manufacturer of PFOA until it voluntarily stops making it.
incorporation also removes Scotchgard products from the market.
is the only US manufacturer of perfluorooctanoic acid.
companies, 3M/Dynean, a unit of 3M, French incorporation Arkema, Japan's AGC
Chemical/Asahi Glass, Switzerland's Ciba Specialty Chemicals Holding &
Clariant, Japan's Daikin Industries and Italy's Solvay Solexis use PFOA in
other products such as textiles,
automobile fuel systems,
computer chips, telecommunications equipment, electronic wiring, fire fighting
foams and certain paper.
These 8 companies use 75% of the PFOA - China
proposes a settlement with
as many as 60,000 residents of Ohio and West Virginia of six area water
districts with ground water contamination with PFOA.
2005 Minnesota residents claim 3M discharged PFOA and PFOS,
perfluorooctanoic sulfonate, in Washington County contaminating ground and well
The former medical director of
DuPont reveals that more
than 20 years ago the corporation became aware of
congenital defects in 1 of every 4
children born to women who worked at one of their facilities manufacturing
Same congenital defects occur in
the general public at
a rate of 1 in every 500.
Perfluorooctanoic acid can leach into food
PFOA is used to coat food packaging to keep oils from
bleeding into it.
Observers contend that the chemical can leach into
french fries from the small bags used typically by fast food
Perfluorooctanoic acid can also leach onto popcorn as the
microwavable packaging is coated with a teflon-like material.
Perfluorooctanoic acid is also used to coat
pizza delivery boxes.
When heated perfluorooctanoic acid can be released from the
DuPont, which continues to manufacture
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) resin or Teflon, reached a $16.5 million
settlement with the EPA to settle allegations the incorporation hid information
about the of a toxic chemical known as PFOA
used in the manufacture of Teflon.
DuPont covered up information
about health effects in the pollution of water supplies near the Washington
Works plant for 20 years.
PFOA can be used as an inert in pesticide
formulations applied to growing crops or to raw agricultural commodities after
People with high PFOA levels were twice as likely to have
Roy J. PLUNKETT, Wilmington, Del.,
assignor to Kinetic Chemicals Inc.: "Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers"; US Patent
2,230,654; filed July 1, 1939; granted Feb. 4, 1941; French Patent (FR)
917,431; filed Nov. 14, 1945; granted Jan. 7, 1947 (Kinetic Chemicals Inc. is a
subsidiary of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours,
1995 Michael J. McCREERY, Xenia, Ohio, assignor to
the United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army:
"Topical skin protectants", US Patent 5,607,979; filed May 30, 1995; granted
March 4, 1997
Toxic PFAS Fallout Found Near Incinerator in Upstate New
Indiana in Charge of Incinerating PFAS Firefighting Foam
polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDE
diphenyl ethers also bioaccumulate in human bodies.
diphenyl ethers are being spread by an array of
processed foods and consumer
items; found as dust inside homes and
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, or
PBDEs, are added to carpet backings,
upholstery textiles, mattresses,
materials by chemical corporations to harden plastic and make
polyurethane foam less flammable.
High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers have been
detected in the fish, meat and fowl of America.
In America human bodies
carry 20 times more on average than in Europe.
Americans are breathing
much higher levels found in their household dust compared with
PBDEs escape as a gas from hard plastic and
polyurethane foam -
especially newer computers, furniture and other products - and then adhere to
"There is a continuous
exposure, and there is absolutely no way to control it. You have almost a
24-hour exposure, except for the time you are outside." - Aake Bergman, head of
environmental chemistry at Stockholm University
The flame retardants
have been detected in virtually every individual and animal tested, even
newborns and fetuses, around the world.
Amounts in people and wildlife
are doubling in North America every four to six years, a pace unmatched for any
contaminant in at least 50 years.
"We have two sources: food is one and
indoor air is another. We now know that the sources are inside our houses,
inside our buildings," said Mehran Alaee of Canada's National Water Research
"PBDEs are found in almost all foods of animal origin;
and some have very high levels of these chemicals," said a report by University
of Texas environmental scientist Arnold Schecter.
began to skyrocket in indoor cats.
Indoor cats lounge on
polybrominated diphenyl ether, flame retardant,
treated furniture, grooming themselves by licking.
contained 5 to 6 times more than wild fish. Other foods that contained high
levels of PBDEs included pork sausage, duck and
Beef had the lowest levels, followed by goose, pheasant,
scallops, canned tuna and wild coho salmon.
Chicken contained moderate
PBDEs bind to fat so trimming excess fat, eating lean meats
and avoiding large, predatory
fish is advised - especially for pregnant and nursing women.
sure we are building a huge, ticking time bomb." - Aake Bergman
2007 Californians for Fire Safety launches a campaign
to derail a legislative bill to ban toxic flame retardants.
Californians for Fire Safety is funded by Albemarle Corporation,
Chemtura Corporation, and IC Limited - Industrial Products manufactures of
"My uncle was a fire fighter and he believed in the use of
He treated his children's pajama fabric with flame
My uncle died at 45.
His wife and his two children
have had thyroid problems all their lives.
My cousin, Ralph, was
lethargic since childhood.
He was fairly intelligent but he never had
any get up and go.
He only worked short lived jobs during his adult
He once told an employer that it was to hard to get out of bed to
go to work.
Ralph died at age 53." - Athbhreith
2010 Each tenfold increase in
blood concentration of PBDEs was linked to a 30% decrease in the likelihood of
becoming pregnant each month.
"One of the strongest associations of
PBDEs is with thyroid
Thyroid hormone does seem to play
an important role in
low or too high levels can impair fertility.
We know these
endocrine disrupting chemicals
can affect the next
generation's fertility." - Kim Harley
Bisphenol A is first investigated in the search for synthetic estrogens.
Diethylstilbestrol, is determined to be more powerful than estrogen
itself, so bisphenol A is not used as a synthetic estrogen.
current uses are as a primary monomer in polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is also used as an antioxidant in plasticizers and as
a polymerization inhibitor in PVC.
for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction is established within the
National Institutes of
Health to assess the dangers of chemicals to human reproductive health.
As with most government programs to study the effects of industry on
health most of the work is outsourced to
industry sponsored "think
2007 More than 100 government
studies confirmed the ability of BPA to mimic estrogen, cause genetic changes
that lead to prostate cancer, decreased testosterone, low sperm counts and
early female fertility.
A study of bisphenol A is done by Sciences
International funded by BASF,
ExxonMobil, 3-M, Union
Carbide, the National Association of Manufactures and other industry
Sciences International reviews the scientific
literature, writes the basic report, "suggests" who should be a member of the
scientific review panel, sets the parameters and the agenda under which the
Bisphenol A: not conclusively proven to have any
A dozen industry studies confirm this.
Polymers made with bisphenol A are
FDA-approved as food additives.
bisphenol A draft assessment claims bisphenol A is safe, ignoring numerous independent and
government-funded studies which show risk of harm including brain and prostate
damage to developing infants, fetuses, and children, as well as
increased risk of diabetes
and heart disease.
FDA relies on two
studies funded by an arm of the American Chemistry Council, a trade
organization representing chemical manufacturers.
In test animals
bisphenol A in concentrations lower than those set by the EPA have caused
permanent changes to the genital tract, changes in breast tissue that
predispose cells to hormones and carcinogens, 30% increase in
prostate weight, signs of early puberty, decline in testicular testosterone,
breast cells predisposed to cancer, prostate cells more sensitive to hormones
and cancer, insulin
résistance, decreased maternal behavior, damage to eggs and chromosomes,
hyperactivity and reversal of normal sex difference in brain structure.
"Small amounts of estrogenic oil, bisphenol A for example, can
permanently disrupt cellular control systems and predispose the prostate to
disease in adulthood," said Barry G. Timms, a professor of biomedical sciences
at the University of South Dakota who specializes in prostate
"Exposure before birth to bisphenol A and other estrogen mimics
at low doses explains why we have this increase in incidences of both breast
and prostate cancers," said Patricia Hunt, professor School of Molecular
Biosciences at Washington State University.
"The failure to
report the toxic effects of bisphenol A in plastics follows a familiar pattern
in which the industry involved adamantly denies any harm despite overwhelming
animal studies to the contrary.
diseases, from attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder to brain
tumors, are dramatically rising in the Western culture, especially in
Many toxic substances are present in common foods, cleaners,
clothes, personal items and other household products, consumers and especially
parents would be well advised to become
aware and avoid exposure."
- Dennis Schumacher MD
"Reading the comments of Steve Hentges of the
The Polycarbonate/BPA Global Group group gave me
a profound feeling of
Steve Hentges' denigration of scientific evidence of the
probable health dangers of bisphenol A echoed the comments of "scientists"
from the tobacco industry denigrating scientific
findings of the health risks of tobacco.
One suspects that
all the evidence that is
needed to prove the danger of BPA is in locked flies of the plastics
industry." - Norman Decker MD
"Observers focused on 634 male workers at four
factories in China who were exposed to elevated levels of BPA.
followed the men over five years and compared their sexual health with that of
male workers in other Chinese factories where BPA was not present.
men handling BPA were four times as likely to suffer from
and seven times as likely to have
ejaculation, said De-Kun Li, a scientist at the Kaiser Foundation
Research Institute, which conducted the study with funds from the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health." - Lyndsey
Layton, November 11, 2009
commercial production of PCBs is taken over by
Monsanto from Swann
Through partial oxidation polychlorinated
biphenyls create dioxins and dibenzofurans.
alter estrogen levels in the body.
In the womb, males can be
feminized or the baby may be intersex, neither a male nor a female or both sets
of reproductive organs may develop.
Biological magnification of PCBs has
also led to polar bears and whales that have both male and female sex organs
and males that cannot reproduce.
This effect is also known as
1930 to 1977 Monsanto,
markets PCBs under the trade name Aroclor.
PCB mixtures have been used
for a variety of applications, including dielectric fluids for capacitors and
transformers, heat transfer fluids, hydraulic fluids, lubricating and cutting
oils, and as additives in pesticides, paints, carbonless copy paper, adhesives,
sealants, plastics, reactive flame retardants, and as a fixative for
Polychlorinated biphenyls were also
used in surgical implants.
The most commonly observed health effects in people exposed
to large amounts of PCBs are skin conditions such as chloracne and
rashes, both identified as
symptoms of systemic
poisoning dating back to the 1920s.
2001 Waste disposal and recycling firm Philip Services
is fined $1,000,000 for environmental violations at four Washington State
The facilities accept hazardous substances for disposal
and/or recycling including PCBs, solvents, acids,
The incorporation has already been deemed a responsible party for
ground water contamination that has migrated from their Georgetown, Washington
facility onto adjacent properties and has been fined in 1995 ($160,000) and
1998 ($25,000) for previous environmental violations.
EPA endorses plan
to remove PCB contaminated sediment from a 40 mile stretch of the Hudson River
north of Albany.
General Electric dumps
~ 1.3 million pounds of PCBs into
Electric spends hundreds of millions fighting the dredging plan.
2003 Alabama jurors award $6 million in property
damages in the Anniston, Alabama PCB contamination class action to 21
There are some 900 additional plaintiffs in the class
seeking property damages and 3,500 seeking
damages for illnesses allegedly
caused by exposure to PCBs.
Another class action has been filed by some
15,000 additional plaintiffs.
Monsanto made PCBs at the Anniston
facility from 1935 to 1971.
Paper manufacturer Glatfelter agreed to pay
$25 million towards the dredging of PCB contaminated sediment in Wisconsin's
Fox River and Green Bay.
Alcoa agrees to study remediation
options for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in New York's Grasse
Residents filed a toxic tort lawsuit against National Electric
Coil plant in Dayhoit, Kentucky.
Substances released include PCBs,
dioxins, vinyl chloride,
trichloroethylene and heavy metals.
The plaintiff's also allege that the incorporation misled residents
regarding the health risks once the contamination was discovered.
facility was bought by Cooper Industries from National Electric Coil in 1985
and was closed in 1987.
2005 Seven paper
companies that dumped PCBs into the Fox River, Wisconsin over a 20 year period
ending in the 1970s have pay $130 million for cleanup.
agrees to spend $215 - $265 million in first phase of PCB cleanup of 2.65
million cubic yards of PCB contaminated sediment in the Hudson River.
2006 Capacitor manufacturer Schlumberger
Technology agrees to pay $20 million
liability for natural resource damages to Lake Hartwell which straddles the
border between South Carolina and Georgia.
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