"My own LSD experiences is that all aspects of
become meaningful rather than
meaningless." - Alan Watts
1949 LSD suggested as a tool in
The following year saw the first studies in
"The potential of LSD seems to be
extraordinary and unique.
ability of LSD to
deepen, intensify and accelerate the psychotherapeutic process is
incomparably greater than that of any other drug used as an adjunct to
psychotherapy, with the exception perhaps of some other
entheogens." - Stanislav
The Czechoslovakian psychiatrist Stanislav Grof treated
psychological problems with lysergic acid diethylamide for several years while
1950 to 1965
LSD is used in
conjunction with therapy on an estimated 40,000 people worldwide with
generally good results.
International symposia are held in Princeton,
London and Amsterdam.
1953 CIA case officer
dispatched to Basil, Switzerland.
Sandoz agrees to sell its entire
supply - 10 kilograms - for $240,000.
Sidney Gottlieb learns Sandoz is
afraid of LSD and has no desire to protect the patent.
Sidney tasks Eli
Lilly to work on manufatcuring LSD.
Subproject 6 - pay Eli Lilly
chemists to synthsize LSD.
Subproject 73 - does LSD makes a subject
easier to hypnosis?
Harris Isbell of Addiction Research Center,
Lexington, Kentucky is contracted by Gottlieb to run a series of experiments on
One was William Henry Wall, From Healing to Hell.
Another was Eddie
Flowers,"It was the worse shit I ever had."
Another was James "Whitie"
Was Whitey Bulger's murderous life down to LSD testing by the
After learning of Whitey Bulger LSD tests, juror has
1955 Subproject 42 - Operation
Harry Anslinger's most flamboyant agent George Hunter
White sets up a "pad" at 225 Chestnut Street on Telegraph Hill.
Agent prostitutes are paid $100 to surreptitiously
dose clients drinks with LSD and perform sex.
"When he wasn't
operating a national security whorehouse White would
cruise the streets
tracking down drug pushers." - Federal Bureau of Narcotics
that was just the tip of the iceberg. Write this down: espionage,
assassination, dirty tricks, drug experiments,
sexual encounters, and the study of prostitution for clandestine use.
That's what I did working for George White and the CIA." - Ira Feldman
1956 Gerald Heard and Sidney Cohen adminster LSD
to AA co-founder Bill Wilson and Aldous Huxley.
"A friend of mine, saved
from alcoholism, during the last fatal phases of the disease, by a spontaneous
theophany, which changed his life as completely as St. Paul's was changed on
the road to Damascus, has taken lysergic acid two or three times and affirms
that his experience under the drug is identical with the spontaneous experience
which changed his life - the only difference being that the spontaneous
experience did not last so long as the chemically induced one. There is,
obviously, a field here for serious and reverent experimentation." - Aldous
Huxley to Father Thomas Merton, January 10, 1959
1959 Timothy Leary is chewing
Kesey is the 25-year-old holder of a fellowship in creative writing at Stanford
University, supplementing his grant by earning $75 a day on one of the
government's drug research program at Menlo Park Veterans' Hospital.
Part of an intellectual colony in Perry Lane, Stanford's answer to
Greenwich Village, Kesey is awakened by psychedelics.
creative juices bubbling with LSD and
peyote, writes One Flew
Over the Cuckoo's Nest.
1961 Lauretta Bender
chooses fourteen autistic boys and girls to inject with LSD at Creedmore State
Over the next four years see adds more children and increased
the dose from 25 micrograms once a week to 150 milligrams a day administered in
By 1969 Lauretta Bender had produced 8 key articles on LSD
and autism after experimenting on 89 children.
There was no control
group and no objective metrics.
"Right from the start the
acid culture was fueled by a loosely knit counterculture-conglomerate -
that mingled Harvard lawyers, low-level Chicago gangsters, Swiss bankers, New
York jet setters, gold smugglers, Wall Street brokers, Bahamian bankers and
real estate hustlers, university professors, international financiers, shifty
lawyers, brilliant chemists, Hells Angels, and young heirs of old WASP
money." - Mary Jo Warth, The Acid Profiteers: Drop-Out, Turn-On,
Cash-In, Village Voice
Charles Rumsey, a nephew of
Averell Harriman, become a missionary for LSD among
the Manhattan set.
1963 Harvard University
fires Timothy Leary.
William Mellon Hitchcock charges nominal rent for a
55-room mansion in Millbrook, New York.
Hitchcock relegates himself to
the four-bedroom gardeners cottage with a Japanese bath in the basement
and keeps his jet helicopter in the barn.
Rumsey sends many new
disciples to Millbrook for the experimental weekend workshops with Timothy
Millbrook becomes an experimenters' playground, encouraged by
Hitchcock's seemingly endless
Millbrook became the home of the Castalia
Foundation, based on Herman Hesse's book The Glass Bead Game.
In the book, Castalia was the name of an intellectual
"Leary and Hitchcock, who claimed to be running "experiments" in
the LSD field, are actually hosts to a five-year-long acid-soaked Millbrook
melee, a monster party which often filled the mansion with 50 or 60 hippies at
a time, their eyeballs full of the latest batch of LSD." - Mary Jo
1965 The Acid Tests
Trip was the word for an LSD session, borrowed from the term used
by the US Army for LSD experiments.
Allen Welsh Dulles orders
100 million doses of LSD from Sandoz.
The CIA and Army spends tens of
millions of dollars "testing" LSD, code name EA 1729, and other chemical and
Contracts go out to
institutions for testing.
CIA conceals participation
by contracting to various colleges, hospitals, prisons, mental hospitals, and
"No physical examination of the subject is
required prior to the administration of LSD. A doctor need not be present.
Doctors might be
called for in the hope they make a diagnosis of
which would be useful in discrediting the subject of
"The drug Gottlieb and his CIA
colleagues hoped would control humanity had the opposite effect. In 1966 LSD
was banned in California. The federal governmnet soon followed. Richard Nixon
called Timothy Leary the "most dangerous man in America." - Stephen Kinzer,
Poisoner in Chief
Richard Helms argues
administering drugs, including poisoned LSD, to unwitting individuals is the
only realistic method of understanding the capability of the intended
operational use in influencing human
1966 Remaining stockpile begins to
be passed out across America in the hopes of upending the anti-war
Get the youth -
Poor alike - all involved
in a big dope party
Possession of LSD becomes a misdemeanour punishable by a fine of
$1,000 or one year in prison; manufacture or sale could, as a felony, bring one
to five years for the first offence and two to ten years for further
publishes The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism.
June 1967 Augustus Owsley Stanley III passes out Purple
Barrel Monterey International Pop Festival.
~ Hey Joe
Janis Joplin ~ Ball & Chain
Along Comes Mary
~ Try a little tenderness
Garfunkel ~ Sounds of Silence
Springfield ~ For What It's Worth
the Papas ~ California Dreamin'
Canned Heat & Jefferson
Airplane ~ Monterey Pop Festival
Love 100,000 young
people sporting hippie fashions of dress converge in neighborhood of
Haight-Ashbury, San Francisco.
dose of LSD increases sense experience to the point where the left brain
talking-to-myself consciousness, "little voice",
experiences a "white out"
which leads to a vacant rational memory of the experience.
The amount of
disruption of left brain
acculturation is directly proportional to the dose -
the higher the dose, the more
The best way to describe to a left brain what it is like
in the right brain visual would be
of Alex Grey.
But that is only visual and a poor description as
the colors are heard
and not seen, they taste weird, smell funny,
and keep slapping, pinching, caressing and sticking you with
more and more sensory
San Francisco - Scott McKenzie
1968 Sonoma County underground chemistry lab of Tim Scully and
Nicholas Sand is producing Orange Sunshine - ALD-52 or
"Inducing a hyper-associative state may have
implications for the enhancement of creativity." -
"Over his long life, Albert
Hofmann (the first chemist to synthesize lysergic acid diethylamide) took LSD
Albert Hofmann developed
a personal mysticism involving
nature, for which he had a lifelong passion.
One thing this
very tolerant man
decried in the Western drive for
was an alienation from nature.
The use of LSD made him more and more
conscious of it.
nature Albert Hofmann saw "a
miraculous, powerful, unfathomable reality." - Robert Stone
1970 Hundreds of articles on the uses of LSD in therapy have
appeared in the Journal of the American
Medical Association, the Journal of Psychology, the Archives
of General Psychiatry, the Quarterly Journal of Studies of
Alcoholism as well as many non-English-language journals.
psychotherapeutic conferences have
segments devoted to LSD, and two professional organizations are formed for this
specialty, one in Europe and the other in North America.
"LSD and other
more or less as nonspecific catalysts and
amplifiers of the psyche.
In the dosages used in human experimentation, the
psychedelics do not have any specific pharmacological effects.
They increase the
energetic niveau in the psyche and the body which leads to
otherwise latent psychological processes.
The content and nature of
the experiences that these substances induce are thus
not artificial products of
their pharmacological interaction with the brain ("toxic psychosis"), but
authentic expressions of
the psyche revealing its functioning on levels not ordinarily available for
observation and study.
A person who has taken LSD does not have an
"LSD experience," but takes a journey
into deep recesses of his or her own psyche." - Stanislav Grof
"LSD has a
Lysergic acid diethylamide requires a time
commitment - an LSD trip can last as long as 20 hours.
Early rituals suggest a
deliberate, thoughtful approach to drug use.
Leary's ideas about
"set and setting" emphasized
the importance of the
psychological state of the user as well as the environment in which the
drug would be used.
The way to avoid a bad hallucinogenic experience has
to do with how well you know yourself and how willing you are to
remove yourself from bad-vibe
people and excessive external stimuli, like
If we're looking for a yardstick
to measure how people's feelings about consciousness have changed over 40
years, we could do worse than to consider
the enormous philosophical
gulf between LSD and, say, Prozac®.
Whereas one expands
consciousness, the other
belongs to a class of drugs whose phenomenal success rests largely on their
ability to keep the mind from
expanding into uncomfortable places (ie
reduces a person's 'functionality' by questioning reality,
the other is about being
'functional' while questioning little." - Meghan Daum
Acute dose-dependent effects of lysergic acid diethylamide in a
double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy
Conclusion: We characterized the effects of LSD at
different doses to support the dosing of LSD for research and LSD-assisted
LSD exhibited dose-proportional PKs and first-order
It produced significant dose-dependent subjective
responses starting at the 25µg dose.
A ceiling effect was
observed for good drug effects at the 100µg dose.
dose induced more ego dissolution but also more anxiety than the 100µg
These results may assist with dose finding for future LSD
Ketanserin almost completely prevented the response to the
high (200µg) dose of LSD, thus confirming the critical role of 5-HT2A
receptors in mediating psychedelic effects of LSD.
beans and try to fly;
get in a fatal accident on
stare at the sun
until your eyes burn out;
give birth to
thalidomide fish out of fright;
get lost in the bottom of
a rabbit hole somewhere.
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