stacks



National Security Administration

Nothing to Hide

I always feel like somebody's watching me

Keeping secrets can cause you to ‘come undone’


"Its pretty basic stuff - secrecy invites corruption."

Steven Aftergood




Declassification News

"National Declassification Center listing of 134 record collections
that have undergone declassification review." - FAS

National Declassification Center



"In 1997, 20 officials in the US government were empowered to wield the top secret stamp.

In 2006 there are 1,300." - Paul McMasters


"Secrecy all too often becomes a political tool used by Executive Branch agencies to shield information which may be politically sensitive or policies which may be unpopular with the American public.

Worse yet, information may be classified to hide from public view illegal or unethical activity." - Senator Jeese Helms, Senate hearing in 1997



classifying methodology

The Shadow of State Secrets

Growing Body of Secret Intelligence Law

Court Views State Secrets Too Narrowly




"In too many cases, claims of state secrets have succeeded in keeping important cases out of court entirely or preventing courts from considering evidence vital to the outcome of a case," said Rep. John Conyers, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, at a January 29, 2008 hearing on "Reform of the State Secrets Privilege"

"In recent years, the executive branch has asserted privilege more frequently and broadly than before, typically to seek dismissal of lawsuits at pleadings.

Facing allegations of unlawful Government conduct ranging from domestic warrantless surveillance, to employment discrimination, to retaliation against whistleblowers, to torture and 'extraordinary rendition,' the Bush administration invoked privilege in an effort to shut down civil suits against both government officials and private parties. Courts have acquiesced.

A strong public perception has emerged that sees the privilege as a tool for Executive abuse." - Senate Judiciary Committee Report 110-442, 8/1/08

Central to the global right to information movement is the belief that information held by government should be publicly available unless government officials can make a good case that legitimate interests – perhaps the public interest in preserving national security or the need to protect citizen privacy – would be harmed by releasing that information.

Even though citizens may assume that transparency is a basic principle of representative government access to information has always been closely tied the distribution of political power.

The political philosopher Jean Bodin revived the term used by the Roman historian Tacitus to describe the "secrets of imperial policy" that had to be protected against prying: the arcana imperii.

Following Tacitus, Jean Bodin and other supporters of absolutist rule argue that the ability to maintain the integrity of the state will be undercut if arcana imperii is not protected.

Revolutions in England (1688) and France (1789) ended the concept that the true purpose of laws must be kept secret for the state to retain authority.

Social philosophers of the time noted secret law led to both revolutions.

The right to free speech became gradually entrenched, legislatures improved their capacity to monitor taxing and spending, and the process of lawmaking became more open to public scrutiny.

1789 Drafters of the Constitution of the United States of America emphasize the need for open lawmaking by requiring publication of a "regular statement of account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money," as well as a journal of Congressional proceedings.

1803 British House of Commons acknowledges the right of the press to sit in the public gallery and record debates.

1829 The Hansard, the daily record of British parliamentary debates, begins publication.



Prosecution of Aaron Swartz

Spiritual successor to Aaron Swartz



"Arnold Burns, former United States deputy attorney general, has said that federal grand juries can be used as a "vicious tool."

They can be used to violate Constitutional rights and basic standards of fairness, while all records are secret forever.

Unseal records after 10 years so abuses can come to light." - Elaine Fleeman

1900 Western democracies have achieved a level of basic transparency.

The rule of law is established, the process of lawmaking is open to public view, and the right to speak freely about government affairs is protected.

Within the bowels of government, secret plans are still the rule.

The concept of the "official secret" is the specific invention of government and nothing is so fanatically defended as the "official secret."

Every government seeks to keep knowledge and intentions secret to shield intended actions from critical examination by the general public.

Government naturally welcomes a poorly informed populace in so far as ignorance agrees with the government's interests of concealing knowledge and intentions behind the Veil of the "Official Secret."

1946   US Chamber of Commerce, under the Rockefeller fight of the spread of Communism, proposed removing liberals, socialists and communists from public venues such as schools, libraries, newspapers and entertainment.

August 3, 1948   Whittaker Chambers, a former US Communist Party member, testifies under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) that Alger Hiss has secretly been a Communist while in federal service.

October 6, 1948   3 employees of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), an Air Force contractor, are killed when a bomber crashes near Waycross, Georgia.

The widows of three crew members who die in the crash of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber request an accident report on the crash.

The Air Force denies the request and files affidavits with the Supreme Court claiming withheld reports contain information about a secret mission.

The Air Force affidavits describe secret electronic equipment on board that has to be protected from falling into the hands of the enemy.




US Sought Permission To Change Historical Record Of A Public Court Proceeding



January 1950   Alger Hiss is found guilty of perjury.

Americans are being warned communists are infiltrating the government.

1951   Edward Hunter coins a new word: brainwashing.

Communists have found ways of controlling people's minds.

Brainwashing in Red China - Edward Hunter

July 1952   Colonel Frank Schwable, is shot down over Korea and captured, the highest ranking military officer to meet that fate.


February 1953   Frank Schwable and other prisoners of war confess to using germ warfare against the Koreans, dropping everything from anthrax to the plague on unsuspecting civilians.

The American public shocked, grew even more so when 5,000 of the 7,200 POWs either petitioned the US government to end the war, or signed confessions of their alleged crimes.

The final blow came when 21 American soldiers refused repatriation.

Milo Radulovich is discharged from the Air Force Reserve after members of his family are believed to have Communist sympathies.

He was given the opportunity to resign but refuses and requests a hearing.

During the hearing, the prosecution waves around a sealed manila envelope claiming there is evidence in it that cannot be seen as they are state secrets.

Radulovich is severed from the Air Force Reserves.

Loyalty is never questioned.




State Secrets Privilege: Selected Case Files

Background on the State Secrets Privilege

State Secrets Privilege


Edward Murrow

"We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty.

When the loyal opposition dies,

I think the soul of America dies."

Edward R. Murrow



"A very substantial fraction of the funding for academic US research into social psychology and into many aspects of mass communication behavior during the first 15 years of the cold war was directly controlled or strongly influenced by a small group of men who had enthusiastically supported elite psychological operations as an instrument of policy since World War II.

This was not a "conspiracy," in the hackneyed sense of that word.

It was rather precisely the type of "reference group" or informal network that is so well known to sociologists." - Christopher Simpson, Science of Coercion

An article in the Detroit Press is read by Alfred Friendly.

They have been searching for a story to illustrate the dangers of McCarthy.

The case is based on Radulovich's father and sister political orientation.

Emigrants from Serbia, his father subscribes to several Serbian newspapers, one of which was classified as Communist by the US government.

His sister is labeled a sympathizer as she supported liberal causes though she has declared that she has no political sympathies.

Friendly film crew interviews Radulovich, his family, and his attorneys.

Ed Murrow broadcasts the report on October 20, 1953.

The impassioned interviews make an impression on the country.

Thousands of letters pour into CBS in support of Radulovich.

"First time any of us appreciated the power of television." - Fred Friendly

Radulovich is reinstated to reduce tension.

Murrow did a great service to the deep state by shifting the focus of the ability of the government to produce secret evidence from state secrets to the political affilation of the subject.

The following theatrics of the Red Scare shift the focus off the ability of the State to use secret evidence to convict onto political orientation.

March 9, 1953   The Supreme Court, citing the Air Force claim, rules in favor of the Air Force, establishing the State Secrets Privilege.

Supreme Court decision in United States vs Reynolds sets as the cornerstone of national security secrecy policy the "state secrets privilege", which relies on fraud, as the precedential basis for asserting that there are "military matters which, in the interest of national security, should not be divulged."

Eventually the Air Force accident report is declassified.

It contains nothing about a secret mission or sensitive electronic equipment.

The declassified Air Force accident report highlights negligence in training crew members, negligence in maintenance of the aircraft and pilot error.

There is absolutely no mention of 'classified secrets' in the accident report.

Permanent flying crews had not been established for the experimental flights of 3150th Electronics Squadron.

Civilian passengers and crew were not briefed prior to take off on emergency procedures.

The commanding officer failed to exercise adequate supervision.

The pilot inadvertently hit the feathering switch on engine #4 when hitting the feathering switch of engine #1.

Technical orders, as to maintenance, were not complied with so the aircraft was not considered to have been safe to fly.

The legal precedent that granted the US government the 'state secrets privilege' was based on false and misleading information provided by a US government agency, the Air Force.

The US government has used the state secrets privilege to cover up government negligence and mistakes that would be embarrassing to government officials and that might prove government officials liable.

"A court that automatically accepts the 'state secrets' argument, without ever looking at the documents in question, aligns the judiciary with the executive branch and eliminates any chance of a fair trial." - Louis Fisher

April 27, 1961   "The very word "secrecy" is repugnant in a free and open society; and we are as a people inherently and historically opposed to secret societies, to secret oaths and to secret proceedings.

We decided long ago that the dangers of excessive and unwarranted concealment of pertinent facts far outweighed the dangers which are cited to justify it." - John F. Kennedy, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York City

1989   Erwin Griswold confesses in a Washington Post op-ed there was no actual national security damage from the publication of the Pentagon Papers.




Why Did Noel Field Spy for the Russians?



1992 Records are found in Hungarian Interior Ministry archives in which self-confessed Soviet spy Noel Field names Alger Hiss as a fellow agent.

Noel Field, an American Quaker citizen, grew up in Switzerland.

Field attended Harvard and worked in the US Foreign Service from 1929 until 1936, when he left the State Department for a job at the League of Nations in Geneva helping refugees from the Spanish Civil War.

During World War II, Field, who never concealed he was a Communist, headed a Unitarian Services organization to aid displaced persons in Marseilles, before fleeing to Geneva, where he collaborated with Allen Dulles of the OSS (who was based in Bern).

After the war ended Field traveled to Prague were he was seized by Stalinist security services and accused of organizing an anti-Communist resistance network in Eastern Europe for the OSS during the war.

Held for five years in solitary confinement, interrogated under torture in Hungary, Field eventually broke down and confessed to being an agent.

"The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department is settled, as is that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department." - Patrick Moynihan

Venona document, #1579, actually mentioned "HISS" by name.

1995 William Jefferson Clinton signs Executive Order 12958 which mandates that 25-year-old documents be automatically declassified unless exempted for national security or other reasons.



History of FOIA


Chinese charater for knowledge is power

hidden knowledge

House Passes Bill that Prohibits Expert Scientific Advice to the EPA

Sequestered Science: The Consequences of Undisclosed Knowledge

EPA Library Closings Limit Researchers' Access to Information

ignorance is a choice


Throughout history humans have formed groups that hold knowledge close.

By doing so these groups gain an advantage by using specialized knowledge.

Obvious examples of a material advantage can be seen in armaments.

First man had to find the things that fit his fist.

Then came the knives, the short sword, steel long sword, short and long bow, catapults, then gunpowder, nitroglycerin, bullets, finally nuclear warheads.

The most obvious examples of a spiritual or psychological advantage can still be seen in the major institutionalized religious centers of Christianity, Islam, Buddhism that drew people in off the land and into colonies.

When a corporation owns knowledge it is proprietary knowledge.

Proprietary knowledge has created adverse effects for the human race.

Proprietary knowledge includes the true status of DynCorp activities in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Iraq and Afghanistan.

Proprietary knowledge includes chemical industry knowledge that asbestos, lead, mercury, fluoride, polychlorinated biphenyls, polytetrafluoroethylene, bisphenol A, phthalates, pyrethroids, 1,2-dichloroethane, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perchlorate and trichloroethylene are harmful to the environment and to human health.

As corporations always search for strategic advantages in the search of profitbarriers to access to proprietary knowledge have always been erected.

Corporations, just like individuals, can easily become reactive and spread themselves thin as they vainly seek to sense and respond to all stimuli.

Unless they have a clear sense of direction that can help them filter and prioritize knowledge flows that matter, they will be easily distracted.


"Filtering knowledge flows and engaging with knowledge flow participants matters little if we lack the ability to apply the knowledge acquired.

Once a critical mass of knowledge flows is achieved, flows begin to concentrate at an increasing rate and the value generated from these flows grows exponentially." - John Hagel III and John Seely Brown


A shift is now underway in which it is easier to access unknown knowledge flows due to the internet.

This shift undermines the structural advantage of knowledge barriers erected by corporations by systematically reducing those barriers.


"The free use of scientific discoveries is increasingly limited by legal ownership over their applications.

In the realm of biomedical science, the traditional free exchange of information, strains of organisms, etc. is crumbling because genetically engineered micro-organisms can now be patented; made into property.

Past scientific progress was based on coöperation more than competition:

People shared results in journals and through informal exchange, protected by their university salaries from the compulsion to profit financially.

Careers now depend in part on corporate research funding.

Researchers and universities have a pecuniary interest in patenting results.

A new era of secrecy has dawned.

It originates from the profit potential inherent in the patentability of new pharmaceuticals, vaccines and genetically modified organisms.



social cultural illusions

Conformity: Ways It Influences Everyone



September 11, 2001

"Since 911 government agencies have restricted access to unclassified information in federal agency libraries, EPA libraries, archives, Web sites, and official databases.

Once freely available, a growing number of these sources are now barred to the public as "sensitive but unclassified" or "for official use only."

No comprehensive catalog of deleted information exists.

The information blackout serves the interests of the Bush crime family, who is allergic to criticism or probing questions.

The information blackout is a disservice to the American people.

Current information policies are conditioning Americans to lower their expectations of government accountability and to doubt political leaders.

Information is the oxygen of democracy." - Steven Aftergood

"They're doing everything to remove our history.

I have always called jokingly the United States of Amnesia will be worse than an amnesiac, it will have suffered a lobotomy and electroshock, there will be no functioning historical memory of our history." - Gore Vidal

John Yoo pens Justice Department memorandum on torture which is followed by the administration when it came to matters of torture.

"The law in this country includes not just statutes and regulations, which the public can readily access, it also includes binding legal interpretations made by courts and the executive branch.

Interpretations are increasingly being withheld from Congress.

The code of secrecy also extends to changes to executive orders.

The administration takes the position a president can "waive" or "modify" a published executive order without any public notice - by ignoring it.

Doing so without public notice works a secret change in the law.

Keeping the law secret gives the government free rein to operate without oversight or accountability." - Senator Russ Feingold

March 2003 GW Bush affirms and amends Executive Order 12958.

Analysis: Executive Order 12958 goes too far by allowing any information that involves 'scientific, technological, or economic matters relating to national security' to be classified.

It can be argued that all information relates to one of these three categories - 'scientific, technological, or economic' should and can be withheld since national security includes profitability of federal government business'.

Scientific, technological, or economic matters that relate to oil, gas, energy, hedge funds, leveraged buyouts, money management, government bonds, insurance, banking, publishing, broadcasting, consumer products, chemicals, telecommunications, outsourcing, drugs, medical products and information services could all be connected to national security in one way or another.

Environmentalists sight environmental impact studies to point out that federal land-use plans for national parks and forests will have long-term negative effects on the environment for decades or centuries to come.

Solution: Feds stop conducting environmental impact studies and begins shuttering Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) libraries.





October 1, 2003   United States vs Reynolds case is refiled as Herring v. United States in the US District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

The trial court finds no fraud in the government's claim of privilege.

"Over time, the desire to protect military secrets has started to look a good deal like the impulse to cover up mistakes, avoid embarrassment and gain insulation from liability." - Barry Siegel

2004   Halliburton subsidiary Kellogg, Brown and Root routinely stamps information, ie. number of meals served, as proprietary secret information.

"There's over 50% of the information that, while it may meet the criteria for classification, really should not be classified in terms of what we lose." - Information Security Oversight Office director William Leonard at an August 24, 2004 hearing of the House Government Reform Committee.

Army Corp of Engineers stamped "secret" on flooding dangers in Florida.

Information on 140 Superfund sites, sites contaminated with dangerous highly toxic carcinogenic materials, have been stamped "secret".

July 22, 2004   911 Commission Report report is published.

It shines a light on government secrecy as a national security obstacle.

August 2004   DoD official testifies before Congress that perhaps 50% of classified documents did not need that designation.

Department of Education data shows public charter schools, promoted as a solution to public school woes lag regular public schools in performance.

Solution: Feds stop collecting data on charter school performance.

2005   Annual costs attributable to the national security classification system reach a record high of $9.2 billion according to a report from the Information Security Oversight Office.

Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit upholds Herring v. United States in new litigation, in which District Court determines "no fraud as the documents, read in their historical context, could have revealed secret information about equipment being tested on the plane and, on a broader reading, the claim of privilege referred to both the mission and the workings of the B-29".

"It quickly becomes apparent to any person who has experience with classified material that there is massive over classification and that the principal concern of the classifiers is not with national security, but with governmental embarrassment of one sort or another."- Erwin Griswold, who as United States solicitor general prosecuted the New York Times in the Pentagon Papers case in 1971

The truth is quite ugly. If the US government allowed the State Secrets Privilege to be overturned it would be bankrupt and out of business.

Congressionally mandated annual State Department report on international terrorism showed that terrorism worldwide is on the rise.

Solution: Feds stop inclusion of statistics on international terrorism.





2006   Feds decide public information in many federal libraries should no longer be publically available.

This is not the first time.

HW Bush operatives stripped American libraries of cannabis knowledge after Reagan became president.

The knowledge proved cannabis should not be Schedule I.

Thousands of people lose access to research materials as the US government closes and downsizes libraries that house collections vital to scientific investigation and the enforcement of environmental laws.

The work of John C. Mather, leading to the astrophysicist sharing of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for shedding new light on the Big Bang theory , was done at the NASA library in Greenbelt, Maryland - slated for closure.

"It is completely absurd. The library is a national treasure. It is probably the single strongest library for space science and engineering." - John C. Mather, 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics

Information withdrawal greases the wheels of corporate corruption.

The GSA headquarters library where previously patrons conducted research on real estate, telecommunications and government finance is shuttered.

Department of Energy library which collected literature for government scientists and citizens on the effects of radiation exposure is shuttered.

EPA headquarters library as well as the chemical library in DC that helped toxicologists assess health effects of pesticides and chemicals as well as regional libraries in Chicago, Kansas City and Dallas are shuttered.

These libraries handled over 134,000 research requests the previous year.

EPA libraries house and catalog an estimated 50,000 documents on environmental issues available nowhere else.

EPA libraries serve as repositories for internal documentation and commercially published literature about an array of environmental topics.

EPA libraries operate public reading rooms that provide access to EPA publications and databases.

"Crucial information generated with taxpayer dollars is now not available to the public and the scientists who need it.

This is the beginning of the elimination of all these government libraries.

We have an administration that does not have a commitment to access to information." - Emily Sheketoff, American Library Association's

"The Medical Library Association (MLA) and the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) wish to express our concern regarding the $2.5 million cut to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Library Network that was included in the FY07 President's budget request.

A $2.5 million cut reduces the EPA Library Network's budget by 80%.

The EPA has already begun to shut down its libraries and to reassign staff.

We understand that EPA library services are now greatly reduced or no longer available to the general public in agency regional offices serving 19 states." - Jean Shipman, AHIP, President Medical Library Association & Logan Ludwig, President Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries

"We understand that the EPA is in the process of closing libraries and dispersing and destroying materials.

Over the past 36 years, EPA libraries have accumulated a vast and invaluable trove of public health and environmental information, including at least 504,000 books and reports, 3,500 journal titles, 25,000 maps, and 3.6 million information objects on microfilm.

EPA officials are dismantling what is likely one of our country's most comprehensive and accessible collections of environmental materials.

These actions are being undertaken in accordance with the budget request the President submitted for fiscal year 2007.

Congress, however, has approved neither the President's 2007 budget request nor the library closure." - Bart Gordon, Ranking Member Committee on Science; John D. Dingell, Ranking Member Committee on Energy and Commerce; Henry Waxman, Ranking Member Committee on Government Reform; James L. Oberstar, Ranking Member Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure





midnight December 31, 2006

700 million pages of secret government documents - 400 million formerly classified pages at the National Archives, another 270 million at the FBI, 30 million from other agencies became unsecret.

Fifty archivists can process 40 million pages in a year so they will need a hundred years to process 400 million.

The backlog, inside the National Archives II facility in College Park, measures 160,000 cubic feet inside a massive classified vault with special lighting and climate controls to preserve old paper.

Row upon row of electronically operated steel shelves hold hundreds of thousands of document boxes buffered to fight destructive acidity.

Documents are to be scrutinized and processed according to classification instructions written on them by staffers of any one of several agencies.

Jeanne Schauble holds the Orwellian title of director of the Initial Processing and Declassification Division.

Archivists, overwhelmed by the number of documents that arrived at the facility, face a mumbo jumbo of competing declassification instructions from various agencies with arcane rules and layers of document review.

March 20, 2007   A memorandum from Daniel B. Mulhollan, the director of the Congressional Research Service, directed all agency staffers to not allow any information to be disseminated to the public.

The Congressional Research Service in the past released information that it had gleaned at taxpayer's expense.

The idea was the spreading of knowledge gathered at the public's expense.

Information Security Oversight Office reports the cost of implementing the national security classification system in government and industry reaches an all-time high of $9.91 billion.

This classification cost figure includes physical security, computer security and other aspects of classified information security is a 4.6% increase over the year before and is the highest amount ever reported by the Information Security Oversight Office.

February 9, 2009   Douglas N. Letter, a justice department lawyer for the Obama administration, surprises a panel of federal appeals judges with an argument for preserving state secrets to continue to shield those involved with rendition and torture under the George W. Bush administration.

As science progresses by building on the results of previous science the indefinite withholding of intellectual propertystymies scientific development.

The conversion of scientific knowledge into property encloses the commons.

Intellectual property rights were initiated to compensate creators of original works - not to withhold knowledge to enrich international corporations.

Allowing corporations to withhold proprietary knowledge that could benefit the human race is immoral and constitutes a crime against humanity.

Critical proprietary knowledge ownership by global amalgamations is paid for with avoidable human suffering and avoidable loss of human life.





September 15, 2009 Director of National Intelligence Admiral Dennis C. Blair, discloses that the current annual budget for the 18 agency US "Intelligence Community" (IC) is $75 billion and employs some 200,000 operatives world-wide, including private contractors.

Admiral Blair states that the "traditional fault line" separating secretive military programs from overall intelligence activities "is no longer relevant."

Domestic enemy watchlists can be accessed by law enforcement personel through the Homeland Security Data Network or the Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet) at a fusion center.




unique library index

This web site is not a commercial web site and is presented for educational purposes only.




This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world central banking system, mass media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through mass media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.


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