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I cannot belive my eyes !

“Drink wine. This is life eternal. This is all that youth will give you. It is the season for wine,
roses and drunken friends. Be happy for this moment. This moment is your life.”
Omar Khayyám

That Which Is Seen, and That Which Is Not Seen

In the department of economy, an act, a habit, an institution, a law, gives birth not only to an effect, but to a series of effects. Of these effects, only the first is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause; it is seen. The others unfold in succession for they are not seen and it is well for us if they are foreseen.

Between a good economist and a bad economist this constitutes the whole difference, the one takes account of the visible effect while the other takes account both of the effects which are seen and also of those which it is necessary to foresee. Now this difference is enormous, for it almost always happens that when the immediate consequence is favorable, the ultimate consequences are fatal, and the converse.

Hence it follows that the bad economist pursues a small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while the true economist pursues a great good to come, at the risk of a small present evil.

In fact, it is the same in the science of health, arts, and in that of morals.

If often happens, that the sweeter the first fruit of a habit is, the more bitter are the consequences. Take, for example, debauchery, idleness, prodigality.

When, therefore, a man, absorbed in the effect which is visible, has not yet learned to discern those which are not visible, he gives way to fatal habits, not only by inclination, but by calculation.

This explains the fatally grievous condition of men.

Ignorance surrounds men's actions which are determined by their first consequences, the only ones which men can see.

Experience teaches effectually, but brutally.

Experience makes us acquainted with all the effects of an action, by causing us to feel them;
and we cannot fail to finish by knowing that fire burns, if we have burned ourselves.

For this rough teacher, I should like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one, foresight and prudence.

Claude-Frederic Bastiat

The pleasures of the senses too much indulged, or too long persisted in, lay the foundation of diseases, which either cut life prematurely, or make the evening of our days miserable.


erase that memeory

‘Bendable’ brain adapts to what eyes see

The Seen and the Catastrophic Unseen in Our Criminal Justice System


There is in all of a strong disposition to believe that anything lawful is also just. This belief is so widespread that many individuals have erroneously held that things are 'just' because the law makes them so or because authority claims it is so.


Claude-Frederic Bastiat

The Law

Claude-Frederic Bastiat

1850

What Is Liberty?

Life Is a Gift from God

Proof of an Idea

Destroy Liberty

Confusion of Terms

The Choice Before Us

Fatal Tendency

The Political Approach

Justice Means Equal Rights

Enduring Government

Basis for Stable Government

Path to Dignity and Progress

What Is Law?

Law Is Force

Law and Charity

Law and Morals

Who Shall Judge?

Prevent Injustice

Perversion of Law

Proper Function of Law

Perversion Causes Conflict

Legislators Mold Mankind

Property and Plunder

Identify Legal Plunder

Three Systems of Plunder

Fatal Idea of Legal Plunder

Victims of Lawful Plunder

Results of Legal Plunder

Tariffs Are Plunder

Law Defends Plunder

Plunder Violates Ownership

Socialism Is Legal Plunder

The Superman Idea

Indirect Despotism

Philanthropic Tyranny

Temporary Dictatorship

Dictatorial Arrogance

Leader of the Democrats

Doctrine of the Democrats

Cause of French Revolutions

Napoleon's Passive Mankind

Famous Name and an Evil Idea

Proper Legislative Functions

High Road to Communism

Defense of Compulsory Labor

Defense of Paternal Government

Enormous Power of Government

Politics and Economics

Desire to Rule Over Others

Socialists Wish to Play God

Socialists Despise Mankind

Socialists Ignore Reason

Socialists Regiment People

Socialists Force Conformity

Socialists Fear Libertiey

Socialist Concept of Liberty

Vicious Circle of Socialism

Socialists Want Dictatorship

Error of the Socialist Writers

Socialists Reject Free Choice

Socialists Equality of Wealth

Law and Charity Are Not the Same

Fate of Non-Conformists

Let Us Now Try Liberty !


The law perverted ! The police powers of the state perverted along with it !!

The law, not only turned from its proper purpose, but made to follow an entirely contrary purpose! Law - the weapon of every kind of greed !!!

Instead of checking crime law itself guilty of evils it is supposed to punish !!!!

Moral duty requires me to call the attention of my fellow citizens to it !!!!!




Life Is a Gift from God

This gift of life is physical, intellectual, and moral.

Life cannot maintain itself alone.

The Creator of our Life has entrusted us with the responsibility of preserving, developing, and perfecting it.

In order that we may accomplish this, He has provided us with a collection of marvelous faculties.

Three gifts from God precede all human legislation - individuality, liberty, property.

Life, liberty, and property do not exist because men have made laws.

Men make laws to protect life, liberty, and property.



What Is Law?

Law is the collective organization of the individual right to lawful defense.

Each of us has a natural right " from God " to defend his person, his liberty, and his property.
These are the three basic requirements of life are mutually interdependent.

The principle of collective right is based on individual right.

The common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose.

A group of men will organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly.

As an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force "for the same reason" cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups.

Force has been given to us to defend our own individual rights.

Since no individual acting separately can lawfully use force to destroy the rights of others, does it not logically follow that the same principle also applies to the common force that is nothing more than the organized combination of the individual forces?

Just law is the organization of the natural right of lawful defense.



A Just and Enduring Government

Under a just administration, everyone would understand that he possesses all the privileges as well as all the responsibilities of his existence.

No one would have an argument provided his person is respected, his labor is his choice, and the fruits of his labor are protected against all unjust attack.

In the non-intervention of the state in private affairs, our wants and their satisfactions would develop themselves in a natural manner.

We would not see the great displacements of capital, labor, and population caused by legislative decisions.

State-created displacements burden the government with increased responsibilities.



The Complete Perversion of the Law

Law has been used to destroy its own objective:

It has been applied to annihilating the justice that it was supposed to maintain; to limiting and destroying rights which its real purpose was to respect.

The law has placed the collective force at the disposal of the unscrupulous who wish, without risk, to exploit the person, liberty, and property of others.

It has converted plunder into a right, in order to protect plunder.

And it has converted lawful defense into a crime, in order to punish lawful defense.



A Fatal Tendency of Mankind

Self-preservation and self-development are common aspirations among people.

If everyone enjoyed the unrestricted use of his faculties and the free disposition of the fruits of his labor, social progress would be ceaseless, uninterrupted, and unfailing.

But there is a tendency common among predators.

When they can, they wish to live and prosper at the expense of others.

This fatal desire has its origin in the very nature of man in that primitive, universal, and insuppressible instinct that impels him to satisfy his desires with the least possible pain.



Property and Plunder

Man may live and satisfy his needs by ceaseless labor and application of his faculties to natural resources.

This process is the origin of property.

It is also true that a man may live and satisfy his wants by seizing and consuming the products of the labor of others.

This process is the origin of plunder.

As man is naturally inclined to avoid pain "and since labor is pain in itself" it follows that men will resort to plunder whenever plunder is easier than work.

Under these conditions, neither religion nor morality can stop plunder.

Plunder stops only when it becomes more painful and more dangerous than labor.

All law should protect property and punish plunder.

But, generally, the law is made by one man or one class of men.

As law cannot operate without the sanction and support of a dominating force, this force must be entrusted to those who make the laws.

The proper purpose of law is to use the power of collective force to stop this fatal tendency to plunder.

The fatal tendency that exists in the heart of man to satisfy his wants with the least possible effort, explains the almost universal perversion of the law.



Victims of Lawful Plunder

Men naturally rebel against the injustice of which they are victims.


When plunder is organized by law for the profit of those who make the law, all the plundered classes attempt by peaceful or revolutionary means to be heard in the making of laws.

According to their degree of enlightenment, these plundered classes may propose one of two entirely different purposes when they attempt to attain political power: Either they may wish to stop lawful plunder, or they may wish to share in it.

Men seek to balance their conflicting interests by universal plunder.

As soon as the plundered classes gain political power, they establish a system of reprisals against other classes.



The Results of Legal Plunder

It is impossible to introduce into society a greater change and a greater evil than this: the conversion of the law into an instrument of plunder.

The consequences of such a perversion?

Initially it erases from everyone's conscience the distinction between justice and injustice.

No society can exist unless the laws are respected to a certain degree.

The safest way to make laws respected is to make them respectable.

When law and morality contradict each other, the citizen has the cruel alternative of either losing his moral sense or losing his respect for the law.

These two evils are of equal consequence, and it would be difficult for a person to choose between them.



The Fate of Non-Conformists

If you suggest a doubt as to the morality of these institutions, it is boldly stated, "You are a dangerous innovator, a utopian, a theorist, a subversive; you would shatter the foundation upon which society rests."

If you lecture upon political science, there will be found official organizations petitioning the government in this vein of thought:

"Science no longer be taught exclusively from the point of view of free trade (of liberty, of property, and of justice)

Science is to be especially taught from the viewpoint of the facts and laws that regulate French industry (facts and laws which are contrary to liberty, to property, and to justice).

Government-endowed teaching positions rigorously refrain from endangering in the slightest degree the respect due to the laws now in force."

Existing laws carry the supposition that it must be a just law merely because it is a law.

If there exists a law which sanctions slavery or monopoly, oppression or robbery, in any form whatever, it must not even be mentioned.

An effect of this tragic perversion of the law is that it gives an exaggerated importance to political passions and conflicts, and to politics in general.



Who Shall Judge?

Serious objections may be made to universal suffrage.

Universal suffrage for those who are capable conceals a gross fallacy.

Who is capable?

And why is incapacity a motive for exclusion?

The people in the community have a right to demand some safeguards concerning the acts upon which their welfare and existence depend.



The Fatal Idea of Legal Plunder

Under the pretense of organization, regulation, protection, or encouragement, the law takes property from one person and gives it to another.

If the law takes the wealth of all and gives it to a few every class will aspire to grasp the law.

Excluded classes will furiously demand their rights in "privileges and subsidies".



Perverted Law Causes Conflict

As long as it is admitted that the law may be diverted from its true purpose " that it may violate property instead of protecting it " then everyone will want to participate in making the law, either to protect himself against plunder or to use it for plunder.

Political questions will always be prejudicial, dominant, and all-absorbing.

It is hardly necessary to examine what transpires in the French and English legislatures; merely to understand the issue is to know the answer.



Slavery and Tariffs Are Plunder

Slavery is a violation, by law, of liberty.

The protective tariff is a violation, by law, of property.

It is indeed impossible to imagine, at the very heart of a society, a more astounding fact than this: The law has come to be an instrument of injustice

If this fact brings terrible consequences to the US "where the proper purpose of the law has been perverted only in the instances of slavery and tariffs" what must be the consequences in Europe, where the perversion of the law is a principle; a system?





The Law Defends Plunder

Sometimes the law defends plunder and participates in it sparing the beneficiaries of the shame, danger, and scruple which their acts would otherwise involve. Sometimes the law places the whole apparatus of judges, police, prisons, and gendarmes at the service of the plunderers, and treats the victim " when he defends himself " as a criminal.



How to Identify Legal Plunder

If the law benefits one citizen at the expense of another by doing what the citizen himself cannot do without committing a crime it is committimg plunder.

Try to change this law and the person who profits from this law will complain bitterly, defending his acquired rights.

He will claim that the state is obligated to protect and encourage his particular industry.

Do not listen to the sophistry of vested interests.



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Socialism Is Legal Plunder

Mr. de Montalembert has been accused of desiring to fight socialism by the use of brute force. He ought to be exonerated from this accusation, for he has plainly said:

"The war that we must fight against socialism must be in harmony with law, honor, and justice."

But why does not Mr. de Montalembert see that he has placed himself in a vicious circle? You would use the law to oppose socialism? But it is upon the law that socialism itself relies. Socialists desire to practice legal plunder, not illegal plunder. Socialists, like all other monopolists, desire to make the law their own weapon. And when once the law is on the side of socialism, how can it be used against socialism? For when plunder is abetted by the law, it does not fear your courts, your gendarmes, and your prisons. Rather, it may call upon them for help.

To prevent this, you would exclude socialism from entering into the making of laws? You would prevent socialists from entering the Legislative Palace? You shall not succeed, I predict, so long as legal plunder continues to be the main business of the legislature. It is illogical "in fact, absurd" to assume otherwise.


The Choice Before Us

This question of legal plunder must be settled once and for all, and there are only three ways to settle it:

  1. The few plunder the many.
  2. Everybody plunders everybody.
  3. Nobody plunders anybody.

We must make our choice among limited plunder, universal plunder, and no plunder. The law can follow only one of these three.

Limited legal plunder: This system prevailed when the right to vote was restricted. One would turn back to this system to prevent the invasion of socialism.

Universal legal plunder: We have been threatened with this system since the franchise was made universal. The newly enfranchised majority has decided to formulate law on the same principle of legal plunder that was used by their predecessors when the vote was limited.

No legal plunder: This is the principle of justice, peace, order, stability, harmony, and logic. Until the day of my death, I shall proclaim this principle with all the force of my lungs (which alas! is all too inadequate).



The Proper Function of the Law

Can the law " which necessarily requires the use of force " rationally be used for anything except protecting the rights of everyone?

I defy anyone to extend it beyond this purpose without perverting it: Law is organized justice.

Justice organized by law excludes the idea of using law (force) to organize any human activity whatever, whether it be labor, charity, agriculture, commerce, industry, education, art, or religion.

The organizing by law of any one of these would inevitably destroy the essential organization.

How can we imagine force being used against the liberty of citizens without it also being used against justice?



Enforced Fraternity Destroys Liberty

Legal plunder has two roots: One of them, as I have said before, is in human greed; the other is in false philanthropy.

It is impossible for me to separate the word fraternity from the word voluntary.

I cannot possibly understand how fraternity can be legally enforced without liberty being legally destroyed, and thus justice being legally trampled underfoot

At this point, I think that I should explain exactly what I mean by the word plunder.



Plunder Violates Ownership

When a portion of wealth is transferred from the person who owns it " without his consent and without compensation, and whether by force or by fraud " to anyone who does not own it, then I say that property is violated; that an act of plunder is committed.

This act is exactly what the law is supposed to suppress, always and everywhere.

In this case of legal plunder, however, the person who receives the benefits is not responsible for the act of plundering.

The responsibility for this legal plunder rests with the law, the legislator, and society itself.
Therein lies the political danger.




Three Systems of Plunder

The sincerity of those who advocate protectionism, socialism, and communism is not here questioned.

Any writer who would do that must be influenced by a political spirit or a political fear.

Protectionism, socialism, and communism are basically the same plant in three different stages of its growth.

All that can be said is that legal plunder is more visible in communism because it is complete plunder; and in protectionism because the plunder is limited to specific groups and industries.

Thus it follows that, of the three systems, socialism is the vaguest, the most indecisive, and, consequently, the most sincere stage of development.



Law Is Force

Since the law organizes justice, the socialists ask why the law should not also organize labor, education, and religion.

Law cannot organize labor, education, and religion without destroying justice.

As law is force the proper functions of the law cannot lawfully extend beyond the proper functions of force.

When law and force keep a person within the bounds of justice, they impose nothing but a mere negation.

They oblige him only to abstain from harming others.

They violate neither his personality, his liberty, nor his property.

They safeguard all of these.

They are defensive; they defend equally the rights of all.



Prevent Injustice - Law as a Negative Concept

The purpose of the law is to prevent injustice from reigning.

Injustice, instead of justice, has an existence of its own.

Justice is achieved only when injustice is absent.

The purpose of the law is to cause justice to reign.

The harmlessness of the mission performed by law and lawful defense is self-evident; the usefulness is obvious; and the legitimacy cannot be disputed.

When the law, by means of its necessary agent, force, imposes upon men a regulation of labor, a method or a subject of education, a religious faith or creed " then the law is no longer negative; it acts positively upon people.

It substitutes the will of the legislator for the will of the people; the initiative of the legislator for the initiative of the people.

Intelligence becomes a useless prop for the people; they cease to be men; they lose their personality, their liberty, their property.

Try to imagine a regulation of labor imposed by force that is not a violation of liberty; a transfer of wealth imposed by force that is not a violation of property.

If you cannot reconcile these contradictions, then you must conclude that the law cannot organize labor and industry without organizing injustice.



The Political Approach

When a politician views society from the seclusion of his office, he deplores the deprivations which are the lot of so many of our brothers, deprivations which appear to be even sadder when contrasted with luxury and wealth.

The politician should ask himself whether this state of affairs has not been caused by old conquests and lootings, and by more recent legal plunder.

He attempts to remedy the evil by increasing and perpetuating the very thing that caused the evil in the first place: legal plunder.



The Law and Charity

With this in mind, examine the protective tariffs, subsidies, guaranteed profits, guaranteed jobs, relief and welfare schemes, public education, progressive taxation, free credit, and public works.

You will find that they are always based on legal plunder, organized injustice.



The Law and Education

Law can permit this transaction of teaching-and-learning to operate freely and without the use of force, or it can force human wills in this matter by taking from some of them enough to pay the teachers who are appointed by government to instruct others, without charge.

In this second case, the law commits legal plunder by violating liberty and property.



Bastiat Institute

The Law and Morals

Need I point out what a violent and futile effort it is to use force in the matters of morality and religion?

Socialists cleverly disguise legal plunder from others and even from themselves under the seductive names of fraternity, unity, organization, and association.

As we ask only for justice socialists thereby assume that we reject fraternity, unity, organization, and association.

The socialists brand us with the name individualist.

We assure the socialists that we repudiate only forced organization, not natural organization.

We repudiate the forms of association that are forced upon us, not free association.

We repudiate forced fraternity, not true fraternity.

We repudiate the artificial unity that does nothing more than deprive persons of individual responsibility.

We do not repudiate the natural unity of mankind under Providence.



A Confusion of Terms

Socialism, like the ancient ideas from which it springs, confuses the distinction between government and society.

If we disapprove of state education the socialists say that we are opposed to education.

If we object to a state religion the socialists say that we want no religion at all.

If we object to a state-enforced equality they say that we are against equality.



The Socialists Wish to Play God

Socialists look upon people as raw material to be formed into social combinations.

Socialists will demand that a small portion of mankind be set aside to experiment upon.

It is no wonder that the writers of the nineteenth century look upon society as an artificial creation of the legislator's genius.

To these intellectuals and writers, the relationship between persons and the legislator appears to be the same as the relationship between the clay and the potter.

Where they have consented to recognize a principle of action in the heart of man and a principle of discernment in man's intellect they have considered these gifts from God to be fatal gifts.

They assume that if the legislators left persons free to follow their own inclinations, they would arrive at atheism instead of religion, ignorance instead of knowledge, poverty instead of production and exchange.



The Socialists Despise Mankind

While mankind tends toward evil, the legislators yearn for good;

while mankind advances toward darkness, the legislators aspire for enlightenment;

while mankind is drawn toward vice, the legislators are attracted toward virtue.

Open at random any book on philosophy, politics, or history, and you will find this idea that mankind is merely inert matter, receiving life, organization, morality, and prosperity from the power of the state.

Conventional classical thought everywhere says that behind passive society there is a concealed power.



A Defense of Compulsory Labor

Let us first consider a quotation from Bossuet [tutor to the Dauphin in the Court of Louis XIV] :

According to Bossuet, persons derive nothing from themselves.

Patriotism, prosperity, inventions, husbandry, science all of these are given to the people by the operation of the laws, the rulers.

All that the people have to do is to bow to leadership.



A Defense of Paternal Government

Bossuet carries this idea of the state as the source of all progress even so far as to defend the Egyptians against the charge that they rejected wrestling and music. He said:

"How is that possible? These arts were invented by Trismegistus."

And again among the Persians, Bossuet claims that all comes from above:

"One of the first responsibilities of the prince was to encourage agriculture.

The Persian people were inspired with an overwhelming respect for royal authority."

According to Bossuet, the Greek people, although exceedingly intelligent, had no sense of personal responsibility; they themselves could not have invented the most simple games:

"The Greeks, naturally intelligent and courageous, had been early cultivated by the kings and settlers from Egypt.

From these Egyptian rulers, the Greek people had learned sports, foot races, horse and chariot races.

The most important thing that the Egyptians taught the Greeks was to become docile, and to permit themselves to be formed by the law for the public good."


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The Idea of Passive Mankind

Classical theorists have held that everything came to the people from a source outside themselves.

Fenelon - archbishop, author, and instructor to the Duke of Burgundy - Utopia of Salentum suggests the prince is depicted as the soul of this shapeless mass of people who form the nation.

Whatever the issue may be, persons do not decide it for themselves; the prince decides for them.



Socialists Ignore Reason and Facts

Fenelon ignores the authority of reason and facts when he attributes the general happiness of the Egyptians, not to their own wisdom but to the wisdom of their kings:

"We could not turn our eyes to either shore without seeing rich towns and country estates most agreeably located; fields, never fallowed, covered with golden crops every year; meadows full of flocks; workers bending under the weight of the fruit which the earth lavished upon its cultivators; shepherds who made the echoes resound with the soft notes from their pipes and flutes."

He admired the good police regulations in the cities;

the justice rendered in favor of the poor against the rich;

the sound education of the children in obedience, labor, sobriety, and the love of the arts and letters;

the exactness with which all religious ceremonies were performed;

the unselfishness, the high regard for honor, the faithfulness to men, and the fear of the gods which every father taught his children.

He never stopped admiring the prosperity of the country.

"Happy," said he, "is the people ruled by a wise king in such a manner."


Socialists Want to Regiment People

Fenelon's idyl on Crete is even more alluring. Mentor is made to say:

"All that you see in this wonderful island results from the laws of Minos.

The education which he ordained for the children makes their bodies strong and robust.

From the very beginning, one accustoms the children to a life of frugality and labor, because one assumes that all pleasures of the senses weaken both body and mind."

Thus does Mentor prepare his student to mold and to manipulate doubtless with the best of intentions the people of Ithaca.


A Famous Name and an evil Idea

Now listen to the great Montesquieu on this same subject:

To maintain the spirit of commerce, it is necessary that all the laws must favor it.

It is sufficient that there be established a census to reduce or fix differences in wealth within a certain limit.

After this is done, it remains for specific laws to equalize inequality by imposing burdens upon the rich and granting relief to the poor.

In Sparta, ambition went without the hope of material reward.

Natural affection found no outlet because a man was neither son, husband, nor father.

Even chastity was no longer considered becoming.

Those who desire to establish similar institutions must do as follows:

Establish common ownership of property as in the republic of Plato;

revere the gods as Plato commanded;

prevent foreigners from mingling with the people, in order to preserve the customs;

let the state, instead of the citizens, establish commerce.

The legislators should supply arts instead of luxuries; they should satisfy needs instead of desires.


The Leader of the Democrats

Rousseau has, to a greater extent than anyone else, completely accepted the theory of the total inertness of mankind in the presence of the legislators:

The legislator is the mechanic who invents the machine; the prince is merely the workman who sets it in motion.

Use resources available in the best possible manner.

Create equality through legisaltion.

In short, and in addition to the maxims that are common to all, every people has its own particular circumstances.

This fact in itself will cause legislation appropriate to the circumstances.

Suppose that the selected principle sometimes creates slavery, and sometimes liberty; sometimes wealth, and sometimes population; sometimes peace, and sometimes conquest?

This confusion of objective will slowly enfeeble the law and impair the constitution.

The state will be subjected to ceaseless agitations until it is destroyed or changed, and invincible nature regains her empire.

Why does Rousseau not see that men, by obeying their own instincts, would turn to farming on fertile soil, and to commerce on an extensive and easily accessible coast, without the interference of a Rousseau who might easily be mistaken


Socialists Want Forced Conformity

Rousseau invests the creators, organizers, directors, legislators, and controllers of society with a terrible responsibility:

He who would dare to undertake the political creation of a people ought to believe that he can, in a manner of speaking, transform human nature;

transform each individual who, by himself, is a solitary and perfect whole into a mere part of a greater whole from which the individual will henceforth receive his life and being.

Thus the person who would undertake the political creation of a people should believe in his ability to alter man's constitution.


Legislators Desire to Mold Mankind

Now let us examine Raynal on this subject of mankind being molded by the legislator:

It is especially in the distribution of property that the genius of the legislator will be found.

As a general rule, when a new colony is established in any country, sufficient land should be given to each man to support his family....

When you resettle a nation with a past into a new country, the skill of the legislator rests in the policy of permitting the people to retain no injurious opinions and customs.

If you desire to prevent these opinions and customs from becoming permanent, you will secure the second generation by a general system of public education for the children.

A prince or a legislator should never establish a colony without first arranging to send wise men along to instruct the youth...


A Temporary Dictatorship

Here is Mably on this subject of the law and the legislator:

Think less of punishing faults, and more of rewarding that which you need.

If the evil has made such headway that ordinary governmental procedures are unable to cure it, then resort to an extraordinary tribunal with considerable powers for a short time.

The imagination of the citizens needs to be struck a hard blow.

Under the influence of teaching like this " which stems from classical education " there came a time when everyone wished to place himself above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it in his own way.



Socialists Want Equality of Wealth

Next let us examine Condillac on this subject of the legislators and mankind:

Amuse yourself by giving laws to some savages in America or Africa.

Confine these nomads to fixed dwellings; teach them to tend flocks ....

Attempt to develop the social consciousness that nature has planted in them ....

Force them to begin to practice the duties of humanity ....

Use punishment to cause sensual pleasures to become distasteful to them.

Then you will see that every point of your legislation will cause these savages to lose a vice and gain a virtue.

What you have learned about the republic of Sparta should enlighten you on this question.


The Error of the Socialist Writers

Antiquity presents everywhere " in Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome " the spectacle of a few men molding mankind according to their whims, thanks to the prestige of force and of fraud.

This does not prove that this situation is desirable.

It proves only that since men and society are capable of improvement, it is naturally to be expected that error, ignorance, despotism, slavery, and superstition should be greatest towards the origins of history.

Uncritical and childish conformists, take for granted the grandeur, dignity, morality, and happiness of artificial societies of the past.

They did not understand that knowledge appears and grows over time.



What Is liberty?

The political struggle we witness is the instinctive struggle of all people toward liberty.

Is not liberty the freedom of every person to make full use of his faculties, so long as he does not harm other persons?

Is not liberty the destruction of all despotism including, of course, legal despotism?

Finally, is not liberty the restricting of the law only to its rational sphere of organizing the right of the individual to lawful self-defense; of punishing injustice?

The tendency of the human race tp move toward liberty is largely thwarted.

This is greatly due to a fatal desire learned from the teachings of antiquity that our writers on public affairs have in common:

They desire to set themselves above mankind in order to arrange, organize, and regulate it according to their fancy.

May they reject all systems, and try liberty; for liberty is an acknowledgment of faith in God and His works.



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Philanthropic Tyranny

While society is struggling toward liberty, these famous men who put themselves at its head are filled with the spirit of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. They think only of subjecting mankind to the philanthropic tyranny of their own social inventions. Like Rousseau, they desire to force mankind docilely to bear this yoke of the public welfare that they have dreamed up in their own imaginations.

This was especially true in 1789. No sooner was the old regime destroyed than society was subjected to still other artificial arrangements, always starting from the same point: the omnipotence of the law.

Listen to the ideas of a few of the writers and politicians during that period:

SAINT-JUST: The legislator commands the future. It is for him to will the good of mankind. It is for him to make men what he wills them to be.

ROBESPIERRE: The function of government is to direct the physical and moral powers of the nation toward the end for which the commonwealth has come into being.

BILLAUD-VARENNES: A people who are to be returned to liberty must be formed anew. A strong force and vigorous action are necessary to destroy old prejudices, to change old customs, to correct depraved affections, to restrict superfluous wants, and to destroy ingrained vices.... Citizens, the inflexible austerity of Lycurgus forged the firm foundation of the Spartan republic. The weak and trusting character of Solon plunged Athens into slavery. This parallel embraces the whole science of government.

LE PELLETIER: Considering the extent of human degradation, I am convinced that it is necessary to effect a total regeneration and, if I may so express myself, of creating a new people.


The Socialists Want Dictatorship

Persons are nothing but raw material.

It is not for them to will their own improvement; they are incapable of it.

According to Saint-Just, only the legislator is capable of doing this.

Persons are merely to be what the legislator wills them to be.

Once this is determined, the government has only to direct the physical and moral forces of the nation toward that end.

The people should have no prejudices, no affections, and no desires except those authorized by the legislator.

Billaud-Varennes even goes so far as to say that the inflexible austerity of one man is the foundation of a republic.

This doctrine has not been forgotten. Listen to Robespierre:

"The principle of the republican government is virtue, and the means required to establish virtue is terror. In our country we desire to substitute morality for selfishness, honesty for honor, principles for customs, duties for manners, the empire of reason for the tyranny of fashion, contempt of vice for contempt of poverty, pride for insolence, greatness of soul for vanity, love of glory for compassion of money, good people for good companions, merit for intrigue, genius for wit, truth for glitter, the charm of happiness for the boredom of pleasure, the greatness of man for the littleness of the great, a generous, strong, happy people for a good-natured, frivolous, degraded people; in short, we desire to substitute all the virtues and miracles of a republic for all the vices and absurdities of a monarchy."


Dictatorial Arrogance

At what a tremendous height above the rest of mankind does Robespierre place himself!

Note the arrogance with which he speaks.

He is not content to pray for a great reawakening of the human spirit.

Nor does he expect such a result from a well-ordered government.

No, he himself will remake mankind, and by means of terror.

This mass of rotten and contradictory statements is extracted from a discourse by Robespierre in which he aims to explain the principles of morality which ought to guide a revolutionary government.

Robespierre's request for dictatorship is not made merely for the purpose of repelling a foreign invasion or putting down the opposing groups.

Rather he wants a dictatorship in order that he may use terror to force upon the country his own principles of morality.

He desires nothing short of using terror to extinguish from France selfishness, honor, customs, manners, fashion, vanity, love of money, good companionship, intrigue, wit, sensuousness, and poverty.

Not until he, Robespierre, shall have accomplished these miracles, as he so rightly calls them, will he permit the law to reign again.


Napoleon Wanted Passive Mankind

Like an alchemist, Napoleon considered all Europe to be material for his experiments.

But, in due course, this material reacted against him.

Mr. Louis Blanc understands the matter forcibly imposed upon the people by the power of the law:

In our plan, the state has only to pass labor laws (nothing else?) by means of which industrial progress can and must proceed in complete liberty. The state merely places society on an incline (that is all?). Then society will slide down this incline by the mere force of things, and by the natural workings of the established mechanism.

But what is this incline that is indicated by Mr. Louis Blanc?

Does it not lead to an abyss?



The Vicious Circle of Socialism

We shall never escape from this circle:

the idea of passive mankind, and the power of the law being used by a great man to propel the people.

Once on this incline, will society enjoy some liberty? And what is liberty, Mr. Louis Blanc?

Liberty is not only a mere granted right; it is also the power granted to a person to use and to develop his faculties under a reign of justice and under the protection of the law.

Once it is agreed that a person, to be truly free, must have the power to use and develop his faculties, then it follows that every person has a claim on society for such education as will permit him to develop himself.

It follows that every person has a claim on society for tools of production, without which human activity cannot be fully effective.

Now by what action can society give to every person the necessary education and the necessary tools of production?


The Doctrine of the Democrats

What is the attitude of the democrat when political rights are under discussion?

How does he regard the people when a legislator is to be chosen?

It is claimed that the people have an instinctive wisdom; they are gifted with the finest perception; their will is always right; the general will cannot err; voting cannot be too universal; they place unlimited faith in mankind, yet regard mankind as little better than mud.

This strange phenomenon is the doctrine based on this triple hypothesis: the total inertness of mankind, the omnipotence of the law, and the infallibility of the legislator.

Are the people always to be kept on leashes?

Are we not living in an age of enlightenment?

Have they not won their rights by great effort and sacrifice?



The Socialist Concept of liberty

According to Mr. Louis Blanc, competition is a system that ruins the businessmen and exterminates the people.

Free people are ruined and exterminated in proportion to their degree of freedom.

Mr. Louis Blanc also tells us that competition leads to monopoly. And by the same reasoning, he thus informs us that low prices lead to high prices; that competition drives production to destructive activity; that competition drains away the sources of purchasing power; that competition forces an increase in production while, at the same time, it forces a decrease in consumption.



Socialist Fear All Liberties

What liberty should the legislators permit people to have?

Liberty of conscience?

Liberty of education?

Thanks to this legal despotism over education, our children now have the good fortune to be taught the noble ideas of the Romans.

Liberty of labor ?

Liberty of trade?

But everyone knows. as the advocates of protective tariffs have proved over and over again. that freedom of trade ruins every person who engages in it, and that it is necessary to suppress freedom of trade in order to prosper.

Liberty of association?

According to socialist doctrine, true liberty and voluntary association are in contradiction to each other, and the purpose of the socialists is to suppress liberty of association precisely in order to force people to associate together in true liberty.

Social democrats cannot permit persons to have any liberty because they believe that the nature of mankind tends always toward every kind of degradation and disaster.

Legislators must make plans for the people in order to save them from themselves.

If people are as incapable, as immoral, and as ignorant as the politicians indicate, then why is the right of these same people to vote defended with such passionate insistence?



The Superman Idea

If the natural tendencies of mankind are so bad that it is not safe to permit people to be free, how is it that the tendencies of these organizers are always good?

Do not the legislators and their appointed agents also belong to the human race?

Or do they believe that they themselves are made of a finer clay than the rest of mankind?

Organizers maintain that society, when left undirected, rushes headlong to its inevitable destruction because the instincts of the people are so perverse.

Organizers have received from Heaven an intelligence and virtue that place them beyond and above mankind; if so, let them show their titles to this superiority.



Supermen Reject Free Choice

I do not dispute the right of social engineers to invent social combinations, to advertise them, to advocate them, and to try them upon themselves, at their own expense and risk.

I do dispute their right to impose these plans upon us by law "by force" and to compel us to pay for them with our taxes.

I do not insist that the supporters of these various social schools of thought renounce their various ideas.

I insist only that they renounce this one idea that they have in common:

They need only to give up the idea of forcing us to acquiesce to their groups and series, their socialized projects, their free-credit banks, their Graeco-Roman concept of morality, and their commercial regulations.



The Cause of French Revolutions

Frenchmen have led all other Europeans in obtaining their rights " or, more accurately, their political demands.

This fact has in no respect prevented us from becoming the most governed, the most regulated, the most imposed upon, the most harnessed, and the most exploited people in Europe.

France also leads all other nations as the one where revolutions are constantly to be anticipated.

In short, they imagine that their relationship to the state is the same as that of the sheep to the shepherd.



The Enormous Power of Government

The state considers that its purpose is to enlighten, to develop, to enlarge, to strengthen, to spiritualize, and to sanctify the soul of the people.

In regulating industry, the government has contracted to make it prosper; otherwise it is absurd to deprive industry of its liberty.

As long as this idea prevails, it is clear that the responsibility of government is enormous.

In meddling with the balance of trade by playing with tariffs, the government thereby contracts to make trade prosper; and if this results in destruction instead of prosperity, whose fault is it?

Good fortune and bad fortune, wealth and destitution, equality and inequality, virtue and vice all then depend upon political administration.

There is not a grievance in the nation for which the government does not voluntarily make itself responsible.

Is it surprising, then, that every failure increases the threat of another revolution in France?



Politics and Economics

A science of economics must be developed before a science of politics can be logically formulated.

Essentially, economics is the science of determining whether the interests of human beings are harmonious or antagonistic.

This must be known before a science of politics can be formulated to determine the proper functions of government.

This all-important question must be answered:

What is law?

What ought it to be?

What is its scope; its limits?

Logically, at what point do the just powers of the legislator stop?

I do not hesitate to answer: Law is the common force organized to act as an obstacle of injustice. In short, law is justice.



Proper Legislative Functions

The existence of persons and property preceded the existence of the legislator, and his function is only to guarantee their safety.

It is not true that the function of law is to regulate our consciences, our ideas, our wills, our education, our opinions, our work, our trade, our talents, or our pleasures.

The function of law is to protect the free exercise of these rights, and to prevent any person from interfering with the free exercise of these same rights by any other person.

Since law necessarily requires the support of force, its lawful domain is only in the areas where the use of force is necessary for justice.

Every individual has the right to use force for lawful self-defense.

Collective force may lawfully be used only for the same purpose; and it cannot be used legitimately for any other purpose.

Law is solely the organization of the individual right of self-defense which existed before law was formalized.



Law and Charity Are Not the Same

The mission of the law is to protect persons and property.

Law cannot avoid having an effect upon persons and property; and if the law acts in any manner except to protect them, its actions then necessarily violate the liberty of persons and their right to own property.

Justice must be measurable, immutable, and unchangeable.


If you attempt to make the law religious, fraternal, equalizing, philanthropic, industrial, literary, or artistic "you will then be lost in an uncharted territory, in vagueness and uncertainty, in a forced utopia or, even worse, in a multitude of utopias, each striving to seize the law and impose it upon you.

Justice is simple and clear, precise and bounded.

Fraternity and philanthropy, unlike justice, do not have precise limits.

Once started, where will you stop? And where will the law stop itself?



The High Road to Communism

Mr. de Saint-Cricq would extend his philanthropy only to some of the global industrial groups; he would demand that the law control the consumers to benefit the producers.

Mr. Considerant would sponsor the cause of the labor groups; he would use the law to secure for them a guaranteed minimum of clothing, housing, food, and all other necessities of life.

Mr. Louis Blanc would say " and with reason " that these minimum guarantees are merely the beginning of complete fraternity; he would say that the law should give tools of production and free education to all working people.

Another person would observe that this arrangement would still leave room for inequality; he would claim that the law should give to everyone - even in the most inaccessible hamlet - luxury, literature, and art.

All of these proposals are the high road to communism; legislation will then be in fact as it already is "the battlefield for the fantasies and greed of everyone."



The Basis for Stable Government

Law is justice.

In this proposition a simple and enduring government can be conceived.

I defy anyone to say how even the thought of revolution, of insurrection, of the slightest uprising could arise against a government whose organized force was confined only to suppressing injustice.

Under such a regime, there would be the most prosperity " and it would be the most equally distributed.

As for the sufferings that are inseparable from humanity, no one would even think of accusing the government.

Proclaim that all good, and all bad, stem from the law; that the law is responsible for all individual misfortunes and all social inequalities then the door is open to an endless succession of complaints, irritations, troubles, and revolutions.

If the force of government were limited to suppressing injustice, then government would be as innocent of these sufferings as it is now innocent of changes in the temperature.



Justice Means Equal Rights

Law is justice.

By what right does the law force me to conform to the social plans of Mr. Mimerel, Mr. de Melun, Mr. Thiers, or Mr. Louis Blanc?

If the law has a moral right to do this, why does it not, then, force these gentlemen to submit to my plans?

Is it logical to suppose that nature has not given me sufficient imagination to dream up a utopia also?

Should the law choose one fantasy among many, and put the organized force of government at its service only?



The Path to Dignity and Progress

Law is justice.

It is only under just law that mankind will achieve liberty, safety, stability, and responsibility so that every person may attain his real worth and true dignity of being.

The solution to the problems of human relationships is to be found in liberty.



Proof of an Idea

The happiest people are found in the countries where the law least interferes with private affairs:

where government is least felt;

where the individual has the greatest scope, and free opinion the greatest influence;

where administrative powers are fewest and simplest;

where taxes are lightest and most nearly equal, and popular discontent the least excited and the least justifiable;

where individuals and groups most actively assume their responsibilities, and, consequently, where the morals of admittedly imperfect human beings are constantly improving;

where trade, assemblies, and associations are the least restricted;

where labor, capital, and populations suffer the fewest forced displacements; where mankind most nearly follows its own natural inclinations;

where the inventions of men are most nearly in harmony with the laws of God.

In short, the happiest, most moral, and most peaceful people are those who most nearly follow this principle:

Although mankind is not perfect, still, all hope rests upon the free and voluntary actions of persons within the limits of law or force is to be used for nothing except the administration of universal justice.



The Desire to Rule Over Others

There are too many "great" men in the world " legislators, organizers, do-gooders, leaders of the people, fathers of nations, and so on, and so on.

Too many persons place themselves above mankind; they make a career of organizing it, patronizing it, and ruling it.

Someone will say: "You yourself are doing this very thing."

I have joined the ranks of the reformers, solely for the purpose of persuading them to leave people alone.

My attitude toward all other persons is well illustrated by this story from a celebrated traveler:

He arrived one day in the midst of a tribe of savages, where a child had just been born.

A crowd of soothsayers, magicians, and quacks "armed with rings, hooks, and cords" surrounded it.

One said: "This child will never smell the perfume of a peace-pipe unless I stretch his nostrils."

Another said: "He will never be able to hear unless I draw his ear-lobes down to his shoulders."

A third said: "He will never stand upright unless I bend his legs."

The last said: "He will never learn to think unless I flatten his skull."

"Stop," cried the traveler.

"What God does is well done. Do not claim to know more than He. God has given organs to this frail creature; let them develop and grow strong by exercise, use, experience, and liberty!"



Let Us Now Try Liberty !



God has given to men all that is necessary for them to accomplish their destinies.

He has provided a social form as well as a human form.

Social organs of persons are so constituted that they will develop harmoniously in the clean air of liberty.

Away, then, with quacks and organizers!

Away with their rings, chains, hooks, and pincers!

Away with their artificial systems!

Away with the whims of government administrators, socialization projects, centralization, tariffs, government sponsered education, government sponsered religion, debt slavery, banking monopolies, equalization by taxation, regulation and restriction, and pious moralizations!



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This website defines a new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in America is considered a "hate crime."

This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point of a gun.

American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.

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