Arianrhod - holder of the Corona Borealis
Once upon a time Cuchulainn came over the fair green of Brl Leith,
and he saw at the edge of a well a woman with a bright red comb adorned with
gold, washing in a silver basin wherein were two bluebirds with little, bright gems of
purple carbuncle in the rims of the basin.
A red gold mantle Áine
had, a forest green cloak, a brooch
of fairest gold.
A kirtle she wore, long, hooded, of green silk,
with red embroidery of gold.
Marvelous clasps of gold and silver in
the kirtle on her breasts.
The sun glistening of the gold against
the green silk was manifest to men.
There she was, undoing her red gold
tresses to wash, her arms
out through the sleeve-holes of her smock;
white as snow
the two hands, soft and
even, and red as foxglove were the two clean beautiful cheeks.
Dark as the back of a
stag-beetle the two eyebrows.
a shower of pearls were
the teeth in her head.
Green as an olive were
Red as rowan
berries the lips.
smooth and soft-white the shoulders.
White as the foam of a wave was the flank: slender,
tender, soft as wool.
Polished and warm, sleek and
white were the two thighs.
Round and small, hard and
white the two knees.
The bright radiance of the moon was
in her noble face.
The loftiness of pride in
her smooth eyebrows.
light of wooing in each of her regal eyes.
A dimple of delight in each of
dignity in her voice; a step steady queenly gait was hers.
seemed to Cuchulainn
that she was from the elfmounds.
Of her was said: "Shapely and dear are
all till compared with Áine."
A longing for her straightway
seized the Cuchulainn; so he
Asking tidings of her: "Shall I have an hour of
dalliance with thee?"
"Tis for that we have come hither under thy
safeguard," quoth she.
"Query, whence art thou and whence hast thou
come?" quoth Cuchulainn.
"Áine am I, daughter of Etar, King of
the cavalcade from the elfmounds.
I have been here for twenty years
since birth in an elfmound."
"Thou shalt have welcome, and for thee
every other woman shall be left by me, and with thee alone will I live so long
as thou hast honour," quoth Cuchulainn.
"My proper bride-price to me!"
she quoth, "and afterwards my desire."
"Thou shalt have both," quoth
This great Celtic
oath calls the very elements to witness.
Celts held a
primal holistic concept of
powerful manifestations of gods,
not to be trifled with.
This great Celtic oath is
a most solemn pledge to the elements to
destroy those who do not keep their word and repay their debts.
state of the land is always a reflection of the kingly rule.
in the sky, the soil no longer
growing crops, the
rains coming at the wrong times, unseasonable cold and hot waves, all
pointed to poor stewardship on
the part of the king who directed the activities of the people.
Or did these omens point to bad
"Good is his reign. Since he assumed the kingship,
no cloud has veiled the sun for
the space of a day from the middle of
spring to the middle of autumn. Not a dewdrop has fallen from grass till
The word druid (Irish drui, Welsh derwydd) is
derived from the Sanskrit:
veda - to see or know, combined with the word for oak: Gaulish dervo,
Irish dour, Welsh derw.
The words for wood and wisdom are
very close: Irish fid and fios mean tree and knowledge; Welsh
gwydd and gwyddon mean tree and
This close connection suggests a druid is 'a knower of the tree' or
'tree-sage', give a closer feel of what the druid really was -
a seer of great
knowledge, whose closeness to the natural world put him or her in the
position as a Walker of the
Thinspace between the
subconscious of mankind and
the unseen collective consciousness of Nature.
The druids, sons and
daughters of the Oak, were distinct by reason of the
gift of reading natural
The gathering place for Galatian druids was called
Drunemeton, literally "Oak Sanctuary".
Male and female druids
were gifted people who exhibited excellence in various arts (talents or skills) while
maintaining shamanic roles.
Druids were the repositories of
Druids, who searched for
deeper understanding in the
patterns revealed throughout Nature, used that wisdom/knowledge to note the
right time for spring sowing,
autumn harvest or
the prognosis of an injured
Some druids specialized in
Branches of Nature,
becoming seers or
battle strategists as
well as advisers to
A druid is a
person with natural wisdom whose advice is sought on matters of daily life;
one who perhaps also practices a
craft; one who married
and had a family; one who brought people
together for common celebrations.
In the druid we see the earliest
form of tribal leadership -
which was spiritual rather
Distinctions between king and druid are blurred in
Although the king is the assumed leader, the druid
rules through omen.
Rome banned the Druidic arts after sacking Anglesey
in AD 64.
The function of the seer or fáithi, to divine
the course of human affairs through
a close observation of human
nature, is still associated with people of Celtic extraction, many of whom
possess 'the second
4000 BC The ancient Celts
are a branch of the Indo-Europeans, an ethnico-linguistic group that includes
Germanic, Slavic, Greek and Indo-Iranian people.
From the the
Pontic-Caspian Steppes, the Proto-Indo-Europeans conquer most
of Europe, Central Asia and South Asia
thanks to the advent of the Bronze Age in the North Caucasus.
Proto-Celtic people enter Europe from the Balkans equipped with horses and
superior bronze weapons quickly
conquering Western Europe, from Iberia to the British Isles.
1200 Classical Celtic culture emerges in central Europe around
modern Austria, Bavaria and
Switzerland as found in Hallstatt, Upper Austria.
600 to 400
BC La Tène culture spreads from the Alps to most of Western and
People in these areas speak a similar language, share
the same religion, have similar
traditions and beliefs and engage in the same arts and techniques.
Celts are more advanced than the Romans in science,
law and economics.
calendars are much more accurate than the Roman one.
Each Galatian tribe was
organized in four septs (clans), each ruled by a tetrach (chief), assisted by a
judge, a general and two deputy generals.
Each sept sent 25 senators to
a central shrine called Drunemeton.
Celtic society gave much more freedom and power to women than
the Greeks and Romans did.
Greco-Roman housewives were prohibited to do
business and mostly sequestrated in their home under the supervision of male
Celtic women could become powerful tribe leaders and go
BC Celts plunder Rome.
Oaks are of primordial importance in
Druids ritually cut mistletoe off oak trees.
Celts believed in recycling - automatic reincarnation of the Eternal
The Celts practice ritual human sacrifice to the
gods, typically near water (lake,
river, spring) and/or in
Offerings appear to be war prisoners or criminals.
Druids, being both judges and priests,
combining judicial executions
with the honouring of the gods.
Romans crucified political opponents and
had prisoners killed or
eaten alive by wild
beasts in arenas.
Celtic religious sacrifices were
less barbaric than Romans
Many ancient Celtic tribes gave their names to modern
Bohemia was named after the Boii, and Belgium after the
The ancient name of Switzerland was Helvetia, from the
Celtic Helvetii tribe.
In France, Paris is named after the
Parisi tribe, and Lyon is a corruption of Celtic name Lugdunon, meaning
the "hill fort of Lugh" (one of the most important Celtic deity).
A Cisalpine branch of the Veneti tribe gave their
name to Venice and the Veneto region in Italy.
The Italian cities of
Belluno, Bergamo, Bologna, Brescia, Brianza, Genova and Milano all have Celtic
300 BC Celts invent chainmail and the
helmets later used by Roman legionaries.
Celtic swords and shields are
at least as good as the Roman's.
The decoration of the Celtic weapons,
chariots and artifacts was in many ways superior to those of many Mediterranean
58 BC The
Celts are immensely rich and prosperous.
They have a built a road
network across the European continent.
The Celts active trade with the
Mediterranean world, exchanging notably their iron tools and weapons for wine
They import amber from the Baltic to resell to the Romans
Gauls are described as wearing shiny, gold-like armours and
Julius Caesar, an
opportunist, makes his move.
Over 400 Celtic gold mines are found
in France alone.
The Romans have little gold on the Apennine Peninsula
so the conquest of Gaul will be a tremendous boost to their Mediterranean
Julius Caesar, Patrician, decimates the Celts slaughtering 10%
and enslaving another 10% to be marched back to Rome as
Jerome of Stridon
notes that the language of the Anatolian Galatians in his day is still very
similar to the language of the Treveri (from the region of Trier
on the border of Germany and
Celtic languages progressively disappear during the
They only survive in Brittany, Corwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and
for a time also in Galacia (north-western Spain).
Only a minority of
people still speak Celtic/Gaelic
languages, and they are confined to Wales, Brittany and
2001 The Basque language is considered to be a language
isolate; a language which is not known to be related to any other in the
The Basques are thought to be the closest descendants of the
Palaeolithic people who established the first settlements in Britain more than
10,000 years ago.
Welsh and Irishmen are genetic blood-brothers of the
The evidence of a link is in a study published in the
journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by James Wilson
and Prof David Goldstein of University College London, with colleagues
at Oxford University and the University of California,
The findings provide the first direct
evidence of a close relationship between
the people thought
of as Celts and the Basques.
The team looked for similarities between
the Y chromosomes - only carried by men - of 88 "Celtic fringe" individuals
from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish Gaelic surnames, and 50
Basques, revealing "remarkable" similarities.
The Celts carry the early
Y chromosome, said the study, which provides the first clear evidence of a
close relationship in the paternal heritage of Basque and Celtic speaking
"They were statistically indistinguishable," said Prof
Study Shows Ties Long Veiled In Europe
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